20th Century British Art
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Twentieth Century British Artists’ Biographies

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William Dacres Adams (1864-1951)

Painter and lithographer of portraits and architectural subjects, born in Reading. He studied law in Birmingham, but in 1884 abandoned his studies to train at the Birmingham School of Art. He subsequently (1886–90) studied at Sir Hubert Herkomer’s Bushey School of Art and in Munich, Germany. Adams was a member of NPS and showed extensively at the Fine Art Society (three one-man shows during the 1920s), as well as Leicester Galleries, with Ridley Art Club, ROI and RA. His work was greatly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites (with whom his father was acquainted from school days). Examples of his work are in the collections of The Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool; Worcester College, Oxford; Museum of Fine Art, San Francisco and Wellington Art Gallery, New Zealand. Adams Lived in London, then Lewes, Sussex.

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Mary Adshead (1904 - 1995)

Mary Adshead studied at the Slade School of Fine Art (1920–24)

under Henry Tonks (1862–1937), who in 1924 selected her for a

mural commission at Highways boys’ club in Shadwell, working

with Rex Whistler (1905–1944).

She became a prominent muralist, creating decorations for

both public and private spaces, including the British Pavilion at

the 1937 Paris International Exhibition. She also illustrated several

books, such as The Little Boy and His House by Stephen Bone

(1904–1958) (whom she married in 1929), and made designs for

London Transport and the Post Office.

As a noteworthy female artist, Adshead exhibited frequently

at the WIAC from the mid –1930s, before serving on their

committee in 1951. Working at a time when expectations of

women were still largely confined to issues of domesticity, her

prodigious professional output was noteworthy. Her approach to

mural painting – especially in her choice of subjects and her colourful

palette – challeged the perceived divisions which determined that

public and private spaces should necessarily be treated differently. She

was the subject of a retrospective at Liverpool Art Gallery in 2005.

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Craigie Aitchison (1926-2009)

Figurative painter Craigie Aitchison is known for his Mediterranean-inspired palette and simple compositions. Combining elements of Italian Renaissance painting with the British visionary tradition, Aitchison’s work is uniquely vibrant. His longtime fascination with the Crucifixion began when the artist encountered Salvador Dalí’s Christ of St. John of the Cross (1951), and he painted the motif throughout his career. 

Aitchison also depicted animals, desert landscapes, and human portraits; many of his recurring subjects—such as a Bedlington terrier, which he owned—held personal significance for the artist. 
Aitchison aimed to achieve luminous yet translucent coloring in his paintings. Warm and fading, they reflect the sentimentality of his memories from childhood.

With thanks to Artsy.net

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John Aldridge (1905-1983)

Aldridge was born in Woolwich, England, and grew up in a comparatively wealthy military family. After attending Uppingham School in Rutland, Aldridge studied ‘Greats’ at Corpus Christi College at Oxford University and graduated in 1928 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. After finishing university, Aldridge settled in London, taught himself to paint and held his first mixed exhibition in 1931.

Aldridge exhibited with the 'Seven and Five Society' at the Leicester Galleries from 1931 to 1933. In 1933, he presented his first one man-show at the Leicester Galleries in London and in 1934 he exhibited at the Venice Biennale art exhibition in Italy. During this period and for the rest of his life, Aldridge associated with the British poet Robert Graves and the poets and artists centred around him in the village of Deià, Mallorca. In 1933, at age 28, Aldridge, and his cats, moved to Great Bardfield in the Essex countryside and acquired 'Place House'. He quickly became a friend of his neighbour, Edward Bawden, himself a painter. The two artists collaborated in designing ‘Bardfield’ wallpapers during the later 1930s, which were distributed by Cole & Sons, a British wallpaper company. In 1941, Aldridge joined the British Intelligence Corps as an officer interpreting aerial photographs. After leaving the army in 1945, Aldridge returned to landscape painting. Although he was a skilled 'plein air' painter, many works were produced in his studio at his home; his subjects were the Essex countryside, scenes from his many visits to Italy and to Mallorca, and his much-loved garden at Place House.

Starting in 1949, Aldridge taught at the Slade School for Fine Arts of University College London, under the realist painter Sir William Coldstream. At the same time, other artists started moving to Great Bardfield, making the village a dynamic centre for the visual arts. Aldridge and his wife Lucie Aldridge (née Brown) frequently opened Place House for summer exhibitions in the village. These well-organised shows attracted thousands of art lovers. In 1955, Aldridge told an London Observer reporter that “people seem to prefer this domestic informality to galleries”. At these summer exhibitions, Aldridge exhibited his oils while Lucy exhibited her hand-knitted rugs. Although Aldridge's work was well-received, it seemed the most conservative of the Great Bardfield Artists as it possibly reflected the art scene of the 1920s and 1930s in Britain.

The early 1960s saw the Bardfield art community fragment but Aldridge would remain in Place House until his death. After his 1970 divorce, Aldridge married Gretl Cameron, the widow of his poet friend Norman Cameron. In 1980, on Aldridge's 75th birthday, London's New Grafton Gallery held a retrospective on his work. He died in 1983, his wife Gretl having deceased a few months earlier.

He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy (ARA) in 1954 and a Royal Academician (RA) in 1963.

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Edwin John Alexander (1870-1926)

Painter, born in Edinburgh the eldest son of Robert L. Alexander. He studied at the Royal Institution, Edinburgh, 1887-88, and later under Fremiet in Paris. When only seventeen years old he went to Tangier in the company of his father and Joseph Crawhall. He is known as an animal and bird painter, but also produced landscapes of his native Scotland. A great traveller he visited Egypt in 1892 and stayed for four years living on a Nile houseboat near Cairo. Alexander was an early member of the Society of Scottish Artists and in 1902 he was elected an Associate of the RSA and in 1913 a full member. He exhibited at the RSA, RA, RSW, RWS, FAS and at the Leicester Galleries. Aberdeen Art Gallery, Dundee Art Gallery, Fife Council and the Tate Gallery all have examples of his work.

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Rosemary Allan (1911-2008)

Painter and draughtsman, born in Bromley, Kent, wife of the artist Allan Gwynnes-Jones and mother of the painter Emily Gwynnes-Jones. She studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1928, then the Slade School of Fine Art, 1930-5, under Randolph Schwabe, gaining a Slade scholarship in 1932. Showed at RA, LG, NEAC and Leicester, Wildenstein and Redfern Galleries. Solo exhibitions included Upper Grovesnor Galleries, 1971. In 1997, she was part of Gwynnes-Jones family exhibition as Sally Hunter Fine Art. Imperial War Museum holds her work. Lived in Eastleach, Gloucestershire.

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George Warner Allen (1916–1988)

George Warner Allen was born in 1916. 
He was a British artist, considered to be of the Neo-Romantic school. Allen was educated at Lancing College and then, on the recommendations of the artist Robert Anning Bell and art critic James Greig, at Byam Shaw School of Art, where he subsequently taught.
He later lived and worked at Brightwell-cum-Sotwell, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England.

Allen held a solo exhibition at the Walker's Galleries, London, in 1952, for which the catalogue's introductory essay was written by his fellow painter Brian Thomas.
Pictures were purchased by T. S. Eliot, Sir John Betjeman, and The Earl Baldwin.
The strain of the exhibition left him, after a while, unable to paint for eight years.

In 1973, after being asked to paint a tribute to Cardinal Newman, he converted to Roman Catholicism at Abingdon. He died in 1988.

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Harry Epworth Allen (1894-1958)

Painter, notably in tempera, especially of Derbyshire. Born in Sheffield, Allen attended King Edward VII School for boys, and then became a clerk in the steel works of Arthur Balfour, in his spare time attending Sheffield Technical School of Art. He served in the army in World War I, gaining the Military Medal for conspicuous gallantry. Although badly injured and having an artificial leg, Allen continued to paint and became Balfour's confidential secretary. From 1931 he painted full-time and joined the new Yorkshire Group of Artists. He began exhibiting at the RA, and showed with RBSA and PS. He also travelled in Ireland and was elected a member of the RBA in 1935. Although Allen's early work is conventionally realistic he soon developed his distinctive style of simplified landscape and figure studies, which eventually were shown abroad in Canada and America. In the early 1940s Allen published a series of articles in The Artist on landscape painting in which he expounded his approach. His work is in a number of public galleries, notably Sheffield, Wakefield, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Newport, as well as in Australia and New Zealand. There was a memorial show at Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, in 1959 and in 1986. Lived in Ecclesall, Sheffield.

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Adrian Allinson (1890-1959)

Adrian Allinson was a British painter, potter and engraver, known for his landscapes of Southern Europe and North Africa, and for a series of posters he made for British Railways. 

Allinson was the eldest son of a doctor, Thomas Allinson, whose advocacy of vegetarianism and contraception had led to his being struck off, and a German Jewish portrait painter. After leaving Wycliffe College, Allinson began studying medicine, but gave this up and turned instead to art, gaining a scholarship in his second year at the Slade School of Fine Art. Graduating in 1910, he travelled to Europe to study in Paris and in Munich. Following his first exhibition, at the Alpine Club Gallery, in February 1911, he became one of the founding members of the Camden Town Group, and with other members later joined with the Vorticists to form The London Group. 

A pacifist, Allinson associated himself with the Bloomsbury Group during the First World War, producing drawings for the Daily Express newspaper and one of his most important works, a scene inside the Café Royal made in 1915-16. He also designed sets for the Beecham Opera Company. Following the war he again travelled to Europe. 
He became a member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1933 and of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1936. 

During the 1930s he made a series of posters for London Transport and for the Empire Marketing Board. He was selected as a government war artist by the War Artists Advisory Committee during World War II. After the war, he taught at the Westminster Technical Institute.

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Sybil Andrews (1898-1992)

Painter, etcher and engraver, born in Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk. Her first encounter with art took place in 1918 when she enroled for a course at the John Hassall Correspondence School as a part-time student. At the time, she was working for the Standard Motor Company as a torch welder. She furthered her studies at Heatherley's, and afterwards was associated with Claude Flight and Iain MacNab at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art, where she was Secretary. A regular exhibitor during the inter-war years, of particularly her linocuts at the Redfern Gallery, she emigrating to Canada in 1947.  

Sybil Andrews settled in British Columbia, Canada where she taught art for many years and examples of her work are in the collections of the V&A, BM and in museums and art galleries around the world including Leeds City Art Gallery, Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin and the National Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide. She was a member of the Canadian Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers and her career was rekindled when Michael Parkin gave her an exhibition at his gallery in 1980. Paintings which are a rarity by Andrews are in the RAF Museum, Hendon and some of her posters signed as 'Andrew Power' are in the collection of LTM. 

Bibliography: Sybil Andrews Linocuts : A complete catalogue by Hana Leaper and Gordon Samuel. Published by Lund Humphries, 2015. ISBN: 9781848221802.

Avant-Garde British Printmaking 1914-1960 by Frances Carey & Antony Griffiths: British Museum Publications, London 1990. ISBN 0714116467. 

Something to splash about : Sybil Andrews in Suffolk by Christopher Reeve. Published by St. Edmundsbury Borough Council, 1991. ISBN 0950143073. 

Dynamic movement : Avant-garde prints of the 1920s & 1930s by the artists of the Grosvenor School of Modern Art : Works by Sybil Andrews (1898-1992), Claude Flight (1881-1955), William Greengrass (1896-1970), Cyril Power (1872-1951), Lill Tschudi (1911-2004). Published by Osborne Samuel Gallery, London, 2009. ISBN 9780956419903.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Leonard Appelbee (1914-2000)

Painter, born in London he studied art at Goldsmiths' College 1931-34 and at the RCA 1935-38 under Barnett Freedman. Married to the artist Frances Macdonald he latterly took to illustrating poems he himself wrote. Appelbee showed at RA, RSA, Arts Council, BC and in small group shows at Wildenstein, 1947 and Fine Art Society in 1968. His picture One-man Band was one of the 60 Paintings for '51 Festival of Britain show. 

He had a series of solo shows at Leicester Galleries from 1948 and a notable exhibition at Plymouth City Art Gallery in 1977. Appelbee was a distinctive portrait painter, carrying out commissions for Sir Edward Marsh, Essex County Council, Eton College, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge and other clients. He won a silver medal at Paris Salon in 1970. He taught at Bournemouth College of Art and examples of his work are in the collections of AAG, Aberdeen Art Gallery, ACGB, Alfred East Art Gallery, Atkinson Art Gallery, BC, Calderdale Borough Council, Carlisle Art Gallery, GAC, Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Herbert Art Gallery, IWM, Kirklees Museums and Galleries, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, Leeds University Collection, Newport Art Gallery, Gwent, Reading Art Gallery, Swindon Art Gallery and the Tate Gallery.

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Edward Ardizzone (1900-1979)

Edward Jeffrey Irving Ardizzone, CBE, RA (16 October 1900 – 8 November 1979) was an English artist and creator of children's books.
For Tim All Alone (Oxford, 1956), which he wrote and illustrated, Ardizzone won the inaugural Kate Greenaway Medal from the Library Association, recognising the year's best children's book illustration by a British subject. For the 50th anniversary of the Medal (1955–2005) it was named one of the top ten winning works, selected by a panel to compose the ballot for a public election of the all-time favourite.

In World War II Ardizzone worked as an full-time, official war artist assigned to the War Office by the War Artists' Advisory Committee. He first served with the British Expeditionary Force in France and Belgium before being evacuated back to Britain. In January 1942 he recorded the arrival of American troops in Northern Ireland. Later that year he went to North Africa and joined the British First Army on its march to Tunisia and then joined the Eighth Army. After El Alamein he went to France during the Allied invasion and then on to Sicily. He witnessed the fall of both Reggio Calabria and Naples, and spent the winter of 1944 in Italy before travelling to Germany. His early experiences between Arras and Boulogne are illustrated and described in his book Baggage to the Enemy (London 1941). 
An extensive collection of his war pictures, as well as his wartime diaries, can be seen at The Imperial War Museum.

His style is naturalistic but subdued, featuring gentle lines and delicate watercolours, but with great attention to particular details. He was elected to the Royal Academy of Arts in 1970, and appointed CBE in 1971. The British Library published an illustrated bibliography of his works in 2003. A blue plaque unveiled in 2007 commemorates Ardizzone at 130 Elgin Avenue in Maida Vale.

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Constance Armfield (1876 - 1941)

Smedley [married name Armfield], (Annie) Constance, author and founder of the International Lyceum Clubs, was born in Trinity Road, Handsworth, Birmingham, on 20 June 1876, the elder daughter and first among the three children of William Thomas Smedley (1851–1934), a chartered accountant, and his wife, Annie Elizabeth (1851–1923), daughter of William Duckworth, a Birmingham coffee merchant, and his wife, Elizabeth Seaborn (1776–1854).

Smedley began her education at home before attending King Edward VI High School for Girls and Birmingham School of Art. Her severe physical disability, probably caused by childhood polio—which confined her to crutches, and, from her mid-thirties, to a wheelchair—rarely prevented her from pursuing her ambitions, or attracting admiring attention. She excelled at art school, publishing her first illustration, in Pall Mall Magazine, at sixteen, yet her interests shifted toward writing for the theatre. Through a combination of personal acquaintance and initiative, she attracted the attention of eminent theatrical figures, notably Sir Charles Wyndham, Mary Moore, and Mrs Patrick Campbell. While she was in her early twenties several of her plays were staged, including Mrs Jordan, with Campbell in the title role. Her family moved to London, where she mixed in artistic circles, associating with, among others, Richard Le Gallienne, Alice Meynell, and Gertrude Hudson. Her 'Princess' series in the St James's Gazette, dramatizing the dilemmas of modern womanhood, appeared as The Boudoir Critic in 1903, the same year as her first novel, An April Princess, about a young woman's rebellion against her philistine Victorian family. The works were, to an extent, self-referential. Smedley had two nicknames among her intimate circle: the Princess, a tribute to her benevolence and fantastical imagination; and Peter (the fairy-tale miller's third son), recognizing her longing for masculine freedom and adventure.

The books, the first of over forty, coincided with the beginning of Smedley's career as founder and honorary secretary of the International Lyceum Clubs for Women Artists and Writers, established to provide professional women with institutional support. In her vision the clubs were pioneering. She aspired, not only to enable women to compete equally with men, but to create a democratic, non-hierarchical, centre for worldwide cultural exchange, and travelled across Europe, helping women in Amsterdam (1904), Berlin (1905), Paris (1906), and Florence (1908) to open clubhouses.

Despite ambassadorial and administrative commitments Smedley continued to write for adults and children. Works published during her Lyceum years include Conflict (1907), a novel about the unsheltered lives of working women, and Women: a Few Shrieks (1907), a feminist polemic. Her encounters in the art world, through the Lyceum, eventually led her away from the institution. Meetings in Germany with Count Harry Kessler and Ruth St Denis were particularly important for the development of her beliefs and theatre practice. Kessler, the art patron who promoted Gordon Craig, encouraged her dedication to international peace and synthetic theatre. St Denis, the modernist dancer, identified rhythm as the basis of all art, and introduced Smedley to the Christian Science church, of which she became a lifelong member.

On 20 January 1909 Smedley married Maxwell Ashby Armfield (1881–1972), painter, illustrator, and writer. They had an unconventional partnership: her handicap, and his sexual preference for men, precluded full marital relations, and thus children. Yet their intense working relationship, and romantic friendship, led to fertile collaboration in literature and theatre. Upon their marriage Smedley resigned from the Lyceum, and they set up house at The Uplands, Minchinhampton (and from 1912 at Rodborough Common) in the Cotswolds, writing and illustrating books together. They founded the Cotswold Players, for which they both wrote plays, developing symbolist performance techniques, and a philosophy of communal, democratic art.

At the outbreak of the First World War the Armfields moved to Glebe Place, Chelsea, en route for America, where they hoped to participate in the 'little theatre' scene. They established a new drama company, the Greenleaf Theatre, promulgating their radical methods, and played a prominent part in an avant-garde, anti-war community centred on Margaret Morris's theatre on the King's Road, which included Morris herself, Hilda Spencer Watson, Geoffrey Whitworth, Vernon Lee, Haddon Squire, Henrietta Leslie, and McKnight Kauffer. At the end of 1915 they procured visas for America, where they directed and taught Greenleaf drama for seven years, basing themselves in New York and Berkeley.. Armfield, however, wanted more seclusion, so, to Smedley's regret, they returned to England in 1922, setting up a Greenleaf studio at Mockbeggar Hill, Ibsley, the New Forest, and then at 8a Clareville Grove, South Kensington. Her publications during the 1920s included Tales from Timbuktu (1923, for children), Justice Walk (1924), Greenleaf Rhythmic Plays (1922–5), and Greenleaf Theatre Elements (1924–6, theatre textbooks). Her autobiography, Crusaders (1929), which unabashedly promotes herself and her work, captures her theatrical extravagance and warmth of character.

Deteriorating health and finances blighted Constance Smedley's last decade. The Greenleaf folded, and her publications dwindled. In 1939 she and Armfield moved to the Old Coaching Inn, 15a High Street, West Wycombe, where she died of heart failure on 9 March 1941. Her death may have been avoidable, but her Christian Scientist faith discouraged her from receiving treatment for her final illness, or for the cataracts that afflicted her towards the end of her life. She was buried on 14 March at St Lawrence's Church, West Wycombe. Her final obscurity has clouded her earlier achievements, yet her eloquence, inventiveness, and audacity, conveyed through all her projects, have made a lasting impact. Her writing remains fresh and persuasive, while the Cotswold Players and International Lyceum Clubs continue to thrive.

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Maxwell Armfield (1881-1972)

Painter and decorative artist, especially in tempera, and writer. Born in Ringwood, Hampshire, Armfield was educated at Birmingham School of Art - there is a Birminfham Arts and Crafts flavour in his pictures - then in Paris and Italy. Exhibited extensively, including RA, Fine Art Society, for long a noted dealer in his work, NEAC, Leicester Galleries and abroad. His work is held by the British Museum, provincial and overseas galleries. He illustrated about 20 books and wrote A Manual of Tempera Painting, Tempera Painting Today, An Artist in America and An Artist in Italy. During World War I, with his writer wife Constance Smedley, Armfield attempted to set up a high-flown peoples' Greenleaf Theatre in his studio, an abortive venture amusingly recalled by Margaret Gardiner in her book A Scatter of Memories. Armfield was a painter of landscape and still life well crafted and full of detail. Lived in Bath, Somerset.

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Stuart Armfield (1916-2000)

Painter, notably in tempera, horn in Sanderstead, Surrey. He studied at West of England College of Art, Bristol, and was from 1935-40 on the art staff of Ealing Studios. Films worked on included Gracie Fields' Sing As We Go, 1934 and George formby's I See Ice, 1938. During a short contract at a Paris film studio, from his cousin Maxwell Armfield he learned the tempera technique. Wrote the manual Tempera Painting.
Showed at RA, with St Ives Society of Artists of which he was a member, Arthur Jeffress Gallery, RWS and in America. Lived in Looe, Cornwall, later in Plymouth, Devon. After World War II, Armfield produced Symbolist pictures which featured black models, chessboards and keys, sought by collectors such as King Hassan of Morocco, the exiled Prince Chula of Thailand and the actor Lric Portman. Ironically for a Quaker pacifist, who was a conscientious objector in World War II, Armfield's sole work in a British public collection at the time of his death was Anti­Invasion Obstructions, in the Imperial War Museum. James Colman Fine Art held an eightieth-birthday retro­spective in 1996, a memorial show in 2000.

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John Armstrong (1893-1973)

Painter of imaginative and classical subjects in oil, tempera and gouache; mural painter; designer of film and stage sets; book illustrator and advertising designer. He was born in Hastings, Sussex. After Oxford University, Armstrong studied at St John's Wood School of Art, 1913-14, then after service in the Army in World War I returned to St John's Wood briefly. He held his first one-man show at the Leicester Galleries in 1928. In 1933 he became a member of Unit One, after which his work took on a surrealist character. In the 1930s Armstrong worked as a designer for theatre and film, including the first performance of the ballet Façade and several films made by Sir Alexander Korda. He also did work for Shell-Mex and ICI. During World War II Armstrong was an Official War Artist. For the Festival of Britain 1951, he was commissioned to produce The Storm, and exhibited extensively at the RA from that year. He painted a ceiling for the Council Chamber, Bristol, in 1955 and six years later a mural for the Royal Marsden Hospital, at Sutton, Surrey. Armstrong had strong left-wing political convictions and from the time of the Spanish Civil War, when he painted Pro Patria, his pictures occasionally reflected his views. Symbolism is also a feature of his work. Armstrong's pictures are fastidiously painted in muted colours and reflect his own dry wit and gentle nature. Along with John Banting, he is one of only a handful of British artists whose oeuvre can be correctly described as surrealist. The RA held a memorial exhibition in 1975. He lived in London.

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William Hugh Duncan Arthur ()

2nd Lieutenant WILLIAM HUGH DUNCAN ARTHUR, 9th Battalion South Staffordshire Regiment. Formerly served as 35602 Private in the Royal Army Medical Corps. "23rd Division Rest Camp"

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Charles Robert Ashbee (1863-1942)

Charles Robert Ashbee was born in London, the son of a prosperous city merchant. Educated at Wellington College and King's College, Cambridge, he was articled to G. F. Bodley. While working in Bodley's office Ashbee lived at Toynbee Hall, the pioneer University Settlement in Whitechapel, where he initiated classes in art and craft that became the nucleus of the School of Handicraft (1887) and the Guild of Handicraft (1888). The Guild is now chiefly known for the metalwork and jewellery designed by Ashbee himself, and for the furniture made for the Grand Duke of Hesse in collaboration with the designer M. H. Baillie Scott in the workshops at Essex House in the Mile End Road.

In 1902 Ashbee removed the entire Guild to Chipping Campden in the Cotswolds. For a while the Guild's affairs prospered, but from 1905 the receipts from the craftwork fell off disastrously and by 1907 the company was forced into voluntary liquidation. Ashbee continued throughout this period with his architectural practice, which brought in a number of decorative commissions to the Guild. He designed two groups of houses in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, and a number of squat, square houses in the country, some of which feature in A Book of Cottages and Little Houses.

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John A. Austen (1920's)

John Archibald Austen [commonly known as John Austen] was born in Buckland, Kent, England, on 5 January 1886 and trained as a carpenter before moving to London in 1906 where he embarked on a career as an artist. 
His early work was influenced by the Aubrey Beardsley school of illustrators. 

In 1925 John Austen exhibited at St. George’s Gallery in London along with Harry Clarke and Alan Odle. In the late 1920s Austen returned to Kent and took a teaching post at Thanet School of Art in Margate, Kent. 

John Austen was a prolific illustrator over a period of twenty-five years (from 1921-46). He also worked as a commercial artist and drew press advertisement for Buoyant easy chairs and settees and Sunbeam Cars. 

He was the author of a book on the technique of illustration - ‘The ABC of Pen and Ink Rendering’ (London: Pitman, 1937). 

Austen died in Hythe, Kent on 27 October 1948 

Examples of John Austen's work are included in the permanent collections of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, and the British Museum in London.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Frederick Austin (1902-1990)

Printmaker and painter, born in Leicester, brother of the artist Robert Sargent Austin. He studied at Leicester School of Art and at Royal College of Art under Malcolm Osborne, William Rothenstein and Randolph Schwabe, 1924-7. Prix de Rome for engraving won in 1927. Exhibited RA, RE of which he was a member, and extensively abroad. British Museum, Graves Art Gallery in Sheffield and several foreign collections hold his work. Lived in London.

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Robert Austin (1895-1973)

Printmaker and draughtsman, born in Leicester. He studied at the School of Art there and at the Royal College of Art, 1914-16 and 1919-22, winning the Rome Scholarship for engraving in the latter year. He taught engraving at the Royal College of Art, 1927-44, becoming Professor in the Department of Graphic Design, 1948-55. Showed with RWS, of which he was a member and President; RE, of which he was a member; and the RA, to which he was elected in 1949. Austin was a meticulous craftsman-engraver and a vigorous draughtsman, as his series of drawings of Women's Auxiliary Air Force and ballooning activities done during World War II shows. The Tate Gallery holds his work.

The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, organised an exhibition of his work in 1980.

More recently he was the subject of two shows at the Fine Art Society plc (2001 and 2002), the latter organised in conjunction with Liss Fine Art Ltd.

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Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941)

Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell,Bt OM GCMG GCVO KCB  also known as B-P or Lord Baden-Powell, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, founder of the Scout Movementand first Chief Scout of The Boy Scouts Association. He was also an accomplished artist.  He made paintings and drawings almost every day of his life. Most have a humorous or informative character. He published books and other texts during his years of military service both to finance his life and to educate his men.

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Stanley Roy Badmin (1906-1989)

Watercolourist, lithographer and engraver. Born in Sydenham, south London, he studied at Camberwell School of Arts & Crafts, 1922-24 and RCA, 1924 received his diploma in 1928. He began his career by contributing illustrations to The Graphic, Tatler and also worked as a teacher at Richmond School of Art and St John’s Wood School of Art. He specialised in scenes of the English countryside and in 1939 he illustrated Highways and Byways in Essex with F.L.M. Griggs. He also was commissioned to deign railway advertising posters and In 1932, Badmin was elected an Associate of the RWS and became a full member in 1939. During the war years he was commissioned to contribute to the Recording Britain project. He was also a member of the Artists’ International Association and work by him is in the collection of the BM and the NRM. 

Literature; Trees of Britain by Peter Blumfeld Collins, illustrated by S. R. Badmin. Published by Sunday Times, London, 1960. 
Stanley Badmin and the English Landscape, by Chris Beetles. Published by Collins, London, 1985. ISBN: 0004120205.

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Robert Baker (1909-1992)

​Painter, ceramicist and sculptor. He studied painting and sculpture at the Royal College of Art 1929-32, under Sir William Rothenstein. One of his early murals is to be found in the village hall at Wood Green in Hampshire, which he executed in conjunction with Edward Payne. He was for some years Director of the Stoke-on-Trent College of Art and in 1948 he joined the staff as Chief Designer and Art Director at the Royal Worcester Porcelain Company, where he remained until the early 1980’s​.

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John Banting (1902-1972)

Banting studied under Bernard Meninsky at Westminster School of Art from 1921 and later in Paris. On his return to London in 1925 he became associated with the Bloomsbury Group painters, joined the London Group, and showed with the 7 & 5 Society. At the beginning of the 1930s he returned to Paris where he met Breton, Creval, Giacometti, and Duchamp, amongst others. He designed for the Camargo Society and Ballet Pomona, and designed book jackets for Hogarth Press. In 1936 he contributed pictures to the International Surrealist Exhibition, in London. During the Spanish Civil War he traveled to Madrid, where he met Ernest Hemingway. During World War II, he was involved in Strand Films and was Art Editor of Our Time, a left-wing political monthly. After the war, he published A Blue Book of Conversation. He lived in rural Ireland for a while, then settled near his friend Edward Burra at Hastings, Sussex, where he died. Since his death, he has been included in many Surrealist exhibitions. He was given a retrospective at Oliver Bradbury and James Birch, 1983. His vision remained remarkably consistent throughout his life.

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Cyril Henri Barraud (1877-1965)

Etcher and painter born in Barnes, Surrey now a London suburb. After leaving school, he worked for a period in his father's photographic business before studying at Brighton School of Art, in Brighton, Sussex. In 1913 he emigrated to Canada and settled in Manitoba teaching at Winnipeg Art School. In May 1915 he enlisted in the Winnipeg Grenadiers and in August that year was posted to the Western Front with the 43rd Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. He was commissioned in The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada and on 1 November 1917 was appointed an Official War Artist by the Canadian War Memorials Fund and was also a member of the Artists' Rifles. A painting of a war-ravaged landscape by him is illustrated in Colour Magazine, September 1918. 

In August 1919 he left the Canadian Army and subsequently returned to England where he continued his career as an artist. During the late 1930's Barraud painted twelve pictures that were used as carriage prints by the London & North Eastern Railway. As an exhibiting artist he showed at the Royal Academy, Fine Art Society in London and the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. His work covers topography and landscape of London street-scenes,Suffolk, Essex, Kent, the Thames Estuary and Rye. Examples of his paintings are held by the NML, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, Southwark Culture and Heritage Services and the Wellcome Library. He was a nephew of Francis James Barraud and his death was recorded in Braintree, Essex.

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Claude Francis Barry (1883 - 1970)

Much of Barry's early life has been pieced together from letters found
in his briefcase after his death. Also in the briefcase – along with a
very full passport and his battered old eye-shade – was an unpublished
manuscript on painting. This is the source of his quoted pronouncements
on life and art.

1883 Claude Francis Barry born in England to British parents
1885 His mother dies when he is two years old
1897 Goes to Harrow, leaves after two years due to a nervous breakdown
1899 Travels to Italy with a doctor - a drawing and painting tour
1900 Returns to England where Sir Alfred East R.A tutors Barry
1906 First paintings accepted at Royal Academy. Joins Royal Society of
British Artists
Exhibits at Royal Society of Scottish Artists
Exhibits at Salon Des Artistes Francais
1909 Has a daughter, Kathleen; 1910 Son Rupert is born; 1915 Second
daughter Sheila is born
1915 R.A submissions show shift from narrative to landscape
1916 Tutored by Frank Brangwyn. Barry begins etching
1917 Exhibits etchings with Royal Society of Scottish Artists
1922 Leaves family in England and travels in France and Italy to
concentrate on etching
Exhibits at Paris Salon throughout 1920s and 1930s
Awarded Gold, Silver and Bronze Medals for his etchings in France and Italy
Queen Mary, Neville Chamberlain and Mussolini are patrons of Barry's work
1927 Marries second wife Violet Gwendolyn Pretyman
1939 Returns to St. Ives after storing his etching plates in Milan
1940 Joins St. Ives Arts Club and befriends Hepworth and Nicholson
Works in Alfred East's old studio on Porthmeor beach
Returns to oil painting
1943 Paints wartime “blitz paintings” in pointillist technique
1944 A US bomb explodes in Milan destroying all his etching plates
1945 Holds last exhibition in St. Ives and moves to Jersey
1946 Inherits title- third baronet of St. Leonard's Hill, Berkshire and
Keiss Castle, Caithnessshire
1957 Second wife dies of cancer
1960s Barry moves in with friend Tom Skinner and his family in Jersey
1968 Stops working and moves into a nursing home in Kent
1970 Dies and leaves his remaining works to Tom Skinner

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Edward Bawden (1903 - 1989)

Watercolourist, illustrator, designer, printmaker and teacher, born in Braintree, Essex, the county in which he spent much of his life, finally living in Saffron Walden. Studied at Cambridge School of Art from 1919, then at Royal College of Art, 1922-5, on a scholarship, in the design school being taught by Paul Nash. Soon began on commercial work for Poole Pottery and Curwen Press, then in 1928-9 with Eric Ravilious and Charles Mahoney did decorations for Morley College. Bawden went on studying engraving and bookbinding at Central School Arts and Crafts after leaving the Royal College and himself taught there, the Royal Academy Schools and Goldsmith's College School of Art. First one-man show at Zwemmer Gallery in 1934, after which he showed extensively including RA, being elected RA in 1956. Work poured from Bawden's studio in the 1930s for companies such as Shell-Mex; book illustrations such as Good Food, 1932, and The Week-end Book, 1939; and a mass of often ephemeral work which evinced a wonderful wit, economy and aptness to subject. Official War Artist in World War II, much of his output being in the Imperial War Museum. Tate Gallery and many other public collections hold his work. Bawden did decorations for the ships Orcades and Oronsay and for the Unicorn Pavilion for the Festival of Britain of 1951. His son was the artist Richard Bawden. Restrospective at Victoria & Albert Museum in 1989, a tribute at Fine Art Society in 1992, a design retrospective at Rye Art Gallery, Rye, 1999, and Fine Art Society and Guildhall Library centenary celebrations in 2003.

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Jessie Bayes (1878 - 1970)

Painter, illuminator and muralist who worked in the tradition of Walter Crane and the arts and crafts movement. Her father was the artist Alfred Walter Bayes, her brothers the painter Walter Bayes and the sculptor Gilbert. She was made a member of RMS in 1906, becoming honorary RMS in 1935, also being a member of Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, Society of Mural Decorators and Church Crafts League. Also showed at RA, Ridley Art Club, Baillie Gallery, Fine Art Society, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and elsewhere, including the continent and North America. Detroit Public Gallery had her work, and she completed the roll of honour for the King's Royal Rifles in Winchester Cathedral. Lived in London and Edinburgh.

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Harold H J Beales (fl. 1920/30)

Harold Beales was a teacher and a potter. He signed his pottery with a stylised HB. He exhibited at the Royal Academy

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Bernard Becan (1890-1943)

Becan, born in Paris, was a draftsman, lithographer, etcher, engraver, illustrator, and poster designer who lived and worked in Paris. During the First World War he served  in the Foreign Legion and produced illustrations for journals and posters. After the war he continued his work as a graphic artist and illustrated a number of books for Louis Delluc Dekobra Maurice, Georges Simenon, Henri Béraud, Paul Morand, Joseph Kessel, René Jeanne and Louis Roubault. In 1943, partly in protest to being forced by the occupying Germans to wear a yellow star, he starved himself to death.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for his assistance.

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Robert Anning Bell (1863-1933)

Painter and designer of mosaics, stained glass and coloured bas-reliefs. Born in London, he studied at Westminster School of Art under Frederick Brown, RA Schools and in Paris. He achieved wide recognition through the RA where he exhibited regularly from 1885. He specialised in landscapes, figure subjects and religious scenes and he was responsible for the mosaics in the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Cathedral. Elected an Associate of the RA in 1914, he became a full member in 1922. Bell belonged to the group of artist-craftsmen who brought about the last flowering of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. He painted in oil and watercolour and was among the pioneers of the revival of the use of tempera, becoming a member of the Society of Painters in Tempera. Anning Bell was also a member of the little-known Society of Twenty Five Painters and also contributed to the magazine Artwork and cartoons for mosaics by him were illustrated in the 1924 summer edition. 

He was an illustrator and also worked in stained glass and mosaic, making many of his design at the Glass House, Fulham. His bas-reliefs in coloured plaster are best represented by the interior decorations at Le Bois de Moutiers, a house in Varengeville, Normandy, designed by Edwin Lutyens in 1898. He was also responsible for executing the decorative friezes designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh for Miss Cranston's Buchanan Street tea rooms in Glasgow. Bell's appreciation of early Italian art forms the basis of his work in mosaic, a medium he used to great effect in other public commissions in London including the Horniman Museum. He was an active member, and in 1921 Master, of the Art Workers' Guild, as well as a member of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, helping to organize the latter's shows in London, Turin, Brussels and Paris. He was an instructor in painting and design at University College, Liverpool in 1894 and head of design at Glasgow School of Art from 1911, and Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art, London, from 1918 to 1924. His wife, Laura Richard-Troncy, a pupil of Alphonse Legros, assisted him with gesso-work and gilding. Examples of his work are in the collections the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Manchester City Art Gallery, the Tate Gallery and in art galleries in Australia. 

Literature; Tempest A Comedy by William Shakespeare illustrated by Robert Anning Bell. Published by Freemantle & Co. London, 1901. A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare, illustrated by Robert Anning Bell. Published by J. M. Dent, London, 1895.

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Vanessa Bell (1879-1961)

Vanessa Stephen was the eldest daughter of Sir Leslie Stephen and Julia Prinsep Jackson (1846–1895). Her parents lived at 22 Hyde Park Gate, Westminster, London, and Vanessa lived there until 1904. She was educated at home by her parents in languages, mathematics and history, and took drawing lessons from Ebenezer Cook before she attended Sir Arthur Cope's art school in 1896, and then studied painting at the Royal Academy in 1901.

During her childhood, Stephen and her sister Virginia were sexually molested by their half-brothers, George and Gerald Duckworth.

After the deaths of her mother in 1895 and her father in 1904, Vanessa sold 22 Hyde Park Gate and moved to Bloomsbury with Virginia and brothers Thoby (1880–1906) and Adrian (1883–1948), where they met and began socialising with the artists, writers and intellectuals who would come to form the Bloomsbury Group.

She married Clive Bell in 1907 and they had two sons, Julian (who died in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War at the age of 29), and Quentin. The couple had an open marriage, both taking lovers throughout their lives. Vanessa Bell had affairs with art critic Roger Fry and with the painter Duncan Grant, with whom she had a daughter, Angelica in 1918, whom Clive Bell raised as his own child.

Vanessa, Clive, Duncan Grant and Duncan's lover David Garnett moved to the Sussex countryside shortly before the outbreak of First World War, and settled at Charleston Farmhouse near Firle, East Sussex, where she and Grant painted and worked on commissions for the Omega Workshops established by Roger Fry.

Vanessa Bell's significant paintings include Studland Beach (1912), The Tub (1918), Interior with Two Women (1932), and portraits of her sister Virginia Woolf (three in 1912), Aldous Huxley (1929–1930), and David Garnett (1916).

She is considered one of the major contributors to British portrait drawing and landscape art in the 20th century.

She is portrayed by Janet McTeer in the 1995 Dora Carrington biopic Carrington, and by Miranda Richardson in the 2002 film The Hours alongside Nicole Kidman as Virginia Woolf. Vanessa Bell is also the subject of Susan Sellers' novel Vanessa and Virginia.

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Reginald Otto Bell (1886 - 1950)

Stained glass artist, the only son of John Clement Bell and his wife Mary, his sister being the sculptor Jane/Jeanne Bell. He was born in London and educated at Harrow School and Cope's and Nichols' Art School, Kensington, and joined the family firm of Clayton & Bell, makers of stained glass and ecclesiastical furnishings, in 1907. He served in the Artists' Rifles in World War I and on returning to the studios in 1918 was made a partner. Reginald was keen to abandon the Victorian style and adopt more modern designs. As a member of the Arts Club and Art Workers' Guild he had many artist and architect friends, including S J Lamorna Birch, William Russell Flint and William Orpen. Bell was a founder-member of the British Society of Master Glass Painters and for many years its secretary. His windows in the south transept of Salisbury Cathedral, St Mary's Hall in Coventry and in the chapel of Somerville College, Oxford, are especially distinguished. He received world recognition in 1925 when he was awarded a diploma at the Paris Exhibition and at exhibitions in Brazil and at Wembley. Exhibited frequently at the RA, also at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. After he died at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, his son Michael Charles Farrer Bell continued his work.

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Albert de Belleroche (1864-1944)

Although born in Wales, he was the son of the Marquis de Belleroche, of one of the most ancient French noble families who, being Huguenots, had fled to England in 1685. In 1871, following the death of his father, he moved back to Paris with his family. After he had finished school there, he studied at the studio of Carolus Duran, and spent long hours copying at the Paris museums. He soon became familiar with the leading painters and intellectuals of the day, and became a founder member of the Salon d'Automne, exhibiting alongside the Impressionists and associating with Emile Zola, Oscar Wilde, Albert Moore, Renoir, Degas, Helleu and Toulouse-Lautrec. Toulouse-Lautrec and Belleroche were exact contemporaries, who first met at the age of eighteen. Belleroche painted Toulouse-Lautrec's portrait and shared with him a passion for the model Lili, who epitomised the Belle Epoch aesthetic of Toulouse-Lautrec's most celebrated posters. Lili became Belleroche's favourite model and mistress. In 1882 Belleroche also met the already acclaimed American painter John Singer Sargent, who recognised Belleroche's talent and empathised with his free drawing style and sensitivity to light. They became life-long friends. Sargent's handling of pastel was a great inspiration to Belleroche, while Belleroche's sensitivity to tone and creation of form through the modeling of light exerted a strong influence on Sargent. In 1900, Belleroche became fascinated by the medium of lithography and by 1905 he was a leading figure in the field of lithographic portraiture. A.M. Hind, a former keeper of prints at the British Museum, described his works in lithography as "amongst the greatest achievements of the craft since its discovery."

He held commercial exhibitions at the Goupil Gallery (1903), Graves, London (1906), Colnaghi's (1941) and Walker Gallery, London (1942). As however he had no need to live from his art, he rarely took on commissioned portraits, instead choosing models and sitters who interested him. This in part - though not entirely - explains why he is so little known. A room in the Musée D'Orange is dedicated to Belleroche. He was the subject of numerous publications during his lifetime, and in 2001 the San Diego Museum of Art organised an exhibition and produced a catalogue entitled The Rival of Painting: the Lithographs of Albert Belleroche.

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Nadia Benois (1896 - 1974)

Nadia Benois, mother of actor Peter Ustinov, was one of Russian Imperial Theatre's finest artists who emigrated and made a career as theatre an film set designer and worked with the Royal Ballet in London.

She was born Nadezhda Leontievna Benois on May 17, 1896, in St. Petersburg, Russia. Her father, named Leonti (Louis) Benois, was the owner of the famous Leonardo Da Vinci's painting 'Madonna Benois'; he was of Russian, French and Italian ancestry, and was an architect, who built several landmarks in St. Petersburg. Her mother had Ethiopian Royal ancestry. The large family of Benois lived in a grand mansion near the Imperial Mariinsky Opera House in St. Petersburg, that was built by her architect grandfather Nikolai Benois.

Nadia Benois was brought up in a highly cultural environment in her family mansion near the Opera House. She began her studies in art under her uncle Alexandre Benois, who was the neighbor next door and had an art studio. She graduated from the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine arts and worked for the Imperial Mariinsky Opera House in St. Petersburg. In 1916 she married a Russian-German pilot Iona (Jona) von Ustinov (nicknamed Klop). After the Russian revolution of 1917 she was undecided about emigration, but when she became pregnant in 1920 the couple emigrated to London, England. Her son Peter Ustinov was born in 1921, and she lived in England ever since.

Nadia Benois made a career as a ballet and opera set designer with the "Russian Seasons" produced by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev. From 1930's she collaborated with Marie Rambert and the Rambert Dance company at the Duchess Theatre in London, where she produced her acclaimed design for ballet 'Dark Elegies'. She later worked with the Royal Ballet on productions of ballets by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. She was a costume designer for two films directed by her son Peter Ustinov: 'Vice Versa' (1948) and 'Private Angelo' (1949). She also was a fine artist and participated in many art exhibitions in London and Paris during the 1920's -1930's. Her artworks are now owned by such museums, as the Tate Gallery, the Carnegie Institute, the National Gallery of New Zealand, and other collections worldwide

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Jean-Jacques Berne-Bellecour (1874 - 1939)

Jean Berne-Bellecour was an official French War Artist attached to the French War Office and he continued the traditional reputation of the Berne-Bellecour family.  For just as the war of 1870 was recorded by his father, the 1914-18 conflict was recorded by his son, Jean.  He not only studied at the Beaux-Arts, and with his father, but was also a favourite pupil of the famous 19th Century French military painter, Edouard Detaille, who firmly believed in him as a future great military painter.

As soon as hostilities broke out, Berne-Bellecour was among the first to rally to the Front as a combatant and took part in the Battle of the Marne.  Here, in spite of fine personal heroism, he was able to sketch several scenes in connection with that great historical event, which was met with immediate and enthusiastic success in military circles.  His superior officers applied to the War Office for permission for him to be allowed to visit the entire line of French trenches, where he was given leave to roam at ease over the battlefield, sketching here and there at will, and often running great risks.  Berne-Bellecour's "Souvenirs du Front" met with such success in Great Britain, that he was invited to visit the British Front and produce a similar document depicting the life of the British soldier under fire.  He was afforded every facility to see the Tommies at their work, and all latitude and freedom were given him along the line.  These works were reproduced in "Dans les Lignes Anglaises" - a collection of studies from the British Front - part of a second volume of sketches that he made from the beginning of the war, with this particular painting amongst them.  His sketches are a remarkable series of life-like evocations of the daily routine of warfare.

Admirers of the work of this very fine French artist will remark that his method is that of an artist equally gifted as a portrait and as a landscape painter.  Berne-Bellecour’s dual gift has served him well, for an intimate connection exists between the terrible and sombre background of the military scenes depicted and their human significance.
There are three forms of the military artist’s expression.  One consists in the mere rapid sketches taken in the midst of action, sometimes even under the most terrible conditions.  Another method is that of the complete war picture - usually some war episode which the artists evolves graphically from his own notes and interprets later in his own studio.  But the third method - the one adopted by Berne-Bellecour - is that of the more finished sketch produced almost in the heat of action upon the battlefield.  At times, the artist has begged some soldier engaged in his perilous work to sit for him for a few moments while he notes some characteristic detail.  Thus, we feel as we look upon his drawings, the vivid truth and intense reality of the scene his pencil depicts.  His sketches are a remarkable series of lifelike  evocations of the daily routine of warfare that bring home to us the heroism of our defenders in the field.  Their realism teaches us a magnificent lesson.
Berne-Bellecour  was always impressed with the extreme smartness and the imperturbable coolness of the British officer under all conditions (see Painting No. 1).  The tall young officer, hands thrust into his pockets, a pipe in his mouth is bending his head down to watch one of his own men fill his own pipe with tobacco.  Berne-Bellecour was heard to remark “ These English officers in every circumstance of their existence look as if they had just come out of their bathroom.”  Another detail which impressed the French artist - though it is almost impossible to convey it by means of his art - is the silence of the British soldier who is able to perform his military duties in perfect silence, without discussion or even appreciation of any kind.  He does not question the whys and wherefores of the great, incomprehensible, absurd and supreme mystery.  He is quietly determined and obeys his superiors without comment.  And this, in the opinion of Berne-Bellecour, is the characteristic trait of the British soldier which entirely distinguishes him from his French comrade.
Acknowledgement to Claire Pratz, author of “France Within.”
Berne-Bellacour served at the Battle of the Marne, during which he made some drawings.These were so well received that he was appointed Peintre du Ministère de la Guerre et du Musée de l’Armée, and he continued to sketch French and English troops in this capacity.

In 1917 he produced a celebrated series of watercolours, which were reproduced as photogravure prints in a portfolio entitled Dans les Lignes
Anglaises. In this book, he wrote of his fascination with the smartness of British Officers under all conditions: ‘these English Officers in every circumstance of their existence look as if they had just come out of their bathroom.’This is a rare example by the artist of a painting in oil, showing two British soldiers of the Secteur de Bapaume, best known for its role in the Somme offensive of 1916.

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Robert Polhill Bevan (1865-1925)

Painter, born in Hove, Sussex. He studied at Westminster School of Art and Académie Julian, Paris and in 1894 met Gauguin in Pont-Aven, Brittany By 1897 he had married the Polish painter S. de Karlowska and visited Poland with her several times. In 1905 he held his first one-person show at the Baillie Gallery. 

Bevan was an early member of the short-lived Fitzroy Street Group, a forerunner of the Camden Town Group of which he was a founder member in 1911. He was also a founder member of the London Group, 1913 and the Cumberland Market Group in 1915 and also exhibited with Vanessa Bell's Friday Club and contributed work to the obscure Arts League of Service. 

Bevan had work reproduced in Colour Magazine and was an elected member of the NEAC, 1922. His paintings are highly prized and he is regarded as a leading British painter of the early years of the 20th Century. His work is in the collection of the collections Brighton Art Gallery, British Sporting Art Trust, V&A, NPG, the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Herbert Art Gallery, Coventry and Tate Gallery.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Joyce Bidder (1906-1999)

Joyce Bidder trained at the Wimbledon School of Art, where she

received significant approval from her tutor, Stanley Nicholson

Babb (1873–1957).

In 1933 she met Daisy Borne, and they shared a studio in

Wimbledon for many years, exhibiting together numerously,

notably at the FAS exhibition Sculpture in Britain Between the Wars

in 1986 and with a two-women London show at the FAS in 1987.

Bidder showed extensively throughout her career, including

twelve times at the RA Summer Exhibitions between 1933 and

1957, as well as with the SWA and the RSMPSG. She was also a

fellow of the RSBS from 1952–75.

She suffered from glaucoma and was unable to work during

the last five years of her life.

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Katie Blackmore (c.1910 - 1955)

Painter in oil and watercolour who became an associate of the RBA, 1922, full member, 1925, and an associate of SWA in 1924. She was an extensive RBA exhibitor, also showing at RA, RI, RHA, Ridley Art Club, Carfax Gallery, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. Travels included Italy. Alfred Bell and Company published her pictures The Mushroom Dance and The Enchanted Pool. She was a Lyceum Club member who lived latterly in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire.

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Peter Blake (1930)

Painter, born in Dartford, Kent. He studied at Gravesend Technical College and School of Art, 1946-51 and entered RCA in 1950. This period of study was interrupted by National Service and he returned to the RCA, 1953-56. In his early work he excelled at creating the world of childhood in a series of works which paid detailed attention to ephemera: comics, badges, cigarette cards and packets. Between 1956-57 he travelled in Holland, Belgium, France, Italy and Spain on a Leverhulme research award studying popular art. In 1959 his collector's instinct found outlet in the collages and reliefs he began making, many of them using kitsch items, pop stars or other aspects of popular culture. He is arguably the doyen of British Pop Art. During its late 1950's and mis-1960's heydey he taught at Walthamstow School of Art and his very presence stimulated students in the Pop Art/Punk era.

In 1963 he married the painter Jann Haworth and with her became a founder member of the Brotherhood of Ruralists in 1975. Six years later he was elected to the RA. He is also known as the artist behind the enigmatic Beatles Album “Sgt Pepper.” His skill as an illustrator, designer and painter has enabled him to operate as a fine artist and yet appeal to mass audiences and he was appointed RDI in 1987. A Retrospective Exhibition was held at the Tate Gallery, London in 1983. Much of his work is distributed around the UK in art galleries and museums such as Carlisle Art Gallery, MOMA, Wales, Newport Art Gallery, Gwent, Northampton Museum and Art Gallery, Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, Wolverhampton Art Gallery, Doncaster Art Gallery, University of Warwick Art Collection and the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester. Latterly many of his works were reproduced as limited edition prints and sold through outlets like CCA Galleries. Blake was also the President of The Arts Club, Dover Street in the early years of the millennium. 

Bibliography: Peter Blake, with essays by Michael Compton, Nicholas Usherwood and Robert Melville, Tate Gallery, 1983. Liverpool, 2000. ISBN 1854373234. 

Brotherhood of Ruralists by Nicholas Usherwood. Published by Lund Humphries, 1981. ISBN 0853314462.

We are grateful to artbiogs.co.uk for assistance

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Douglas Percy Bliss (1900-1984)

Douglas Percy Bliss (28 January 1900–11 March 1984) was a Scottish painter and art conservationist. Bliss's family was from Northamptonshire, England. Bliss himself was born in Karachi, India (now in Pakistan). Bliss was raised in Edinburgh and educated at George Watson's College from 1906 to 1917.

Bliss left school in 1917 to join the Highland Light Infantry until the end of WW1

In 1922 he was awarded an M.A. in English Literature by the University of Edinburgh. He had studied Art History in his first year. Bliss then studied painting at the Royal College of Art in London. In his post-graduate year he studied engraving. In 1925 the Oxford University Press published his engravings illustrating Border ballads. Bliss then received a number of commissions, including a commission to write A History of Wood Engraving. This work received such critical acclaim that Bliss’ reputation as an artist was overshadowed by his reputation as a critic and teacher.

In 1928 Bliss married Phyllis Dodd, who was a painter. Encouraged by his wife Bliss took up painting again, painting oil and watercolour landscapes in Scotland and England. Coincidentally his paintings record the end of an era of small-holding. He also painted some urban scenes just before the towns were transformed by high rise and high-density buildings.

In the 1930s Bliss established the Blackheath Society, which continues today to attempt to protect the amenity of life in south-east London. In the 1930s he taught at the Blackheath School of Art and was the London art critic for The Scotsman.

In 1941 Bliss joined the RAF and was stationed in Scotland. After the war he was appointed Director of the Glasgow School of Art. He referred to Glasgow as "the greatest industrial city in the Empire". Bliss was instrumental in saving much of the Art Nouveau architecture and furniture of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. He continued as Director from 1946 until 1964. When he completed his period as Director, Glasgow School of Art was listed by Whitaker's Almanack among the six top Art Schools in Britain.

Bliss's own art was exhibited around Britain. There was an exhibition of his work in the Glasgow School of Art, in the northern hemisphere summer of 1998.

Much of the work of Bliss's youth has been lost. Most of his engravings were unpublished before the beginning of the War in 1939 and his entire collection was stolen during the Blitz. Decades later sixteen degraded blocks were identified at an auction. Most split when printing was attempted.

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Sandra Betty Blow (1925-2006)

Abstract painter, born in London the daughter of a wholesale fruit merchant. She studied at St. Martin's School of Art, 1942-46, RA Schools, 1946-47, and the Accademia di Belli Arti in Rome, 1947-48. She first exhibited in 1946 at the RA and her first solo exhibition was held at Gimpel Fils, London in 1951 followed by many others at home and abroad. Blow also exhibited at the Venice Biennale and, in 1961, won second prize at the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. She was elected an Associate of the RA, 1971, RA, 1978. Between 1957-58 she worked in Cornwall with artist Roger Hilton joining the Penwith Society in 1958 and from 1960 for fifteen years she taught at the RCA. More recently her work was been exhibited at KHG and many of her works were sold as limited edition prints through CCA Galleries. Her abstract paintings employ colour, gestural brush marks and texture and for a period experimented with collages, and the combination of polythene, bamboo and paint. In 1995 she was commissioned to create a glass screen for Heathrow Airport having relocated to St. Ives, Cornwall in 1994 due to escalating rental prices in London. Tate St. Ives held a solo exhibition in 2001 which was followed in 2005 by an 80th birthday retrospective exhibition at London’s Tate Gallery.

Blow is represented in the collections of the ACGB, Ben Uri, GAC, NCAS, New Hall College, Cambridge, Tate Gallery, Towner Art Gallery and the V&A and in many other public collections in Britain and abroad. 

Bibliography: Sandra Blow by Jane Martineau. An exhibition catalogue for a retrospective exhibition held at the Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1994. 

Recent Work. An exhibition catalogue, Andrew Dixon Gallery, London, 1991. ISBN 1873215258. 

Sandra Blow by Michael Bird with a foreword by Norman Rosenthal. Published by Lund Humphries, London, 2005. ISBN 0853319219.

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John Bolam (1922-2009)

Painter, designer and teacher, born in Amersham, Buckinghamshire. The landscape of the Chilterns, English Romantic painters and poets, and modern French artists such as Braque and Degas all influenced Bolam's work. He studied furniture design at High Wycombe School of Art, and went on to become Principal of the School of Art at Cambridge, 1970-83. Showed at AIA Gallery, Leicester Galleries; New Art Centre, (one-man show). Fry Art Gallery in Saffron Walden holds his work. In spite of obvious similarities between his work and that of the Neo-Romantics, (most notably Piper and Sutherland), the origin and evolution of Bolam's imagery was independent from theirs.

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Muirhead Bone (1876-1953)

Sir Muirhead Bone (23 March 1876 – 21 October 1953) was a Scottish etcher, drypoint and watercolour artist. The son of a printer, Bone was born in Glasgow and trained initially as an architect, later going on to study art at Glasgow School of Art. He began printmaking in 1898, and although his first known print was a lithograph, he is better known for his etchings and drypoints. His subject matter was principally related to landscapes, architecture (which often focussed on urban construction and demolition sites) and industry. In 1901 he moved to London, where he met William Strang, Dugald MacColl and Alphonse Legros, and later became a member of the New English Art Club. Bone was also a member of the Glasgow Art Club with which he exhibited. After the outbreak of the First World War, Charles Masterman, head of the British War Propaganda Bureau and acting on the advice of William Rothenstein, appointed Bone as Britain's first official war artist in May 1916. To many, Bone had the ideal credentials for this official appointment and, although thirty-eight years old at the outbreak of war, he was rescued from certain enlistment by the intervention of those in the art establishment who recognized what an asset his work might be as pictorial propaganda for the Allied cause. Furthermore, Bone worked almost exclusively in black and white; his drawings were invariably small and their realistic intensity reproduced well in the government-funded publications of the day. Where some artists might have demurred at the challenge of drawing ocean liners in a drydock or tens of thousands of shells in a munitions factory, Bone delighted in them; he was rarely intimidated by complex subjects and whatever the challenge those who commissioned his work could always be sure that out of superficial chaos there emerged a beautiful and ordered design. Commissioned as an honorary Second Lieutenant, he arrived in France during the Battle of the Somme, serving with the Allied forces on the Western Front and also with the Royal Navy for a time. He produced 150 drawings of the war, returning to England in October of that year. Over the next few months Bone returned to his earlier subject matter, drawing pictures of shipyards and battleships. He visited France again in 1917 where he took particular interest in the ruined towns and villages. After the Armistice, Bone returned to the type of works he produced before the war, and was influential in promoting fellow war artists William Orpen and Wyndham Lewis. He began to undertake extensive foreign travels which increasingly influenced his work. In 1923 he produced three portraits of the novelist Joseph Conrad during an Atlantic crossing. In the inter-war period he exhibited extensively in London and New York, building up a considerable reputation. He received a knighthood in 1937. Bone served again as official war artist in the Second World War from 1940, being commissioned in 1940 into the Royal Marines as a Major. Sir Muirhead Bone died in 1953 in Oxford. His final resting place is in the churchyard adjacent to the St. Mary's Church Whitegate at Vale Royal parish in Cheshire; and he has a memorial stone in St. Paul's Cathedral in London.

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Stephen Bone (1904-1958)

Stephen Bone, (13 November 1904 - 15 September 1958), was an English artist, writer, broadcaster and noted war artist. Bone achieved early success in book illustration using woodcuts before he turned to painting and art criticism.

Born in Chiswick, London and was the son of Sir Muirhead Bone and of Gertrude Helana Dodd, a writer. After leaving Bedales School he travelled widely in Europe with his father before enrolling at the Slade School of Fine Art in 1922. He became disillusioned with the Slade and left in 1924 to begin illustrating books, with woodcuts, for his mother and other writers. In 1925 Bone was awarded the Gold Medal for Wood Engraving at the International Exhibition in Paris. In 1926 he was the subject of a joint exhibition at the Goupil Gallery, alongside Rodney Joseph Burn, and in 1928 he painted a mural for the underground station at Piccadilly Circus.

In 1929 he married the artist Mary Adshead and they were to have two sons and a daughter. The couple travelled extensively across Britain and Europe which allowed Bone to paint outdoors in all weathers and develop a style of bright landscape painting that proved popular and sold well at a number of gallery exhibitions.

At the outbreak of the Second World War, Stephen Bone enlisted as an officier in the Civil Defence Camouflage Establishment based in Leamington Spa. In June 1943 Bone was appointed by the War Artists' Advisory Committee to be a full-time salaried artist to the Ministry of Information specialising in Admiralty subjects. The post had originally being held by Stephens father, Muirhead Bone, but following the death of Gavin Bone, Stephens brother, Muirhead decided not to continue with the commission. Stephen produced a large quantity of works showing naval craft and coastal installations around Great Britain. He recorded the 1944 Normandy landings, painted scenes in Caen and Courseulles after the invasion and went on to record the assault on Walcheren Island in the Netherlands. Towards the end of 1944 he travelled to Norway and painted the wreck of the Tirpitz.

After the War, Bone found his style of painting somewhat out of fashion and, although he continued to paint, he found it difficult to get his work exhibited. He became an art critic for the Manchester Guardian, wrote humorous pieces for the Glasgow Herald and did television and radio work for the BBC. With his wife, he wrote and illustrated children's books. He died of cancer on 15 September 1958 at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London.

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Daisy Theresa Borne (1906 - 1998)

Daisy Borne was born in London but travelled extensively with

her family during her childhood, and was educated in America

before returning to London to study sculpture at Regent Street

Polytechnic School of Art.

She also studied singing and – somewhat unconventionally

for women at the time – was a keen sportswoman and notable

member of one of the Thames rowing clubs.

She worked closely with Joyce Bidder throughout her career.

After meeting in 1933, the two shared a studio in southwest

London for many years, and exhibited together at the FAS

in 1987. Borne also showed at the RA (1932–61), the SWA

(1933–71), the RSBS – to which she was elected associate, and the

RSMPSG – of which she served as vice president.

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Hubert van den Bossche (XXe)

Hubert van den Bossche was a Belgian post impressionist painter of interiors, still lives, figures and landscapes.  He became one of the founders of the circle 'Labeur' and lived in Paris.

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G. Boudard ()

Boudard is recorded as having been wounded at the First Battle of the Marne in September 1914.  He subsequently worked at one of the ÉCOLES DE BLESSÉS (24, Bd des Capucines) producing painted wooden figures in silhouette of French and German soldiers examples of which are in the collection of the Imperial War Museum and Historial de la Grande Guerre in  Péronne.  A further set can be seen at The Musée de l'Armée in Paris

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Frank Bramley (1857-1915)

Painter, born at Sibsey in Lincolnshire. He attended Lincoln School of Art, 1873-78 and also studied at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp 1879-82 where he studied under Charles Verlat. A Founding member of NEAC he resigned in 1890 following a derisive attack by Walter Sickert on Bramley's work. In the winter of 1884 Bramley arrived in Newlyn spending time with Stanhope Forbes. A prolific and wide-ranging exhibitor he showed at the RA of which he was elected a member in 1911. Frank Bramley also showed at Nottingham Castle Museum, Lake Artists Society, RSA, RHA, ROI, Leicester Galleries, RGI, RSA and at the Carfax Gallery. He is represented in the collections of the Tate Gallery, the Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro, Usher Art Gallery, Lincoln, NPG and in galleries in Capetown, South Africa and Auckland, New Zealand.

Literature; A Girdle of the Year: compiled by J. M. Graham, illustrated by Frank Bramley. Published by Otto Schulze & Co., Edinburgh, 1908. 
Frank Bramley: Catalogue of an exhibition held at and published by Usher Gallery Lincolnshire County Council, 1999. ISBN 0861110358.

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Frank Brangwyn (1867-1956)

Frank Brangwyn was born in Bruges, Belgium, the son of an English father and Welsh mother. The family returned to London in 1874, Brangwyn's father gaining work as a designer of buildings, embroideries and furniture. Although Brangwyn appears to have had little formal education, whether academic or artistic, his earliest mentors were three of the most influential men in design at the turn of the century: Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo, William Morris and Siegfried Bing. Between 1884 and 1887 Brangwyn travelled to Kent, Cornwall and Devon, before venturing further with trips to Turkey in 1888, South Africa in 1891, Spain in 1892 and Morocco in 1893. Brangwyn was an independent artist, an experimenter and innovator, capable of working on both large and small scale projects, ranging from murals, oil paintings, watercolours, etchings, woodcuts and lithographs to designs for architecture, interiors, stained glass, furniture, carpets, ceramics and jewellery, as well as book illustrations, bookplates and commercial posters. It is estimated that he produced over 12,000 works during his lifetime. Mural commissions included the Worshipful Company of Skinners, London (1902-09), St Aidan's church, Leeds (1908-16), Manitoba Legislative Building, Winnipeg, Canada (1918-21), Christ's Hospital, Horsham (1912-23), State Capitol, Jefferson City, USA (1915-25), the British Empire panels, Swansea (1925-32), and Rockefeller Center, New York (1930-34). Brangwyn married Lucy Ray in 1896 and took on the lease of Temple Lodge, Hammersmith, in 1900. In 1918 the artist purchased The Jointure, Ditchling, where he spent most of his time following his wife's death in 1924. Elected RA in 1919, knighted in 1924, holder of countless artistic awards, Brangwyn was modest about his singular achievements, regarding art as an occupation and describing himself as a designer.

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Harold M. Brett (1880-1955)

Harold Mathews Brett was an American Field Painter, Illustrator trained at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston best known for his New England scenes and portraits. His illustratio s were featured in Harper's Weekly, Bazar, Collier's Weekly, and The Saturday Evening Post. Brett's paintings hang in the Brandywine River Museum, Cape Cod Museum of Fine Art, and the Chatham Historical Society, among others.

Brett was born December 3, 1880 in Middleboro, Massachusetts and spent his formative years in Brookline, Massachusetts. Brett attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston where under the direction of Philip Hale and Frank Benson he honed his artistic skills. Seeking further artistic education Brett relocated to New York in order to study at the Art Students League. Artists that contributed to his development include: Walter Appleton Clark, H. Siddons Mowbray, and Kenyon Cox.

In 1906 Brett went to Wilmington, Delaware, to continue his studies with well-known illustrator Howard Pyle. Brett's career as an illustrator and painter took off soon after his studies with Howard Pyle. His first professional achievement was as an illustrator in Harper's Weekly. An example of Brett's keen sense of narrative and human form is seen in his oil painting The Checkers Game which appeared on the cover of the June 2, 1906 issue of “Harper’s Weekly.”: In a provision shop three men are engaged in a game of checkers. A confident businessman looks on as his checkers opponent, a sea Captain, decides the next move. The aged yet spry shop keep presides over the game as an old man watches the scene.
Brett settled in Chatham, Massachusetts on Cape Cod, where he continued to illustrate for magazines and books and was a member of the Fenway School of Illustration in Boston, Massachusetts. Examples of his print success include reproduced oils and original drawings for the author Joseph C. Lincoln used to illustrate several publications. Brett's painting for the jacket cover to Rafael Sabatini novel Hounds Of God exemplifies his ability to capture on canvas human emotion and plot.

Brett's painting and illustrations encompassed the same arena as Norman Rockwell, to which he can be compared. Brett sought to capture on canvas a moment suspended in time, often dealing with subject matter quintessential to American life. Like Rockwell, Brett's paintings include plot, emotion, and a nostalgia for times past.

Brett's career continued to evolve as his talent for portrait painting developed. Brett maintained two studios, one in New York City, and the other in Chatham, MA. His portrait style followed that of his genre painting and captured the best of an individual as preserved in a moment in time. He painted his females gentile and refined while his portraits of men are displayed as confident, strong, and calm.

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Audrey O Bridgeman (1930-1950)

Bridgeman is recorded as entering the Rome Scholarship in the 1930's. She exhibited rarely - once at the RBA and twice at the Royal Academy. She lived in Churt near Farnham and is best know as a printmaker.

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Reginald Brill (1902 - 1974)

Artist in oil and watercolour and fine draughtsman of landscapes, figure studies and portraits. Born in London, Brill studied under Henry Tonks at the Slade School 1921-4 after a period at the St Martin's School of Art. Won the Prix de Rome for painting and was at the British School in Rome 1927-9. Worked in Cairo, 1930. Exhibited at the RA, Leicester Galleries and in East Anglia, where he lived, at Lavenham. Was principal of Kingston School of Art. Wrote Modern Painting and Art as a Career. Kingston Polytechnic, the Royal Borough and the Phoenix Gallery organised a retrospective in Kingston in 1985, with another at Stanley Picker Gallery, Kingston University, 1999.

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Gerald Brockhurst (1890-1978)

Painter and etcher, born in Birmingham, West Midlands. He studied at Birmingham School of Art and RA Schools, 1907. In 1919 he held his first solo exhibition Chenil Gallery, London, and exhibited at RA, 1923-53. He lived in Ireland 1915-20. In 1933 he exhibited 'Dorette' at the RA. The model, Dorette Woodward, became the subject of several other paintings and etchings.
In 1937 he was elected an Associate of the RA. He was elected RE and in 1938 he painted the Duchess of Windsor and was commissioned also to paint Marlene Dietrich which was never finished.

In 1939 he moved to New York with Dorette whom he married in 1947, after his former wife sued successfully for a divorce. Examples of his work are in the collection of Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NPG, London, Lady Lever Art Gallery, Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston, McLean Museum and Art Gallery, Greenock and Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.

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Peter Brook (1927-2009)

Painter, born in Holmfirth, Yorkshire. After Barnsley Grammar School he attended Huddersfield School of Art and Goldsmiths College of Art. He was one of Jack Beddington's chosen Young Artists of Promise, in the 1957 book of that title. Initially Brook painted industrial scenes, then from the 1960s Pennine rural landscapes, especially winter scenes, and from 1980 Scottish and Lancashire landscapes. Between 1979 and 1983 he completed 52 paintings of Hannah Hauxwell. He was elected RBA in 1962. In 1960 he had a solo show at Wakefield City Art Gallery; from 1968-72 he was contracted to Agnews, with seven solo shows, two in Palm Springs, California, and two in Adelaide, Australia. In 1990 a retrospective of his work was held at Brighouse Art Galleries. Many notable celebrities own Brook's pictures, including James Mason, Tommy Steele, Alan Ladd, and Keith Barron.

Throughout his life, Peter Brook has remained stylistically consistent. Whilst a comparison is sometimes made with Lowry and to an extent with his friend Carel Weight, the technique he has developed and his personal involvement with landscape are entirely his own.

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John Buckland Wright (1897-1954)

Painter, draughtsman, but primarily an etcher and engraver who was selftaught. Born in Dunedin, New Zealand, Buckland Wright studied history at Oxford and then architecture in London. He soon realised that he wanted to be an artist more than an architect and by 1921 he was living in Belgium and was elected a member of the Gravure Originale Belge in 1925. Was also a member of Xylographes Belges, SWE and LG. During the 1930s Buckland Wright lived and worked in Paris and frequently visited S W Hayter's Atelier 17. He had one-man shows in London and throughout the continent, sometimes signing his work J B W. Work held by Victoria & Albert Museum, British Museum and many galleries and museums in Europe and America. A master printmaker with an assured, swirling line, Buckland Wright passed on his skills after World War II when he taught at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, from 1948, and the Slade School of Fine Art, from 1953, the year that his book Etching and Engraving: Techniques and the Modern Trend was published. He illustrated over 5o books. Retrospective Blond Fine Art, 1981, Wolseley Fine Arts reviewing his Surrealist work, 1999, and The Golden Cockerel Years, 2001. In 2003, that gallery staged For My Own Pleasure - The Autonomous Prints, 1925-54, with an extensively illustrated catalogue. Lived in London.

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Louis Buisseret (1888 - 1956)

Louis Buisseret was born in Binche (Hainaut) in 1888.   He studied at the Mons Académie under Emile Motte and Louis Joseph Greuse, before going to Brussels where he continued his studies under Jean Delville and Herman Richir.   In 1910 he was placed second in the Painting section for the Prix de Rome, which he won the following year for Engraving.   He was much influenced by his time in Rome and Benezit Dictionary of Art (Grund 2006) records that 'He painted according to a theory he inherited from Italian painting which he described as that of "sequences" or "static compositions".'   In 1928 he was one of the founding members of the Nervia group of artists, and the following year was appointed Principal of Mons Académie;  a post he held until 1949.   He died in Brussels in 1956.

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Arthur James Wetherall Burgess (1879 - 1957)

Marine artist and editor, born in Bombala, New South Wales, Australia. He studied art in Sydney and St Ived, Cornwall. As well as being art editor of Brassey's Naval and Shipping Annual, Burgess was Australia's official naval artist in 1918. Showed at RI and ROI both of which he was member, RA, RHA, RBA and elsewhere. National Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney and several British public collections, including Lincoln and Nuneaton, hold examples. Settled in London, where he was a member of Langham Sketch Club. Malcolm Innes Gallery held a show of Burgess' marine, fishing and ski-ing oils and watercolours in 1996.

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Averil Mary Burleigh (1883-1949)

Painter and jewellery designer; lived in Hove, Sussex and studied at Brighton School of Art. Her husband was the painter C. H. H. Burleigh, her daughter the artist Veronica Burleigh. She exhibited widely - at the RA, RSA, NEAC, RI, SWA, Sussex Women's Art Club and RCamA - and was elected an associate of the RWS shortly before she died. She was also a Member of the Society of Mural Decorators and Painters in Tempera. Her most characteristic works are brightly painted in tempera, with a strong sense of design. Her subject matter was usually based on classical or medieval subjects, and pretty maidens (often modelled on her daughter Veronica) set in Renaissance landscapes. Her watercolours (and pure landscapes in oil) were handled more loosely but still underpinned by a strong linearity. Brighton Art Gallery held a memorial show in the year of her death.

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Edward Burra (1905-1976)

Edward John Burra (29 March 1905 – 22 October 1976) was an English painter, draughtsman, and printmaker, best known for his depictions of the urban underworld, black culture and the Harlem scene of the 1930s.

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Harry Bush (1883-1957)

Painter, born in Brighton, Sussex. In 1900 he joined the Victualling Department of the Admiralty but left four years later to join Carlton Studios, Chelsea, where he worked under Fred Taylor, the poster and watercolour artist. He later studied at Regent Street Polytechnic and in 1922 he began exhibiting at the RA. He was an elected member of the ROI and also showed at the RWA, RSA and the Paris Salon. Bush lived at 19 Queensland Avenue, Merton Park, SW19, in a custom-built house with a studio at the top. The house was purchased in 1911 for Bush's wife, Noel Nisbet, a noted watercolourist of mythical, medievalist scenes. Harry Bush became known as the 'Painter of the Suburbs' owing to the remarkably evocative series of views in and around his home in Merton which were exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1922-54. A studio sale of his work was held at Christie's, London, in September 1984. His work is represented in the collection of Melbourne Art Gallery, Australia.

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David Young Cameron (1865-1945)

Painter and prolific printmaker, born Glasgow, Scotland. He trained at evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art and then entered the Royal Institution, Edinburgh, 1885. Between 1892 and 1893 he exhibited at the NEAC and became one of Britain's most prolific etchers. His paintings of Scottish landscapes use boldly simplified shapes and strong colour. 

He was elected RE, 1895, RWS, 1906, RSA, 1918 and RA in 1920 and also showed with the Society of Twelve and at Connell & Sons. Knighted in 1924 he was appointed King's Painter and Limner in Scotland in 1933.

During World War I Cameron was an Official War Artist enlisted by the Canadian Government and his work is in the collection of the Dick Institute, IWM, McLean Museum and Art Gallery, NRM, Stirling Smith Art Gallery and Museum, Tate Gallery, Perth Museum and Art Gallery and the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. His sister was the painter Katherine Cameron.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Michael Canney (1923-1999)

Painter, relief maker, writer, broadcaster and teacher, Canney was born in Falmouth, where he was taken to art shows from an early age. In the early 1940s he studied at Redruth and Penzance Schools of Art and St Ives School of Painting, under Leonard Fuller. After army service he studied at Goldsmiths College of Art, 1947-51, and then undertook postgraduate study at Patrick Allan-Fraser School of Art, Hospitalfield, Arbroath. In 1956 he was appointed curator of Newlyn Orion Gallery, and began broadcasting on radio and television. In 1964-65 Canney taught at Plymouth College of Art and then in 1965-66 was appointed visiting gallery director and lecturer at the University of California, Santa Barbara. From 1966 to 1983 he was on the staff of the West of England College of Art. In 1984 he moved to a village near Siena, Italy and continued to paint. In 1985 he scripted an award-winning documentary film for television on painting in Newlyn. He exhibited regularly at group exhibitions in Britain and abroad. His later one-man shows included Newlyn Art Gallery, 1983; Prescote Art and Design, Edinburgh, 1984; and Belgrave Gallery from 1990. Plymouth City Art Gallery and several other public collections hold his work.

Scott, Nicholson, Vaughan, Hilton and Lanyon were all friends of his. Canney was unusual amongst his contemporaries in so far as he was an indigenous Cornishman.

Selected Literature: Roger Hilton, Night Letters and Selected Drawings (introduction), 1980. Irving Grosse, Michael Canney 1923-1999, Belgrave Gallery, October 1990. Martin Du Louvre, Michael Canney 1923-1999: The Late Years, 1973-1993.

The 49 works in this show were produced by Michael
Canney in the last 25 years of his life. The pictures come
from the artist’s estate and represent the most significant
group of his work ever to come on to the market.
Canney was an innovator, and discovered the possibilities
created by the invention of a new medium. Alkyd oil
paint was developed in the 1930s and 40s for industrial
processes which required special paint finishes. The
addition of alkyd resin to oil paint gives more flexibility
when dry and speeds up the drying process. This medium
was to have a profound influence on Canney’s work in his
later years. It allowed him to paint with a precision which is
impossible with slow drying oils, laying contrasting tones
adjacent to each other with no bleeding of colours, and to
produce effects on the surface of the paint, with a variety of
techniques, almost immediately after the paint had been
laid down. The result is a stronger and more permanent
work of art, less susceptible to damage as it dries and more
durable when the process is complete.
Born in 1923 at Falmouth he was, from an early age,
inculcated into the modern art movement in Britain, and
in particular that of the West Country, where so many
leading artists of the 20th Century were based. From his
first experiences visiting exhibitions, his time serving in the
forces in Italy, and on to his career as an artist he came into
close contact with colleagues of the highest distinction and
some of the greatest creative minds of twentieth century
art: Giorgio De Chirico was an early influence and encouraged
Canney to pursue his enthusiasm for art. Aged
nineteen he met Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth
and was to collaborate with Hepworth on an open air
exhibition at Penlee Park. He became friends with Roger
Hilton, Patrick Heron and Peter Lanyon. In 1958 he met
Mark Rothko who liked his work: they had a shared
admiration for John Tunnard, whose work was then little
known. Mixing in the artistic circles of the time he came
to know William Scott, Robert Adams, Kenneth Noland,
Helen Frankenthaler, Mark Tobey, Naum Gabo and
Francis Bacon. These friendships and associations kept
Canney involved with painters and painting. He lectured,
wrote, made broadcasts and commented on the work of
artists of his own time, and always sought new breakthroughs
in his own work.
The earliest pictures in the show are from the 1970s
and are painted in oil on canvas; they are, like all of his
work from this time onward in the Constructivist
tradition. The compositions are asymmetric, with clear
blocks of colour, and the surfaces are smooth, even
polished. In Composition with Red Angle (cat.12) the
shapes are varied asymmetrical inventions, juxtaposed by
the artist, with differing colours to form an intriguing yet
stable composition. Similarly the painting Composition in
black (cat.11) is a taut construction of interlocking forms
made stark by the heightened contrast of the palette. In
these two pictures, as in the other nine oils in the exhibition,
the language is simple, an arrangement of many
solitary colours to construct a composition on a single
tone background. Canney’s inventiveness is clear and easy
to appreciate and with great precision and painstaking
technical ability he is working at the limit of his materials.
In the late 1970s and early 80s Canney embarked on
two new projects, the first of which he continued until the end of his working life. His paintings became concerned
with formal geometric shapes, in particular the
square, and he experimented not just with composition
using these shapes, but deconstructed them, cutting,
folding, peeling, unravelling and dividing, sometimes
using numerical sequences such as Fibonacci, and often
using common fractions such as ⅓, ¼, ¹⁄₅ , which he
maintained were easily understood by the human eye.
Between 1979 and 1983, to show his ideas to best effect,
Canney used the second of his new projects, the white
relief. The purpose of the minimalist, stark works was in
his own words: ‘to master the simple in order to proceed to
the complex. For example, the whiteness of the reliefs is not a
search for purity or even for a simplicity of statement. White
permits the element of relief to show most readily.’
As he progressed further with his analysis of the square
and other shapes he was at the same time starting to use a
paint type which would transform the variety and appearance
of his pictures. His discovery and experimentation
with alkyd allowed his vision and thoughts to come to
fruition in a burst of creativity which lasts until he was
finally forced to abandon painting due to ill health.
Alkyd, or alkyd oil paint contains a resin which means
that the medium dries quickly, or more accurately ‘sets’ or
hardens. This happens in a matter of hours and allows
blocks of colour to be laid down adjacent to each other
without any danger of ‘run’ or mixing. The earliest dated
works by Canney using this medium are from 1981 and
include System with Circles No. 1 (cat.30) which while
exploiting the technical advantages has not quite departed
from the earlier compositions. But with Four Plus Four
Equals Two (cat.19) we can see a new departure in the
form of the composition. Canney first creates the composition
in a white relief, and then realises the same idea
using only four colour tones. From these early
experimentations the work quickly takes on a third
element, that of surface treatment, to produce scratched
areas (Rotation No. II, cat.8), rubbed areas (Construction,
cat.39), incising (Three Triangles, cat.33), lifting of paint
(Enveloping V, cat.6), and that of delivering pigment into
the grooves of paint already dried (Granite Village by the
Sea, cat.34). At this time he retired from lecturing on art,
and he was invited to curate an exhibition of his recent
work at the Newlyn Art Gallery in Penzance. In the
catalogue notes Canney has chosen to describe the medium
not as oils but as painted in alkyd.
With these new found possibilities, and his exceptional
feel for colour, Canney started to create much more
complex images, laying bands of colour over one another,
he paints a third, fusing in his mind, and then on the panel
the ‘resultant’ patch of colour. Each of these sections has
been laid down independently, left to dry, and then the
others filled in. At the same time as he paints these vibrant
colourful pictures he also produces incised monotone
pictures (Sgraffito 3, 4 & 5, cats.25–7), these beautiful works
echo his period of making white reliefs, where he ‘masters
the simple to proceed to the complex’. In these compositions
he takes his meditations on the square to a deeper
level of analysis, no longer preserving the surface area, he
uses only the outline, and when these are folded on
themselves, and their corner angles are changed he reveals
the possibility of an infinite number of permutations,
while arranging the shapes on a muted ground of delicate
sgraffito paint.
Michael Canney’s art developed throughout his life,
but once he had adopted the Constructivist style he
continued it. Experimenting with both composition and
media, his work combines visual beauty and a love for
materials, with a sharp intellectual study of form, geometry
and balance. His own very particular style developed
alongside some of the major names of the modern movement
in British art. This comprehensive show of Canney’s
work provides the opportunity to enjoy, and reassess his
own contribution to 20th century British abstract art.

Robert Miller

Download full catalogue here

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Richard Carline (1896-1980)

Painter, writer and administrator, Carline was born in Oxford. His father, George Carline, his mother, Anne, and brother Sydney, his sister Hilda (Mrs Stanley Spencer) and his wife, Nancy, were all painters. Carline in 1913 attended Percyval Tudor-Hart's Academie de Peinture, in Paris. After a short period teaching, Carline served in World War I and was appointed an Official War Artist. With his brother he became noted for war pictures from the air. He was elected LG in 1920, at which time the Carlines' Hampstead home became a centre for artists such as Henry Lamb, John Nash and Mark Gertler. During this period Carline was clearly influenced by Stanley Spencer, transforming everyday scenes into something monumental. Carline achieved this, however, without exaggerating form or gestures to the degree that Spencer did. Between 1924 and 1929 Carline taught at the Ruskin School of Drawing, Oxford. He had his first solo show at Goupil Gallery in 1931. The mid-1930s saw Carline involved in Negro art, organising a show at Adams Gallery in 1935, and contributing the main text to Arts of West Africa, edited by Michael Sadler. During World War II Carline supervised camouflage of factories and airfields. He was involved in AIA, helping to found the Hampstead Artists' Council in 1944. In 1946-47 he was appointed as the first Art Counsellor to UNESCO, and from 1955 to 1974 was chief examiner in art for the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. His books include Pictures in the Post: the Story of the Picture Postcard, 1959; Draw They Must, 1968; and Stanley Spencer at War, 1978. In 1975 the D'Offay Gallery held a Richard Carline exhibition for which the artist wrote the foreword. Carline died in Hampstead and in 1983 Camden Arts Centre organised a memorial exhibition. The Imperial War Museum holds his work, including the outstanding and pioneering series of paintings, from World War I, based on observations made from aeroplanes.

Selected Literature: The Spencers and Carlines in Hampstead in the 1920s, Stanley Spencer Gallery, Cookham, 1973. Richard Carline, D'Offay Gallery, 1975. Elizabeth Cowling, Richard Carline, Camden Arts Centre, London, 1983. The Art of Hilda Carline, Mrs Stanley Spencer, Lincolnshire County Council, 1999, pp. 15, 22 and 23.

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Frederick Carter (1883 - 1967)

Painter and etcher born in Bradford, Yorkshire. He abandoned an early career as a surveyor and engineer but studied art in Paris, 1904, Antwerp, 1909-10 and London 1908-11, where he learnt his etching techniques under Frank Short. He showed at the RA, ROI, NEAC and was elected ARE in 1912. His artistic life before and after the World War I was centred around the Fitzroy Street area of London, and the Dieppe restaurant in Dean Street. He became a mystic symbolist artist, involved with Aleister Crowley and worked on illustrations for D.H. Lawrence's Apocalypse. He was also a friend of Austin Osmond Spare and helped with his theories of automatic drawing. From 1922 he taught etching at Liverpool School of Art and during the 1930's he abandoned printmaking for writing but continued to paint until the late 1950's. His work is in the collections of the BM and V&A. A retrospective exhibition was held at the 20th Century Gallery, Fulham, London, 1998. Richard Grenville Clark's 1998 publication Frederick Carter A.R.G. 1883-1967. A Study of his Etchings catalogues the artist's output and examines each period of his career and techniques.

We are grateful to Michael Campbell for the following note:

The intricate wood engravings of Frederick Carter have always been considered to be the artist’s greatest works. Their inspired designs brought him three successive gold medals for book illustration in the National Competition, South Kensington - the most prestigious award of his day. Frederick Carter developed an unique, almost calligraphic style of wood engraving - he would begin by drawing his original design in ink directly on to the wood block and then either he, or his assistant W.M.R.Quick, would carve away the surrounding wood, leaving only the lines of the original drawing standing proud to form the printing surface.

A great believer in the power of the subconscious, Frederick Carter had experimented with automatic drawing between 1915 and 1924, along with fellow symbolist Austin Osman Spare. He hoped that this might prove to be a means of releasing suppressed associations and images from the subliminal, through which he, like the early alchemists, might discover the essence of life itself.

Frederick Carter’s deep interest in alchemy and all aspects of the supernatural and the occult, led him to produce an esoteric symbolism which is apparent throughout his work. Nowhere is this displayed more clearly than in his works for The Dragon of the Alchemists. Frederick Carter provided little or no explanation regarding the significance of his imagery which combines symbols of established religion with those of mysticism and it is likely that he intended the meaning of many of his images to remain shrouded in mystery.

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Ella Casella (1858-1946)

Born in Paddington, London Ella Casella was the sister of Louisa Cornelia (known as Nelia) Casella and together they studied under Alphonse Legros at the Slade School of Fine Art during the early 1880's. She worked as a medal maker, sculptor, ceramist, illustrator and enameller and showed at the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society at Leeds City Art Gallery, Royal Academy of Arts and Walker Art Gallery. 
In addition to making medals, the sisters contributed illustrations to books listed below. Examples of the Casella Sister's work are in the collection of the V&A. 

Dreams, Dances and Disappointments by Gertrude A. Konstam and illustrated by N Casella and E Casella. Published by Thos. de la Rue & Co, London, 1881.  

The Maypole by Gertrude A. Konstam and illustrated by N Casella and E Casella. Published by Thos. de la Rue & Co, London, 1882.  

The baby's "début" by J. Smith and illustrated by N Casella and E Casella. Published by Thos. de la Rue & Co, London, 1883.

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Patrick Joseph Caulfield (1936-2005)

Painter and printmaker, born in Acton, West London who worked in commercial art before doing his National Service. After leaving school at fifteen he worked drilling gas rings in a factory before moving to the advertising department of Crosse & Blackwell, where he painted chocolates for display. During his National Service with the RAF he attended evening classes at Harrow Art School. After leaving the RAF, he continued his studies at Chelsea School of Art, 1956-60 where he studied under Lawrence Gowing and RCA, 1960-63 where he became one of the exponents of Pop Art. He began working with a consciously anonymous style, using an even black outline with flat colours, to emphasise the sarcasm in his presentation of cliché subjects. He taught at Chelsea School of Art, 1963-71.

In 1964 Caulfield was included in the New Generation exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery and this art form won him the Prix des Jeunes Artistes for graphic design at the 4th Biennale des Jeunes in Paris, 1965. In 1965 he had his first solo exhibition, at the Robert Fraser Gallery and during the following year he had his first overseas solo exhibition, at the Robert Elkon Gallery in Manhattan, New York. He also exhibited at the Waddington Galleries, Howard Roberts Gallery, Cardiff and in the early 1990’s he designed a stained glass window, Paper Moon, for The Ivy restaurant in London, and a large carpet for the atrium of the British Council building in Manchester.
A retrospective exhibition was held at the WAG in Liverpool and at the Tate Gallery, London in 1981 and he was elected RA in 1993. Appointed CBE in 1996, he enjoyed a second major retrospective at the Hayward Gallery in 1999. Examples of his work are in public galleries, museums and collection around the world. These include the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, ACGB, the Art Gallery of Western Australia, BMAG, BC, Doncaster Art Gallery, Lancaster University Art Gallery, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, Norwich Castle Museum, Manchester City Art Gallery, NMW, Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, SNGMA, Edinburgh, Tate Gallery, University of Warwick Art Collection, Ulster Museum, Belfast, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester and the V&. 

Bibliography: Patrick Caulfield: Painting 1963-81. A catalogue of an exhibition held at the Tate Gallery, London and at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1981. ISBN 0905005236. 

Patrick Caulfield: The Complete Prints 1964-1999 edited by Alan Cristea with a forward by Mel Gooding. Published by Alan Cristea Gallery, London, 1999. ISBN 0953483908. 

Patrick Caulfield: Paintings by Marco Livingstone. Published by Lund Humphries, London, 2005. ISBN 0853319170.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Lynn Russell Chadwick (1914-2003)

Sculptor, born in Barnes, London. From 1933-39 he worked as an architectural draughtsman in London, then spent some time as a farm labourer before volunteering for the Fleet Air Arm and gaining a commission, 1941-44. After the war he produced textile, furniture and architectural designs, and his first metal mobiles created from aluminium and balsa wood were exhibited at a Building Trades Exhibition, London in 1947. He turned to sculpture and his early figures were based on humanoid and animal forms. Chadwick was also at this time a member of the British Art Medal Society and undertook occasional commissions in this area.

Chadwick held his first exhibition at Gimpel Fils, London in 1950. In 1951 he was commissioned to make three works for the Festival of Britain exhibition on the South Bank. In 1953 he was one of the twelve semi-finalists for the Unknown Political Prisoner International Sculpture Competition in which he was awarded an Honourable Mention and a prize. By 1956 his reputation as a sculptor was confirmed internationally by his winning the International Prize for Sculpture at the XXVIII Venice Biennale. By 1957 he had held his first USA exhibition at the Saidenberg Gallery, New York. 
In 1959 he won First Prize at the Concorso Internazionale del Bronzetto in Padua, Italy. More prizes and tributes followed as his career developed, including his being awarded the CBE in 1964. He has shown at Marlborough Fine Art, New York and his work is represented in most major collections world-wide. In 2003 a major retrospective exhibition of his work was held at London’s Tate Gallery and since then his work has been exhibited in a group exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery in 2007.
Chadwick created a permanent exhibition of his work at his Gloucestershire home, Lypiatt Park, close to Pangolin Editions, the foundry which casts most of his work, from monumental bronzes to miniatures in silver. His estate is handled by and exhibited at Beaux Arts Bath and Beaux Arts London and can be seen at the Jerwood Sculpture Park and in museums and galleries throughout the UK.

Bibliography: Lynn Chadwick, published by the Tate Gallery, London, 2003. ISBN 1854374672.

Lynn Chadwick: Sculptures since 1954: A catalogue to accompany an exhibition held at Cheltenham Art Gallery and Museums, Gloucestershire, 1993. ISBN 0905157184.

Lynn Chadwick. Sculptor. With a Complete Illustrated Catalogue 1947-2005 by Dennis Farr. Published by Lund Humphries Publishers Ltd, 2006. ISBN 0853319421.

Lynn Chadwick: Out of the Shadows - Unseen Sculptures of the 1960s by Edward Lucie-Smith. Published by Pangolin London, 2009. ISBN: 9780956049131.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk.

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Max Chapman (1911-1999)

Versatile artist, critic, illustrator and poet, born and lived in London. Chapman's mother, Berta Cregeen, and her two sisters were artists.  He attended Dulwich College and Byam Shaw School, 1927-30, where he was taught and befriended by the artist Charles Ricketts, who funded a scholarship to Italy, 1934, and "The European Grand Tour". This disturbed Chapman, who felt that instead he must adjust his art to modern trends. Although Chapman was a figurative artist who later returned to figuration, much of his work was abstract. Zdzislaw Ruszkowski, John Coplans and Jackson Pollock were influences. Collage Noyé was one of Chapman's innovations while experimenting with new media. He showed at RA, LG, RBA, and elsewhere and had solo exhibitions at  Storran, Leger, Molton, Leicester Galleries, Camden Arts Centre, New Vision Centre Gallery and in Paris and Zurich. In 1981 there was a selective retrospective at Middlesbrought Art Gallery when Oswell Blakeston collaborated on projects. Chapman was art critic for What 's On in London for about 25 years

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Evan Charlton (1904-1984)

Evan Charlton was born in London and studied at London University in 1923-27; then at the Slade School of Fine Arts in 1930-33. He began teaching in Bristol in 1935 and became head of Cardiff School of Art in 1938-45. He was an official war artist in the Second World War. He took part in a number of group exhibitions, mainly in Wales, including Royal National Eisteddfod, WAC and National Library of Wales in Aberstwyth. He held a series of one man shows, including The Welsh Gallery in Abergavenny in 1973.A memorial show was held in 1985 by the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff.   His work is represented in Glynn Vivian Art Gallery in Swansea and National Museum of Wales.

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André de Chastanet ( 1879 -1961)

Born in 1879, the illigitimate son of Count André Leonidas Hyacinthe Honoré Henri de La Ferriere Chastanet, Andre de Chastenet was educated in Paris at the  Lycee Janson-de-Sailly.

Two major influences on his early artistic development were the sculptors Barrias Louis Ernest and Alfred Lenoir. He worked in the Montparnasse district of Paris an artistic milieu of full of  fellow poets, writers, painters and sculptors during the Belle Epoque.
From 1900 to 1903 his studies were interupted by Military Service.  From 1904 onwards he exhibited successfully at The Salon of the National Society of Fine Arts alongside Bourdelle , Rodin , Maillol and Carpeau .  During this period he became much in demand as a portrait artist producing busts and profiles of Foch, Gauthier-Ferrieres , Albert Sorel , Francois Coppe , Louis Welden Hawkins , Roger Reboussin , Hans Eckegardh and  Leon Leclerc amongst others. The influx of commissions allowed  him to build a studio at 3 
Rue Victor Schoelcher , opposite Montparnasse cemetery.

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Fyffe Christie (1918 - 1979)

Painter, draughtsman, muralist and teacher, born in Bushey, Hertfordshire, son of a commercial artist and illustrator, George Christie. From the age of 12 Christie lived in Glasgow, from 1934 working in a solicitor's office, then became an apprentice lithographic draughtsman and during World War II served in the Scottish Rifles, resulting work finding its way into the Imperial War Museum. Christie studied at Glasgow School of Art, 1946-50, mural painting under Walter Pritchard. He gained the Newberry Medal in 1950 and a post-diploma year's study. After a period teaching and a six-month travelling scholarship taken on the continent Christie resumed teaching and completed many murals, including Glasgow University and the Iona Community House. With his wife Eleanor, a sculptor, he moved to London in 1957 and again taught, while completing murals and much other work. Christie and his wife held a show at Woodlands Gallery in 1979, shortly before he died. This showed him to be a painter with a rich palette, notable for his female nude studies, as well as a consummate draughtsman. His widow did much to promote Christie's work  after his death. There were exhibitions at Cyril Gerber Fine Art, Glasgow, and Fairhurst Gallery in 1988, preceded by a show of his drawings at Glasgow School of Art. He was included in Children & Childhood at the City Art Centre, Edinburgh, in 1989; there was a large show of his schoolchildren drawings at the Bethnal Green Museum of Childhood, 1991; and further small exhibitions at Blackheath Concert Halls and in Norwich. In 2004, there was an exhibition at Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire, accompanied by a monograph, Nature and Humanity, The Work of Fyffe Christie 1918-1979, published by Sansom & Company Ltd.

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Jean Clark (1902 - 1999)

Painter, born in Sidcup, Kent, who was married to the artist Cosmo Clark.  She studied at Sidcup School of Art, 1913-19, and Royal Academy Schools, 1920, and after at Richard Sickert School of Painting, Broadstairs.  She was made a member of RWS in 1972, and she had a retrospective at Bankside gallery in 1983; she was made an honorary member of the NEAC in 1981.  Additionally exhibited at BBA and NEAC.  Completed murals for Corpus Christi Church in Weston-super-Mare and ceiling painting for Woodford Green United Free Church.  Lived in London, later in Shottisham; died in Saxstead, Suffolk. Chappel Galleries, Chappel, held a joint jean and Cosmo Clark show in 2002.

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Cosmo Clark (1897 - 1967)

Painter and teacher, born in London. His father was the artist James Clark, his wife the painter Jean Clark. Studied at Goldsmiths' College School of Art, 1912-14 and 1918, Academie Julian, Paris, 1918-19, and Royal Academy Schools, 1919-21, there winning a gold medal and Travelling Scholarship. Taught at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, then was head of Hackney Art School. At one time directed the Rural industries Bureau and was a trustee of the Imperial War Museum. Was elected NEAC, 1946, RWS, 1952, and RA, 1958. Clark, whose work is sometimes similar to that of Edward Wadsworth, exhibited at the RA, NEAC, Leicester Galleries, RI and ROI as well as on the continent and in North America. Huddersfield Art Gallery and the Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, hold his work. Lived in London. Chappel Galleries, Chappel, held a joint Jean and Cosmo Clark show in 2002.

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Harold Cohen (1928-2016)

Painter, born in London the elder brother of the artist Bernard Cohen. Following National Service in the RAF, he too studied art at the Slade School 1948-52, received the Abbey Minor Travelling Scholarship in 1952 and visited Italy. 
His first solo exhibition was at the Ashmolean in 1951 and his first London one-person show was held in 1954 at Gimpel Fils, By 1962 he had joined the teaching staff of the Slade School. During the 1960’s he represented Great Britain at the Venice Biennale, Documenta 3, the Paris Biennale, the Carnegie International and many other important international shows and also held a solo exhibition in 1965 at the Whitechapel Art Gallery. He has also exhibited regularly at the Robert Fraser Gallery in London and the Alan Stone Gallery in New York.  

Cohen relocated to San Diego, California in the 1968 and became interested in computer programming and particularly in the field of artificial intelligence. 
On the basis of his early research, he was invited, in 1971, to spend two years at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of Stanford University as a Guest Scholar. 
Much of his work since that time has been concerned with building a machine-based reproduction of the cognitive methods underlying the human act of drawing, resulting his developing a programme he named AARON. This phase of his career has been exhibited variously in museums and science centres in the US, Europe and Japan. These include Los Angeles County Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, the Brooklyn Museum, the Tate Gallery, the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Leicestershire County Council, and the IBM Gallery in New York among others. Examples of Cohen's work are in the collections of the ACGB and the Tate Gallery. 

Literature: The First Artificial Intelligence Coloring Book by Harold Cohen. Published by Kaufmann, Los Altos, California, 1984. ISBN 0865760608. 
Harold Cohen : Catalogue of an exhibition of paintings 1960-1965 held at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 1965. Published by Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1965.
Aaron's Code by Pamela McCorduck : Meta-art, artificial intelligence, and the work of Harold Cohen. Published by Freeman, New York, 1991. ISBN 0716721732.

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Gerald Anthony Coles (1929 - 2004)

Gerald Anthony Coles was a man with many artistic skills; a printmaker, a painter of portraits, landscapes and interiors, and a stained glass designer of repute producing many watercolours and drawings for both secular and ecclesiastical stained glass windows. However, his most important artistic legacy consists of a remarkable output of monotypes and woodcuts. Mostly executed during the 1950s and 60s they are powerful and expressive works which address both the monumentality of the single human figure and the dynamic force of human emotions and physical interactions. These black and white prints, which number over forty different images, were executed during the most productive period of his career and are undoubtedly the finest examples of his art.
The son of an ordinary working couple in Luton, Coles demonstrated an early talent for drawing and obtained a small grant to study part time at Luton School of Art. He left the school in 1945 and was employed at the Harper and Hendra Studios in Harpenden where he helped in the design and manufacture of stained glass. The stained glass artist Hugh Easton was a client at the Studios and was impressed by the young man's artistic abilities. Coles began to work with Easton on his designs and made a significant contribution to Easton's most famous work, the window in the Battle of Britain Chapel in Westminster Abbey (1943-47). Easton encouraged him to apply to the Slade School of Art in London and in 1951 Cole entered the Slade to study painting and drawing under Professor Sir William Coldstream, and printmaking under John Buckland -Wright.
The 1950s were an exciting time to be at the Slade; new ideas on art education were being fostered and a variety of avant-garde artists were employed by the School, including Graham Sutherland and Henry Moore. Under the influence of these artists students were encouraged to avoid the previously well-established working methods (which emphasised the old masters as a paradigm) and develop their own solutions to visual problems. With other distinguished contemporary artists teaching printmaking, such as Ceri Richards and Stanley Jones, the printmaking workshops also provided a creative space for experimenting outside core conventions.
During this period Coles's paintings acquired a new freedom of expression with bold brushwork and strong forms. His earliest prints were a few etchings and wood engravings, which showed
the influence of Buckland-Wright in their fine linear quality and fluid composition (see illustration), but he soon turned to the more expressive medium of woodcut. In the soft wood block he created his own unique approach, energetically carving his figures and imbuing the image with solidarity, strength and movement. This same energy and pre-occupation with the depiction of the human figure is seen in the monotypes, the most `painterly' form of printmaking, and the medium in which Coles produced some of his finest work.
Coles was awarded the Steer Painting Prize in 1953 and left the college in 1954. For the next few years he travelled widely and stayed for a period in Paris
studying at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. A tour of France to study the stained glass in the great Cathedrals was facilitated by a travelling scholarship, awarded to him by the French Government. This period of study resulted in a highly successful one-man show at the Maison Internationale, Paris in 1959. That same year he returned to Luton to mount an exhibition of his woodcuts and monotypes at Luton Museum, which also met with much acclaim.
For the next two decades Coles painted in oil and watercolour and continued to produce prints in woodcut and monotype. Several travelling scholarships and prizes funded visits abroad, mostly in Europe, and his work was shown in prestigious London galleries including Browse and Delbanco, and the O'Hana Gallery. He appears to have ignored the main exhibiting societies and art institutions, not seeking membership or submitting work
to their annual exhibitions. Alongside Ins painting and printmaking Coles continued to design stained glass. His collaboration with Hugh Easton continued for some twenty years and he won prizes and received commissions for stained glass designs both in this country and abroad.
A shy and rather introverted man, Coles never married and, in spite of a love of travel and jazz, he appears to have led a rather solitary life with just a few close friends. Unlike many of his fellow students he declined any teaching posts after leaving the Slade, maintaining that art could not be taught. When not travelling he lived in Luton in a small townhouse he had bought, and used the first floor as his studio. Outgoings were small and Coles appears to have lived on his stained glass commissions, a small number of sales and prudent savings and investments. In later life he professed a desire to move out into the Bedfordshire countryside, but in fact he was content just to take occasional drives and to fill his days painting and sketching in the studio.
After his death in 2004, much of Coles's work remained in his studio in Luton. The paintings, drawings, designs and prints represent a lifetime's devotion to creative endeavour. But for a period of time Gerald Coles expressed this creativity in a manner and in a medium that coincided exactly with the contemporary thrust of British art. His woodcuts and monotypes represent an important aesthetic, shared by several progressive artists of the 1950s and 60s, and certainly deserve to be seen and appreciated by a wider audience.

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Paul Colin (1892-1985)

Paul Colin (27 June 1892 in Nancy, France - 18 June 1985 in Nogent-sur-Marne) was one of France’s greatest poster artists.

Made famous in 1925 by his poster for the Revue Nègre, which helped to launch the career of Josephine Baker (who became his mistress), he worked for over forty years in the theatre, creating not only posters but also numerous sets and costumes.

Very Art déco at the outset, (his Le Tumulte noir is a masterpiece of the genre), his style quickly became highly personal and impossible to categorize: the synthetic accuracy of his portraits, the evocative force of his posters for grand causes so marked him as a master of visual communication that his work today remains relevant and fresh. A student of Eugène Vallin and of Victor Prouvé, he is considered a master of the modern school of poster art. He is the author of over 1400 posters and many theatrical set and costume designs.

He was the master of painter Philippe Derome and poster artists duo Lefor-Openo

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Roland Collins (1918-)

A Londoner by birth, Roland Collins was educated at Kilburn grammar school, whence with the encouragement of the art master Robert Whitmore and the munificence of a grant from the London county council of £25 a year, he was able to go to the St Martins School of Art, in the Charing Cross Road. Then worked as a studio assistant for the London Press Exchange advertising agency and freelanced as a lettering artist. Working in gouache he began what to be the main work of his life: painting topographical scenes, inspired by the art of Bawden, Piper and Ravilious, the artists he most admired, but in a strong personal style. A drawing of Chiswick was shown at the
Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in 1937 and several more in 1939. 

His view of Waltham Abbey was included by Wyndham Lewis in his selection at the Royal Academy in 1938. From his 40-year long base in the artistic heartland of Fitzrovia, he exhibited regularly and widely in London, including at the Royal Society of Watercolours and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters and more recently several times at the Michael Parkin Art Gallery. His other achievements include designing for Decca the sleeve of the first British LP cover in 1945 (Stravinsky’s Petroushka), several murals for restaurants, a superb suite of lithographs for Noel Carrington’s book Colour and Pattern in the Home, 1954, writing and illustrating children’s books and, after meeting the renowned photographer Izis, took photographs of Dieppe (which he went to in the 1950s in search of Sickert and to which he has returned ever since) a selection appeared in Dieppe - Visage d’une Ville de Province, published in 1995. He contributed to the Insight Guide to Normandy (1994). The Museum of London and Camden Borough hold his works.

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Ithell Colquhoun (1906-1988)

Ithell Colquhoun studied at Cheltenham Art School (1925–7) and

the Slade School of Fine Art (1927–31), winning joint first prize

with Elizabeth Leslie Arnold (1909– 2005) in the 1929 Summer

Composition Competition.

After discovering Surrealism in Paris in 1932, she held her first

solo exhibition at Cheltenham Art Gallery in 1936 and in 1939

joined the British Surrealist Group, showing alongside Roland

Penrose (1900–1984) at the Mayor Gallery that June. She was

particularly interested in automatic painting and how it could unlock

not just the unconscious mind but also the mystical.

Despite her expulsion from the English Surrealist Group

in 1940 due to her increasing preoccupation with the occult,

Colquhoun remained active in Surrealist circles – she was married to

Toni del Renzio from 1943–48. She wrote and illustrated numerous

books, including The Living Stones: Cornwall (1957), and exhibited

at the Leicester Galleries and with the LG and WIAC. She took part

in several Surrealist retrospectives in the 1970s, including a solo show

at the Newlyn Gallery in 1976, and the terms of her will bequeathed

her studio (over 3000 works) to the National Trust.

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Molly Cooke (1912-late 1930s)

Miss Mollie Cooke is recorded as having exhibited between 1912 and 1920 (RA and SWA), and lived in London at 125 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, SW.

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Gerald Cooper (1898 - 1975)

Painter, sculptor and teacher whose work included children's portraits, landscapes and horses, but who was noted for his meticulous flowers in the manner of the Dutch Old Masters. He was married to Muriel Minter, their daughter being Jennifer Cooper; John Denham Gallery held a family show in 1984. Cooper was born in West Bromwich, Staffordshire. During World War I he served in the Observer Corps and Royal Flying Corps, afterwards attending West Bromwich Art School. From 1921 Cooper studied at Royal College of Art, where in 1925he shared the Drawing Prize of the school of painting with Phyllis Dodd. Cooper became principal of Wimbledon School of Art, 1929 until retirement, and was keenly interested in art education. He was a member of the Bray and National Committees on Art Education and was an examiner for the Ministry of Education. was also a member of NS, and showed at NEAC, E Stacy-Marks in Eastbourne, RA extensively until the year of his death and elsewhere in Britain. Lived in London

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Alfred Egerton Cooper (1883 – 1974)

Painter, born in Tettenhall, near Wolverhampton, he attended Bilston School of Art and the RCA, London from he graduated in 1911. Cooper specialised in portraits, figure subjects and landscapes, exhibiting at the Manchester City Art Gallery, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, RA, Chenil Galleries, GI, RBA, RSA the Paris Salon and elsewhere. He served in the Artists' Rifles, 1914-18 during which time the sight in one eye was impaired by chlorine gas. In 1940 he painted a portrait of George VI and his portrait of Winston Churchill, painted in 1943, was widely reproduced. Copper was elected ARBA 1921 and a full member two years later.  His work is in the GAC and the NPG. While still a student, Cooper entered a competition for which John Singer Sargent was one of the judges. Impressed by the young Cooper’s work, Sargent invited Cooper to work with him at his studio in Tite Street, Chelsea which had belonged to James McNeill Whistler. Cooper was to spend about a year with Sargent assisting the Master with backgrounds and details for his paintings. At the end of World War I Cooper was appointed as Official War Artist to the R.A.F. He became an expert in the art and technique of large scale aerial camouflage, sketching and painting landscapes from a variety of aircraft. Some of his related work is in London's Imperial War Museum.

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John Copley (1875-1950)

Painter and printmaker, born in Manchester. Copley studied at Manchester School of Art, in the studio of Watson Nicol and Arthur Cope and at the RA Schools, then spent ten years in Italy. He exhibited at the Cooling Galleries, Goupil Gallery, NS, RA, RSA, RBA, ISSPG and with the NEAC. He took up lithography in 1907 and became Honorary Secretary of the Senefelder Club, 1910-16.

In 1930 he won the major award at the First International Exhibition of Lithographs at the Chicago Art Institute. Elected RBA in 1930 he was married to the artist Ethel Gabain. A retrospective exhibition of his work was held at Agnew's, London in 1990 and examples of his work are in the collections of the British Museum, V&A, University of Wales, Aberystwyth and the Yale Center for British Art.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Dean Cornwell (1892-1960)

Dean Cornwell, an American illustrator,  worked as an assistant to Frank Brangwyn between 1926 and 1930, helping with the Skinner Murals (second series) and the British Empire panels. He was a close friend and travelling companion of Helck who advised Cornwell to study with Brangwyn in preparation for his mural project the rotunda of the Los Angeles Public Library (1927-32).  For over three decades, Dean Cornwell was recognized as the "Dean of Illustrators", and was a celebrated and well-known name during his lifetime. He was widely regarded as an instructor and idolized by a generation of illustrators, lecturing at the Art Students League and at art museums and societies throughout the United States during the “Golden Age of Illustration”. His paintings were exhibited at the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art, the Chicago Art Institute, the Pratt Institute, the Art Center of New York City, and the National Academy of Design. Between 1914 and the late 1950's he produced over 1000 illustrations for poems, stories, and novels. Between 1920 and the mid-1950's, his illustrations appeared in magazines and posters as advertising for hundreds of products, such as Palmolive Soap, Coca-Cola, Goodyear tired, and Seagrams Whiskey. In addition to his career as an illustrator, between 1930 and 1960, Cornwell was one of America's most popular muralists. His historic murals decorate over 20 public buildings across the United States. Cornwell was an illustrator who tried to find a meaningful role in a world constantly changing with technology. His greatest inspirations were Howard Pyle, N.C. Wyeth, Edwin A. Abbey, and Harvey Dunn. Despite Cornwell's prolific and well-regarded work, today he is much less well known than during his lifetime.   

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Geoffrey Clement Cowles (1894-1981)

Geoffrey Clement Cowles [also known as Clement Cowles] was born in Lambourne, Berkshire England in 1894 and was active as a painter and commercial artist in the UK from c.1915 to the early 1970s.
In c.1930 he designed a poster for BP Ethyl entitled 'Stop Knocking Use BP Ethyl'. 
A drawing by him for a press advertisement for J. & E. Atkinson Ltd., produced by J. Walter Thompson, is illustrated in 'Modern Publicity' 1932 (p.55). 

Between 1916 and 1979 Cowles exhibited at Chenil Gallery, International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, the New English Art Club, and the Royal Academy in London. 

Geoffrey Clement Cowles painted several landscapes of St Clement's, Jersey, Channel Islands. 
He died in 1981.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance

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Clara Cowling (1868-1946)

Clara Cowling, née Murgatroyd, b. Bradford c.1868, d.Tunbridge Wells 1946. 
Married Josiah Stead Cowling, a wealthy Bradford woolmaster, c. 1894. 
She was Florence Dunbar’s older sister, thus Evelyn Dunbar’s aunt. 
An amateur painter and energetic gardener, she moved from Ilkley on her husband’s retirement to Steellands, an estate in Ticehurst, E.Sussex in 1920. 

She supported Evelyn financially in the lean years, 1930-40, to an unknown extent. 
A committed Christian Scientist, she wrote trenchant articles on faith healing for the Christian Science Monitor. She visited Boston, Mass., home of Christian Science, in 1916.

See all works by the artist Clara Cowling >

Walter Crane (1845-1915)

Illustrator and painter born in Liverpool. As a young man of fourteen he was apprenticed to William James Linton an engraver, 1859-62. He also furthered his art studies at Heatherley's in London. In 1863, he met Edmund Evans, the pioneer of colour printing, and they soon began to produce the long series of cheap children's picture books which made Crane's name. From 1867, he also worked for the Dalziel brothers and his work was reproduced in the periodicals Once a Week and Fun. About this time he began to exhibit his paintings and showed at the Dudley Gallery and eventually at every major gallery of his time. These included exhibits at the RA, FAS, GI, RI, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Leicester Galleries, London Salon, with the Society of Painters in Tempera, RBA, RHA, ROI, RSA and at theRWS of which he was an elected member. 

He was also much concerned with art education, and was appointed as an Examiner in Design to the Board of Education to London County Council and the Scottish Board of Education, Director of Design at Manchester School of Art 1893-97, Director of the Art Department at Reading University in 1898 and he was Principal of the Royal College of Art, 1898-99. Crane was the founder and first Master of the Art Workers' Guild in 1884 and became the first President of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. He was a contributor to the AWQ and his work is in the collection of Aberdeen Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, London, Manchester City Art Gallery, Dundee University Fine Art Collection, Scotland and in theCourtauld Institute of Art, London. 

A little-known fact about Crane is that he designed stained glass windows. Much was made by a Frederick George Christmas (1867-1938) a decorative artist and also by James Sylvester Sparrow (1862-1919).

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Charles Cundall (1890-1971)

Painter, potter and stained glass artist, born in Stratford, Lancashire. After working as a designer for Pilkington's Pottery Company under Gordon Forsyth, Cundall studied at Manchester School of Art, obtaining a scholarship to the Royal College of Art, 1912. After World War I army service he returned to the Royal College in 1918, then from 1919 to 1920 attended the Slade, and furthered his studies in Paris. Cundall traveled widely in several continents and became noted for his panoramic pictures, such as Bank Holiday Brighton, in the Tate Gallery (accession no. NO4700). He was a member of NEAC, RP, RWS and other bodies and was a prolific RA exhibitor. He had first solo show at Colnaghi 1927. He was an Official War Artist in World War II, during which time he was sent to Quebec (1944). In the same year he was elected RA. His wife was the artist Jacqueline Pietersen.

His technical facility - especially when working on large panoramic canvases - was remarkable. His pictures are rich with texture, light and movement. He was equally at ease with aerial views, landscapes, seascapes and cityscapes, and was a master of crowd scenes. His work as an Official War Artist has never received the attention it merits.

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Cyrus Cuneo (1879-1916)

Cyrus Cincinatto Cuneo [also known as Ciro Cuneo, and also, incorrectly as Cincinatti Cuneo] was born in San Francisco, California in 1879 and studied art at the Mark Hopkins Institute in San Francisco and in Paris at the Académie Colarossi. He was also a pupil of J.A.M. Whistler. 
In 1903 Cyrus Cuneo moved to England to work as an illustrator on the Illustrated London News. 
His work also appeared in Strand, Wide World, Pall Mall Magazine, Strand, and other magazines. In addition, he illustrated several book. He died on 23 July 1916, having contracted blood poisoning after being accidentally pricked by a hat pin at a dance. 

Soon after arriving in England Cyrus Cuneo married the painter Nell Marion Tenison (1867-1953). Their son was the artist Terence Tenison Cuneo (1907-1996).

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Terence Cuneo (1907-1996)

Painter in oil, noted for his realistic, atmospheric pictures of railway engines. He was born in London, son of the artist Nell Tenison Cuneo. He studied at Chelsea School of Art and Slade School of Fine Art. Became a member of War Artist's' Advisory Committee, a member of Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, vice-president of the Society of Equestrian Artists. Showed at RA, ROI and RP. Exhibited one-man at RWS Galleries from 1941, Sladmore Gallery from 1971 and in 1988 had major exhibition at Mall Galleries. Cuneo painted a number of portraits of HM The Queen, notably on the occaion of her coronation, as well as portraits of Field-Marshal Bernard Montgomery and the one-time prime minister Sir Edward Heath. Cuneo's pictorial trademark was a tiny mouse, and in 1977 he published his autobiography The Mouse and His Master. Lived in East Molesey, Surrey.

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R C Dafforn (1916-1943)

Robert Chippindall Dafforn, of Burchetts Green, Berkshire was born at Horton, Windsor on 2nd March 1916. He was at Harrow School from 1929 to 1934 and after leaving worked in the Exchange Equalisation Department of the Bank of England. In 1936 Dafforn applied to join the RAFVR but was turned down because at over 6 feet 6 inches tall the doctors considered him too thin. He underwent a course of physical training, applied again and was accepted, beginning his flying training at No 8 Elementary & Reserve Flying Training School, Woodley in October 1937. In late June 1939 Dafforn was selected for four months training with the regular RAF and was posted to the Air Fighting School at St Athan. In mid-September he joined 501 Squadron at Filton. Commissioned in April 1940, Dafforn went with the squadron to Bethienville in France on 10th May. He claimed a Do17 destroyed on the 11th, a He111 on the 14th, a probable Me110 on the 19th, a probable He111 on the 20th and on the 27th a He111 destroyed and another shared. On 18th June 501 Squadron flew from France to St Helier, Jersey from where it covered the evacuation of Cherbourg and then re-assembled at Croydon on the 21st. Dafforn claimed a Ju87 destroyed on 12th August, a Do17 destroyed and two Ju87’s damaged on the 15th and a Do17 damaged on the 16th. He was shot down by Me110’s on the 18th in an action over Biggin Hill and baled out, unhurt, landing in an orchard near Sevenoaks. His Hurricane R4219 crashed at Cronks Farm, East Seal.

On 24th August Dafforn claimed a Ju88 destroyed, on 11th September a shared Do17 and on 30th October a Me109 destroyed. He was wounded on 2nd December in an attack by Me109’s and made a forced landing at Detling, wrecking his Hurricane, V6919.  Dafforn was awarded the DFC (gazetted 17th January 1941).  He was appointed 'B' Flight Commander in late April 1941. On 26th October Dafforn was posted to 56 OTU, Sutton Bridge, as an instructor. He was the last of the original 501 pilots. In early January 1942 he was posted to the Middle East. Dafforn went to Takoradi and on 1st March took off on the multi-stage ferry route to Cairo, in a Hurricane ll. On 1st April 1942 Dafforn was attached to the Air Fighting School and Conversion and Refresher School at El Ballah to accustom himself to desert conditions. But instead of being sent to the Western Desert Dafforn was posted to 229 Squadron at Hal Far, Malta. He flew from El Ballah on 19th April via Gambut. Two days after arriving Dafforn was promoted to Acting Squadron Leader and took command of a very badly-depleted squadron. On his second patrol, on the 26th, he was shot down and crash-landed at Hal Far, with cannon shell fragments in right leg, lower back and arm. Although his wounds were slight Dafforn was in hospital for fourteen weeks with undulant fever. He flew out in a Hudson to Gibraltar on 2nd August 1942 and then on to Hendon on the 9th.

After two months' convalescence at Torquay Dafforn was posted to 52 OTU, Aston Down as OC Night Flying Squadron. He went to CGS Sutton Bridge in December 1942 for a course. On 23rd June 1943 Dafforn was posted to CGS as CFI. On the morning of 9th September he was flying Spitfire P7289 in an air-firing exercise. He was returning to the airfield when the aircraft was seen to carry out a very steep turn at low level. The port wing tip touched the ground and Dafforn was killed in the resulting crash. He is buried in St.Mary’s churchyard, White Waltham, Berkshire.

We are grateful to Air Marshal Sir Ian Macfadyen, the artist's nephew.

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Jehan Daly (1918-2001)

Painter born in Llanelly, Carmarthenshire the son of stained glass artist William Daly. “Jehan”, pronounced John studied at Kidderminster under his father before winning a scholarship in 1937 to the RCA. While at the RCA he met fellow artist John Ward who was to become and remain a life-long friend. His studies were interrupted when at the outbreak of World War II he enlisted in the 8th Army seeing action abroad. He returned to complete his RCA studies from 1946-50. Daly taught subsequently at Wimbledon School of Art and at St. Martin's School of Art and occasionally illustrated articles for magazines such as “Housewife”.

He showed in group exhibitions at Wildenstein's and was afforded a solo exhibition at Agnew's, Bond Street. A meticulous draughtsman Daly’s output was very small and his painstaking drawings became collectors’ items amongst the cognoscenti. A near neighbour of his friend John Ward, Daly was encouraged to exhibit with the East Kent Art Society. Daly shared a two person show with John Ward in 1994 at the Duke Street gallery of London dealer Hazlitt Gooden & Fox. Daly had also held in 1993 a solo exhibition at the nearby Martyn Gregory's gallery, followed by a second in 1997. Daly is represented by paintings in the collections of Northampton Museum and Art Gallery and the City of London Corporation.

The following obituary appeared in the Independent:
Jehan Emile Daly, artist and teacher: born Llanelly, Carmarthenshire 18 January 1918: died Canterbury, Kent 10 October 2001.

When some years ago Jehan Daly was told by his fellow artist John Ward that a mutual friend, an elderly lady in Hereford, had been abandoned by her family and must rely on the care of social services, Daly insisted that he would look after her and away he went. He stayed for about a year.

"Jehan was shrewd enough to realise that as well as loving kindness she needed a good row or a bit of excitement," says Ward.

He would take her off in a wheelchair for a bit of shoplifting. She would nick something, which would make her day. She came of a well-known local family and local shopkeepers probably knew what was going on, but took no notice.

To anyone only knowing of Daly as a rare and reclusive artist this story comes as a surprise. Over many years, those lucky enough to find his work in occasional mixed and solo shows realised that here was a very particular talent. "He wasn't interested in public recognition and had to be bullied to show at the Royal Academy," says Ward, who considers that Daly's tiny studies are to be compared with the immaculate little pastels of the 18th-century Swiss master Jean Etienne Liotard.

Jehan Daly – "Jehan", pronounced John, is medieval French in origin – was born in Llanelly, Carmarthenshire, in 1918. His father, William, was of Irish and his mother of French descent. Daly spoke good French and in his youth was fond of staying with an aunt in France.

William Daly was Principal of Kidderminster School of Art. Jehan studied with him, then from 1937 joined the Royal College of Art, where he met his lifelong friend Ward, already there for a year. Gilbert Spencer, brother of Stanley, was their painting professor, "but he had no influence on Jehan. Spencer recognised that they were both oddities, and they got on because of that." Daly's taste ranged from the early Italians through to the then unfashionable Edward Burne-Jones and he and Ward shared a passion for the drawings of Ingres:

No one ever really influenced Jehan and his remarkable work didn't change. I have early drawings made in France that are very mature that amaze me. He never did student things. Even at that stage, his work could go on the wall anywhere.

On 17 October 1939, Daly and Ward enlisted in the Royal Engineers. The uncommissioned Daly made a good soldier, and was a fine shot. He served widely abroad in the Eighth Army:

The Army was a challenge to Jehan, who was very patriotic, never minded a fight and would square up to anyone. Years after, we would correspond on the day we joined up, Jehan maybe sending a book with military connotations.

Demobilisation saw him back at the Royal College. Ward was there, too. From 1946 to 1950, they shared accommodation and a studio in Fulham. Daly got on well with the locals around Kempson Road. Ward remembers Daly's "wonderful drawings of an old dear who had been an actress, who turned up to do a bit of cleaning".

Daly cobbled together a living teaching at Wimbledon and St Martin's, selling the odd picture and illustrating for a magazine called Housewife. He was successful in mixed shows at Wildenstein's and would be given small solo exhibitions at Agnew's, where Evelyn Joll was an admirer.

When Ward married and moved away, Daly kept on their flat at £5 a week. Eventually, he was offered the house for £2,000, but the thought of owning it alarmed him, so he continued to rent until new owners tried to remove him. The case to answer, that he had been carrying on a business in domestic premises, came before a judge. To the prosecution's amazement, Joll, Ward and Humphrey Brooke, the Royal Academy Secretary, all turned up for the defence. The judge found for Daly, saying that his drawing was no more an infringement than a lawyer taking home his briefs.

Eventually, a tribunal raised the rent too much for him. He moved to Hastingleigh, Kent, to digs with Phyllis Graham, niece of the painter Sir William Nicholson. He continued teaching part-time, but eventually incapacitating diabetes was diagnosed.

A final refuge, for many years, was provided by the former businessman and painter Colin George, who had a spare lodge at Adisham, near Canterbury. George made this freely available plus a small pension, in return for the pictures that Daly slowly and painstakingly produced.

Upright and over six feet tall, Daly was noticeable around Canterbury. When Ward was painting the portrait of the Chancellor of the University of Kent, Daly was mentioned. "Oh yes, I know of him," said the sitter. "You don't forget when you see men like that. There are so few distinguished-looking people about nowadays."

Unwelcome events conspired to make Daly more reclusive. A bicycle he had been lent was stolen. He was burgled and furniture and a toy train he was drawing were taken. Arthritis decreased his mobility. This was hard for a man who had been a gifted sportsman, a passionate cricketer and rugby player. He continued keenly to watch cricket and football.

With Ward living nearby, Daly was encouraged to exhibit with the East Kent Art Society. Ward's picture The East Kent Art Club, with Daly prominent, was included in the artist's retrospective at Agnew's in 1990. It is owned by the Royal Museum and Art Gallery, Canterbury, where the society holds its annual November show.

Through Ward, the younger artist John Sergeant came to know Daly's work. This might be of a few apples or the sort of things you would turn out of a pocket, a matchbox or a pipe:

At first, I didn't recognise his strange, sensitive, quiet and small pictures as drawing. It gave me an enormous shock. John explained them to me, because I was still too crude in my taste to see how remarkable and rare they were.

They need looking at very hard. With a stub of pencil he would sit and look, and look, and look, then make a couple of marks. There was not much there, but what was there was enormously telling, coming from a tremendous perception.

In 1994, Sergeant was proud to share a show at Hazlitt Gooden & Fox with Daly and Ward. Recognition was growing. Daly had the year before had a solo exhibition at Martyn Gregory's gallery, followed by another in 1997. In a catalogue, John Sergeant wrote that, over the years Daly, "by the example of his drawings and his integrity, quite unknowingly became my conscience".

David Buckman

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Alan Davie (1920-2014)

Painter, born in Grangemouth, Stirlingshire. His father was also an artist and Davie junior was encouraged to enrol at Edinburgh College of Art, 1937-40, where he was taught by John Maxwell. Following army service with the Royal Artillery in World War II, Davie worked variously as a jazz musician, textile designer, potter and as a jewellery designer. In 1946, he held his first solo exhibition at Grant's Bookshop, Edinburgh and soon after travelled around Europe meeting Peggy Guggenheim which was to broaden his artistic outlook. His work over the years was much influenced by Abstract Expressionism, Oriental mysticism and Indian mythology. His first London show took place at Gimpel Fils, London in 1950 and his first New York exhibition at the Catherine Viviano Gallery, New York in 1956. During the 1960's and later many of Davie's drawings appeared in print form executed by the Curwen Press and also were seen in the eclectic magazine Motif.

Davie was awarded the Gregory Fellowship at Leeds University 1957-59 and in 1962 he held a retrospective exhibition in Amsterdam at the Stedelijk Museum. Other retrospective exhibition venues include the McLellan Galleries, Glasgow, 1992, RWA Bristol, 1992, Barbican Art Gallery, London, 1993 and 'Jingling Space' held at Tate St. Ives. This highlighted Davie’s works from the 1930’s to the millennium.

Examples of his work are in the collections of the City Arts Centre, Fleming Collection, Harrogate Art Gallery, Jerwood Foundation, Lillie Art Gallery, MoMa, New York, Peterborough Museum & Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, Towner Art Gallery, Ulster Museum, University of Warwick Art Collection, V&A, Worcester Art Gallery and major museums around the world including MoMA, New York. Alan Davies was appointed CBE in 1972, a senior member of the RA in 2012 and a major exhibition of his work opened at the Tate Britain a few days after his death.

Bibliography: Alan Davie: Jingling Space by Andrew Patrizio, with an introduction by Susan Daniel-McElroy. Published by Tate Gallery, London, 2003. ISBN 1854375261.

Alan Davie: The Quest for the Miraculous by Michael Tucker. Published by Lund Humphries, London, 1993. ISBN 0853316368.

Alan Davie by Douglas Hall & Michael Tucker. Published by Lund Humphries, London, 1992. ISBN 0853315973.

With thanks to Artbiogs.co.uk

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Charles John De Lacy (1856-1929)

Charles John de Lacy (1856–1929) was one of the foremost British marine artists of his period. He was especially known for his warship imagery and was regularly commissioned by Elswick, Tyne and Wear shipbuilder W. G. Armstrong Whitworth.

Son of Robert de Lacy, a professor of music, and his wife Eliza, Charles de Lacy was born in 1856 in Sunderland, County Durham. He died in Epsom, Surrey.
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1889, having undertaken training at The National Gallery. Magazines such as The Illustrated London News were among early patrons.

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Miles Fletcher de Montmorency (1893–1963)

Painter, 17th baronet, son of Hervey Lodge de Montmorency and husband of the artist and stained glass design Rachel de Montmorency. He was educated at Dover College and then at Dover School of Art, 1910-11 the Byam Shaw and Vicat Cole School of Art, 1912-13 and at the RA Schools, 1914-15. 
De Montmorency served in the Army during World War I, (1915-19) following which he worked for many years as a portrait painter. 

He exhibited at the RA, RBA, Walker's Gallery and Cooling Gallery, ROI and at the National Gallery, London. He was elected RBA in 1935, acting as an honorary librarian in the mid-1940's. 
A portrait by him is in the GAC. A portrait of Tom J. Davies, a workman at the copper works in Swansea, which is by de Montmorency and was painted for an advertisement for Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). It is illustrated in the July 1945 issue of Art and Industry. Examples of his work are held by the GAC, IWM, Leighton House Museum and at the Battersea Arts Centre.

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Harold Dearden (1888–1962)

Painter in oil and watercolour, draughtsman in ink and wash. Dearden studied at Rochdale School of Art under H Barrett Carpenter, 1905-10, then at the Royal College of Art for five years under Gerald Moira. Dearden, a strong draughtsman, went on to become head of Swindon Art School for 30 years from 1920 and was president for a time of Swindon Artists' Society. He exhibited in London and provincial galleries and Swindon Museum and Art Gallery holds his work. Lived in Swindon.

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Joyce Dennys (1893-1991)

Illustrator, painter and writer, born Isabelle Dorothy Joyce Dennys in Simla, East Punjab State, India. Soon after studying at Exeter School of Art, Dennys worked served in the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD), in World War I and designed propaganda posters for the recruitment for the Women's Royal Naval Service. From the early 1930's she contributed sketches and cartoons to Punch, Harper's Bazaar and even designed cigarette adverts. However, she made her name as a writer of the 'Doctor Dose' books in the 1930's and in World War II wrote humorous articles for The Sketch magazine, reprinted in book form in the 1980's as Henrietta's War and Henrietta Sees it Through, followed by plays and a West End musical, Kookaburra.

During the postwar years Dennys illustrated plays published by Samuel French, London, including ‘Call Back Yesterday: Six Period Plays in Rhyme’ (1948) by Dorothy Law, ‘Sheppey: a Play in Three Acts’ (1948) by W. Somerset Maugham, ‘A Circle: a Comedy in Three Acts’ (1948) by W. Somerset Maugham, and ‘Home and Beauty: a Farce in Three Acts’ (1951) by W. Somerset Maugham. She returned to her oil painting aged 70, initially flowers and later pictures of Budleigh Salterton, Devon. Budleigh Salterton Town Council, the Fairlynch Museum and the Imperial War Museum have examples of her work.


  • Our Hospital ABC, illustrated by Joyce Dennys, verses by Gordon Hampden. Published by John Lane, the Bodley Head, 1916
  • For Adults Only by Beverley Nichols, illustrated by Joyce Dennys. Published by Jonathan Cape, London, 1932.

There was a Young Lady-and other limericks written and illustrated by Joyce Dennys. Published by Collins, London, 1937.

Mrs Dose the Doctor's Wife written and illustrated by Joyce Dennys. Published by John Lane, 1930.

The Over-Dose and illustrated by Joyce Dennys. Published by John Lane, 1933.

And Then There Was One by Joyce Dennys. Published by Tabb House, Padstow, 1984 and reprinted by Isis, Oxford, 1999. ISBN: 0753150964.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Edward Julius Detmold (1883-1957)

Putney born watercolourist, illustrator and printmaker specialising in natural history subjects and the creation of his own fantastic worlds. Like his twin brother Charles Maurice Detmold he was educated privately and studied animals at London zoo, working closely with his brother until he committed suicide in 1908. This was brought about by the inhalation of chloroform, in a fit of remorse after chloroforming the family cats on the instructions of his uncle. Edward Julius settled in Montgomeryshire, by which time he had established a reputation as a book illustrator, working with great precision. Something of child prodigies the brothers both showed at the RA aged 13 in 1896 and for a few months in 1905 the brothers were associates of the RE, but resigned. Edward Julius was a prolific exhibitor at the Fine Art Society, Brook Street Art Gallery, the Arlington Gallery and Baillie Gallery, NEAC, RA, RI and elsewhere. Like his brother nearly half a century earlier, he too took his own life, by shooting himself while living in Montgomery, Wales. Examples of his work are in the collections of the V&A and the BM.

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Arturo Di Stefano (1955-)

Arturo Di Stefano was born in Huddersfield, in 1955.
Di Stefano has exhibited extensively since leaving the Royal College in 1981 including the Royal Academy of Arts; Tate St Ives; Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal; Museum of London: Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (Retrospective).

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Walt Disney (1901-1966)

Walter Elias "Walt" Disney (December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, cartoonist, animator, voice actor, and film producer. As a prominent figure within the American animation industry and throughout the world, he is regarded as a cultural icon, known for his influence and contributions to entertainment during the 20th century. As a Hollywood business mogul, he and his brother Roy O. Disney co-founded The Walt Disney Company.

As an animator and entrepreneur, Disney was particularly noted as a filmmaker and a popular showman, as well as an innovator in animation and theme park design. He and his staff created numerous famous fictional characters including Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Goofy. Disney himself was the original voice for Mickey. During his lifetime, he received four honorary Academy Awards and won 22 Academy Awards from a total of 59 nominations, including a record of four in one year, giving him more awards and nominations than any other individual in history. Disney also won seven Emmy Awards and gave his name to the Disneyland and Walt Disney World Resort theme parks in the U.S., as well as the international resorts Tokyo Disney Resort, Disneyland Paris, and Hong Kong Disneyland.

Disney died from lung cancer on December 15, 1966, in Burbank, California. He left behind a vast legacy, including numerous animated shorts and feature films produced during his lifetime; the company, parks, and animation studio that bear his name; and the California Institute of the Arts (CalArts).

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Harry Dixon (1861-1942)

Sculptor, painter and printmaker. 
Born at Watford in Hertfordshire, Harry Dixon attended Heatherley's c.1880 and furthered his studies at the Académie Julian, Paris, from 1883-87. He exhibited at the RA, GI, MAFA, NEAC, RI, ROI, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool and RSA showing mainly figures of wild animals. 
In 1892 he was commissioned to make the lions which guard the entrance to the Imperial Institute, London and in 1902 was elected RBA and RBS two years alter. Dixon's work is in the collection of the Tate Gallery and he was also represented in Beauty's Awakening: The Centenary Exhibition of the Art Workers' Guild held at the Brighton Art Gallery in 1984.

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Valentine Dobree (1894-1974)

Valentine Dobrée (née Gladys May Mabel Brooke-Pechell)

emigrated to England from India at the age of three. Despite brief

tutelage from André Derain (1880– 1954) being her only formal

art education, she enjoyed a successful career as an artist, novelist

and poet.

She married in 1913 and moved with her husband to

Florence, returning to England at the beginning of the war where

she lived a bohemian existence – becoming associated with the

Bloomsbury group and conducting an affair with Mark Gertler.

Dobrée showed with the LG in 1920 and at the Salon des

Indépendants between 1921 and 1925, while living in the French

Pyrenees with her husband. In 1926 they moved to Cairo,

returning to England in 1929 when her book The Emperor’s

Tigers was published. She held her first solo show at the Claridge

Gallery in 1931, and the Institute of Contemporary Arts staged

an exhibition of her collages in 1963. The Stanley and Audrey

Burton Gallery, Leeds, held a retrospective exhibition in 2000.

See all works by the artist Valentine Dobree >

Frank Dobson (1886 - 1963)

Sculptor, draughtsman and painter in oil and watercolour. Born in London, the son of an artist with whom he initially studied, Dobson first attended Leyton School of Art, 1900-2, was an apprentice studio boy with then sculptor Sir William Reynolds-Stephens, 1902-4. After a time in Cornwall was, 1906-10, at Hospitalfield Art Institute, Arbroath, finally attending the City and Guilds School, Kennington, 1910-12. Although he made his first wood-carving just before World War I, Dobson's first one-man show, at the Chenil Galleries, 1914, was of paintings and drawings. During World War I enlisted in Artists' Rifles and continued working, Imperial War Museum acquiring his large oil The Balloon Apron. After the war Dobson met Wyndham Lewis and exhibited with Group X in 1920; had a first one-man show as a sculptor at Leicester Galleries, 1921. First sculptures were very stylised, but later work influenced by the work of Aristide Maillol. During the inter-war years Dobson consolidated his reputation - with Epstein he was called "a keeper of tradition", bridging classical and modern sculpture - by making the backdrop for the first performance of William Walton's Facade; showing internationally; designing glazed pottery reliefs for Hay's Wharf, London; completing his large carving Pax and notable portraits. Official War Artist in World War II. Professor of sculpture at the Royal College of Art, 1946-53. Elected RA, 1953. Dobson is represented in many public galleries, including the Tate Gallery. Arts Council memorial exhibition 1966, and touring; retrospective Kettle's Yard, Cambridge, 1981-2, toured; major reappraisal at Henry Moore Institute, Leeds, 1944. The Fine Art Society exhibited The Trask Bequest, works by Paul Nash and Dobson, in 2004. Died in London.

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Francis Dodd (1874 - 1949)

Draughtsman, painter and printmaker, especially of portraits, born at Holyhead , Anglesey. Studied at Glasgow School of Art under Fra Newbery and Archibald Kay, winning the Haldane Scholarship in 1893, travelling to France, Italy and later to Spain. For about 10 years from 1895 lived in Manchester, then settled in Blackheath in southeast London, which he often painted and drew. Dodd was an Official War Artist during World War I and was a trustee of the Tate Gallery, 1928-35, being elected RA in 1935. Dodd exhibited extensively at NEAC, RA and RWS and at many other venues and his work is in a number of British public collections, including Tate Gallery, in South Africa and Australia. His work is comparable to that of his brother-in-law, Muirhead Bone, although Dodd can be lively and perceptive portrait painter: witness his portraits of the critic Edward Garnett in the Tate Gallery and the painter Henry Lamb in Manchester's City Art Gallery. A retrospective of Dodd's work was held at Cheltenham in 1944. Memorial shows took place at Bluecoat School, Liverpool, 1949, and South London Art Gallery, 1950.

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Phyllis Dodd (1899-1995)

Phyllis Dodd achieved considerable success from early on in

her prolific career. Studying at the Liverpool School of Art from

1917–21, she received a Royal Exhibition Scholarship and

attended the Royal College of Art for four years – alongside Henry

Moore (1898–1986), Raymond Coxon (1896–1997) and Edna

Ginesi (1902–2000), with whom she would remain friends for the

rest of her life – winning the Drawing Prize in her final year.

From 1925 to 1930 she taught part-time at Walthamstow

Technical College. In 1928, she married the artist Douglas

Percy Bliss (1900–1984) and they worked alongside each other,

exhibiting together at Derby Art Gallery in 1947. She also

exhibited at the NEAC, the RA, the RP, the Walker Art Gallery

and the RSA, and in 1989 the Hatton Gallery at Newcastle

University held a large retrospective exhibition to celebrate her

ninetieth birthday.

See all works by the artist Phyllis Dodd >

Amy Gladys Donovan ()

Amy Gladys Donovan was the daughter of an officer in the Indian

army, and spent much of her early life in India. Upon moving

to England in 1911, her artistic ambitions were met with some

resistance from her family, but she eventually enrolled at the Slade

School of Fine Art.

Between 1936 and 1938 she took part in numerous exhibitions,

including at the RBA, the NEAC and the Royal Cambrian


Struggling with familial disapproval, however, she moved away

from the experimental Impressionist works that garnered her original

success and spent her later years taking commissions for portraits.

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Harcourt Medhurst Doyle (1913 - 2001)

A Liverpool man, Doyle attended its College of Art - being particularly influenced by the Head of Painting, Will C Penn. By a pleasing coincidence, his son Arthur Penn first aroused my own interest in Victorian stained glass, which he was surveying around Brampton, Cumbria where we had our own first gallery. Gaining a scholarship to the Royal College of Art to study book illustration, Doyle became captivated by stained glass and his life's work shows what a good choice he made. In 1935 he gained his Diploma in Design and was three times winner of the Annual Competition of the Worshipful Company of Glaziers.

As assistant to Martin Travers, Doyle gained much experience which led to establishing his own studio in Liverpool important commissions followed including several armorial designs for Trinity College, Cambridge and the memorial window after the Golborne colliery disaster. In later years he lived in Llandudno, North Wales. A keen member of the British Society of Master Painters in Stained Glass, he made frequent visits to London to enjoy their events.

This text is based upon his obituary by Penny Somerville and Alfred Fisher, in the Journal of Stained Glass, Volume XXV 2001, pp 192 - 195.

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William Dring (1904-1990)

Dennis William Dring was born in Streatham, London and studied at the Slade School of Fine Art between 1922 and 1925, where he won several prizes and scholarships. He taught drawing and painting at the Southampton School of Art until 1942.

At the start of the Second World War Dring completed several portrait commissions for the War Artists' Advisory Committee, WAAC. In early 1942 he resigned from Southampton School of Art to work on a full-time contract for the Committee, specialising in Admiralty portraits. He travelled extensively within Britain at this time, painting subjects in Portsmouth, Scotland and the Western Approaches. 
In the late summer of 1943 he was given a second full-time contract which included more general subjects. His final war-time contract with WAAC saw Dring working on portraits for the Air Ministry throughout 1944 and 1945. 
Sixty-four of Drings war-time portraits, mostly pastels are in the collection of the Imperial War Museum, who also hold five oil paintings by him.
There are a further forty of his wartime works at the National Maritime Museum, mostly pastel portraits.

Drings' post-war career included notable portraits of Sir Frank Stenton, Austin Hopkinson and of Cecil Hurst, family groups and landscapes plus portraits of members of the Royal Family. He recorded the presentation of the freedom of the City of London to the future Queen Elizabeth in 1947 and produced a series of five portraits for Lincoln's Inn that included pictures of both Lord Hailsham and Margaret Thatcher.
Dring was a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Watercolour Society and at the Royal Academy, RA. He became an associate member of the RA in 1944 and a full academician in 1955.

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Evelyn Dunbar (1906-1960)

Evelyn Dunbar studied at Rochester School of Art, Chelsea School

of Art (1927) and the Royal College of Art (1929–33). She painted

murals from 1933 -36 at Brockley School, a collaboration with her

RCA tutor (and lover) Cyril Mahoney (1903–1968) and in 1937

they wrote and illustrated together Gardeners’ Choice.

In 1938 she set up the Blue Gallery in Rochester, exhibiting her

own work alongside that of Edward Bawden (1903–1989) and

Barnett Freedman (1901–1958) and others. In 1940 she was

appointed an official war artist, becoming the only woman (amongst

36 men) to be given a full time salaried position by the WAAC.

She held her only solo exhibition at Withersdane, Wye, Kent

in 1953, although the WAAC included numerous pieces in touring

exhibitions ranging from Aberdeen Art Gallery to MOMA, New York.

A posthumous exhibition was held in 2006 at St Barbe

Museum and Art Gallery, and in 2015 Liss Llewellyn mounted a

major retrospective of her recently rediscovered studio at Pallant

House Gallery

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Richard Eurich (1903-1992)

Painter and draughtsman, born in Bradford, Yorkshire, who settled for many years at Dibden Purlieu, near Southampton, and who had as a principal theme the sea, ships, ports and beach life. Father of the photographer Crispin Eurich. 
Richard Eurich's interest in painting was encouraged at Bradford Grammar School, then he went on to study at Bradford School of Art, 1920-4, and at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1924-27. In 1929 he was befriended by Sir Edward Marsh who helped obtain his first one-artist show at the Goupil Gallery via an introduction to sculptor Eric Gill. Subsequent successful exhibitions were held at the Redfern Gallery during the 1930’s. He was aptly made an Official War Artist attached to the Admiralty during World War II, during which he completed his notable picture Survivors from a Torpedoed Ship, in the collection of the Tate Gallery. Imperial War Museum, National Maritime Museum at Greenwich and many provincial galleries hold his work. From 1949 he taught for a period at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts. Elected RA in 1953. Retrospective exhibition Bradford Art Galleries and Museums, 1979-80, and tour, and there was a memorial touring show based on Southampton City Art Gallery, 1994. In 2003, Eurich's centenary was commemorated with a touring show of his paintings that visited Yorkshire venues including Wakefield Art Gallery, organised by Helen Robinson of Bruton Gallery. In the same year, there was also a show at the Millais Gallery, Southampton Institute, and one at Southampton Art Gallery which toured to The Fine Art Society. Eurich's work depicted everyday events but sometimes had an English element of oddness, as in his picture The Mummers, in Hove Museum of Art. Other national and regional collections hold examples.

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David Evans (1929–1988)

The highly distinctive large scale watercolours of David Evans  have  much in common with those of Edward Burra, who, twenty four years his senior and much admired by Evans, was clearly an important influence.  Painting the landscape of his native Suffolk, where he settled (near Woodbridge) in 1969, his brightly coloured compositions, which typically measure 30 x 50 inches, fused his local habitat with vivid fantasies inspired by imagery from contemporary life.  

He was a ardent campaigner and environmentalist and the effects of pollution in the form  of landfill, industrial plants and roads encroaching into his landscape are regular motifs.  He was also drawn to metropolitan subjects - rock bands, cafeterias, excursions to museums and days out to the beach. 

Born in London. he studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts with Keith Vaughan. Early in his career he showed photomontages at Gallery One and gained several commissions; these included a design for the Hollywood Room in the Observer Film Exhibition, 1956, and a mural for the Soup Kitchen, Knightsbridge.  His characteristic large-scale watercolours and gouaches date from 1967 onwards.  They were first shown in public in 1973, when his work was included in a mixed show at Deben Gallery, Woodbridge. In 1975 his work was included in summer show at Redfern Gallery, which resulted in a series of highly successful solo exhibitions at Redfern in 1979, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1986 and a memorial show in 1988. He also had one-man shows at McMur­ray Gallery from 1976-8. In 1981 he was the subject of an Anglia ITV folio documentary. In his pre-1970 London years David ran his own specialist classical record shop in the Brompton Road, and in spite of his later success, he worked in his final years as a porter at a local psychiatric hospital.  In the winter months he often found it hard to paint because the light conditions were too dull. He died at the age of 59 in a road accident. A memorial exhibition was held at Redfern in 1988.

The recent discovery of a unique group of pictures by Evans, which remained in his studio, unseen for several decades,  has allowed the opportunity to curate the first ever full retrospective, (to take place in 2017).  

The exhibition will be accompanied by a 240 page book, reproducing for the first time over 100 works spanning his entire career.  The introduction will be written by the musician Pete Gage, a friend of Evans best known as the  vocalist from the pop group Dr Feelgood.

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Abel Faivre (1867-1945)

Abel Faivre was born in Lyon on March 30, 1867 and died in Nice on August 13, 1945 is a French painter, poster artist, lithographer, illustrator and caricaturist.

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Mary Fedden (1915-2012)

Painter and printmaker, born in Bristol, her parents were not particularly interested in art but her uncle, Romilly Fedden, encouraged her to paint so she went on to study at the Slade School of Art, 1932-36. One of her Slade teachers was émigré stage designer Vladimir Polunin, who had worked as a designer with the Ballets Russes. This discipline was to stand her in good stead when during World War II when she worked for the Land Army, she constructed stage sets for the Arts Theatre in London. She further used her experience in 1951 when she painted a children’s mural at the Festival of Britain site on the South Bank. A decade later she was commissioned by P&O for a mural on their prestigious liner Canberra. Twenty years later, by then married to Julian Trevelyan, with him she was commissioned to execute another mural at Charing Cross Hospital. As a teacher she became the first woman to instruct in painting at the RCA, 1958-64 where her pupils included David Hockney. Fedden also taught at the Yehudi Menhuin School, Cobham, Surrey, 1965-70. 

In 1956 she became a member of the London Group and Chairperson of the Women's International Art Club until 1959. She held numerous solo exhibitions beginning in1953 and became arguably Britain’s most favourite artist, with collectors’ and dealers clambering to acquire her work. She held solo exhibitions at the Mansard Gallery, Redfern Gallery, the Arnolfini, Bristol. Her most recent exhibitions have been at the New Grafton Gallery, London and she was elected RA in 1982. In 2008 the Portland Gallery held a major retrospective with 125 of her paintings, executed over six decades. 

Fedden was also President of Royal West of England Academy and her time there was honoured by the Academy when they named one of their society exhibition galleries after her. Her work is in most major collections in the UK including Museums Sheffield, Ferens Art Gallery, NMW, the Tate Gallery, Bristol Art Gallery, CAS, Hereford Museum and Art Gallery, HM Queen Elizabeth, Leeds University Collection, Victoria Art Gallery, Bath, Reading Art Gallery, Herbert Art Gallery, Swindon Art Gallery, Williamson Art Gallery, New Hall College, Cambridge, Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, Swindon Art Gallery, Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery, Carlisle, University of Warwick Art Collection, Southampton Art Gallery, New Art Gallery Walsall, GAC, BMAG and York City Art Gallery. In 1997 she was a recipient of the OBE for her services to art.

With thanks to www.artbiogs.co.uk

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Celia Fiennes (1902-1998)

Wood engraver and painter, a direct descendant of Celia Fiennes the seventeenth-century traveller. She was the last survivor of the group of engravers chosen by Robert Gibbings to illustrated Golden Cockerel Press books between the wars.
For him she illustrated Aesop's Fables, 1926, and would have added Nicholas Breton's Twelve Months, but meningitis meant that Eric Ravilious had to do it.

Celia, also known as Molly, Fiennes studied with Noel Rooke at the Central School of Arts and Crafts from 1924; he found her work with the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, organising exhibitions; and she married him in 1932.
Rooke produced some sensitive studies of his much younger wife. Her absorption into the Arts and Crafts movement was deepened when she moved into the Rooke family home in Bedford Park, for several years living with her father-in-law Thomas Matthews Rooke, who had been associated with Edward Burne-Jones, William Morris and John Ruskin.
In 1960 Celia moved to Culworth, Oxfordshire, where she resumed her own work, occasionally acting as a guide for the family seat, Broughton Castle, Banbury.

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Hubert Arthur Finney (1905-1991)

Hugh Finney was a painter, draughtsman and teacher who trained initially at Bromley School of Art, where he attended evening classes from 1915, and then at Beckenham School of Art to where he won a trade scholarship in 1918. He studied painting with Amy Katherine Browning and etching with Eric Gill. Around 1927 he won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art, where he studied under William Rothenstein. Horton, Houthuesen, Ososki and Freedman were amongst his friends at the college. In 1929 after graduation he took up a travelling scholarship to Rome returning to teach part-time at Chelsea School of Art under Percy Jowett and later Harold Sandys Williamson. From 1927-1934 he exhibited at the NEAC. In 1935 his painting Mother and Child was acquired by Carlisle Art Gallery. During WW2 Finney worked for the light rescue service of the Civil Defense. After the war he taught part time under Anthony Betts at Reading University and was in charge of life drawing there when he retired in 1970. Although he was reclusive and reluctant to show his work he did exhibit at the RA Summer exhibition (in 1950 and 1954) and the Portrait Society and at The Paris Salon. A large solo exhibition took place at the University of Oxford's Institute of Education in 1964. We are grateful to Nicholas Finney and David Buckman for assistance.

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Mark Fisher (1841-1923)

Painter born in Boston, USA under the name William Mark Fisher. 
Mark Fisher, as he is known, studied at Gleyre's Atelier in Paris in 1863, at the same time as Sisley. He returned to America before settling in England in 1872. Foremost an English Impressionist, he exhibited at the NEAC, RA, the Royal Watercolour Society and the Essex Art Club of which for a time he was President. Fisher was elected an Associate of the RA, 1911 and RA, 1919. He was a long-standing friend of George Clausen who wrote an appreciation for Fisher's memorial exhibition held at the Leicester Galleries in London in 1924.

The father of Margaret Fisher-Prout, his work is in the collections of Aberdeen Art Gallery, Brighton and Hove Museums and Art Galleries, Burton Art Gallery, Hastings Museum and Art Gallery, Leeds City Art Gallery, Peterborough Museum & Art Gallery, Rotherham Art Gallery, Tate Gallery and the Towner Art Gallery. There are also examples in art galleries and museums in Adelaide, Auckland, Melbourne and Sydney.

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Bernard Fleetwood Walker (1893-1965)

 Painter and draughtsman, mainly of figures and portraits. He was born in Birmingham, where he lived most of his life. Initially he was a modeller and metalworker, then studied painting at Birmingham School of Arts and Crafts, followed by London and Paris. He was wounded and gassed during Word War I (serving in the Artists' Rifles), but continued to paint and draw. After the war he taught for about ten years at King Edward's Grammar School, Aston, in 1929 leaving to teach at Birmingham School of Arts and Crafts. He exhibited extensively at the RA, showing over 150 works between 1925 and 1965. In 1946 he was elected ARA, and 1956 RA - and otherwise showed mainly at RWS, NEAC, RBSA and RP. He also had a one-man show at the Ruskin Gallery, Birmingham, 1925, and won a silver medal at the Paris Salon. He moved to London after retirement from teaching in Birmingham in 1951 to give more time to students at Royal Academy Schools, where he had been appointed assistant keeper. The RA, Leeds City Art Gallery, and other provincial and foreign galleries hold his work. In 1966 a memorial exhibition was held by the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, and in 1981 John Lindsay Fine Art, Solihull, organised a retrospective exhibition in association with the Belgrave Gallery.

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Ursula Fookes (1906-1991)

Ursula Mary Fookes (27 June 1906 St. John's Wood - 1991 Blakeney, Norfolk) was a British printmaker. She worked in color linocut.

She studied at Grosvenor School of Modern Art from 1929 to 1931, with Claude Flight. She exhibited in the annual British Linocut exhibitions at the Redfern and Ward Galleries, and also showed her work with the Society of Women Artists.

Her work is held by the Art Institute of Chicago.

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Stanhope Alexander Forbes (1857-1947)

Stanhope Alexander Forbes R.A., (18 November 1857, – 2 March 1947), was an artist and a founding member of the influential Newlyn school of painters. He was often called 'the father of the Newlyn School'.

Forbes was born in Dublin, the son of Juliette de Guise Forbes, a French woman, and William Forbes, an English railway manager, who was later transferred to London. 
He was married in the summer of 1889 to fellow painter Elizabeth Armstrong at Newlyn's St Peters Church. Elizabeth died in 1912.
In 1915, Forbes remarried friend and previous student Maudie Palmer, who had been "assistant, helper and friend to the whole Forbes family." 

Schooled at Dulwich College, he studied art under John Sparkes who later taught at South Kensington School of Art. His father then worked for the Luxembourg Railway and after a period of poor health Forbes was removed from Dulwich College and studied under private teachers in Brussels. This also afforded additional time to draw. After the end of the Franco-German War, the Forbes returned to London. Dulwich College professor John Sparkes helped influence William Forbes of his son's artistic talent, Stanhope Forbes then attended Lambeth School of Art (now the City & Guilds of London Art School). 
By 1878 he attended the Royal Academy under Sir Frederic Leighton and Sir John Millais. Fellow students at the academy included Arthur Hacker, Henry Herbert La Thangue and Solomon J. Solomon. He participated in his first exhibition there.
Forbes returned to Ireland for a few months to visit Dr. Andrew Melville, family friend and Queen's College professor. While there the men shared their appreciation of art and Forbes painted landscapes of the Galway area. He also received his first commission for a portrait. Back in London and at the age of 18, he received another commission for a portrait of a doctor's daughter, Florence. It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1879.
He then studied at the private atelier of Léon Bonnat in Clichy, Paris from 1880 to 1882. Henry Herbert La Thangue who also attended Dulwich College, Lambeth School of Art and the Royal Academy came to Paris, too, and studied at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Arthur Hacker, a friend from the Royal Academy joined Forbes at Bonnat's atelier. In 1881 Forbes and La Thangue went to Cancale, Brittany and painted en plein air, like Jules Bastien-Lepage, which became a technique that Forbes used throughout his career.

Having completed his studies in France, Forbes returned to London and showed works he made in Brittany at the 1883 Royal Academy and Royal Hibernian Academy shows. In 1884 he moved to Newlyn in Cornwall, and soon became a leading figure in the growing colony of artists. 
Of this place, Forbes said:
I had come from France and, wandering down into Cornwall, came one spring morning along that dusty road by which Newlyn is approached from Penzance. Little did I think that the cluster of grey-roofed houses which I saw before me against the hillside would be my home for many years. What lode-some of artistic metal the place contains I know not; but its effects were strongly felt in the studios of Paris and Antwerp particularly, by a number of young English painters studying there, who just about then, by some common impulse, seemed drawn towards this corner of their native land... There are plenty of names amongst them which are still, and I hope will long by, associated with Newlyn, and the beauty of this fair district, which charmed us from the first, has not lost its power, and holds us still.
The Slip was Forbes first painting made in Newlyn. The artist colony received national attention with the Royal Academy exhibition of Forbes works in 1885. Henry Tate bought The Health of the Bride, which is now at the Tate Gallery in London. The exhibition of A Fish Sale on a Cornish Beach also brought notoriety to Forbes and the artist colony. He was one of the founders of the New English Art Club (NEAC) in 1886.
In 1892 Forbes became an Associate of the Royal Academy. Forbes was the founding chairman and trustee of the Newlyn Art Gallery beginning in 1895.
Forbes and his wife founded the Newlyn Art School in 1899. It attracted students such as Ernest and Doris "Dod" Shaw, Frank Gascoigne Heath and Jill and Geoffrey Garnier. The Newlyn area had experienced an economic downturn as the result of failing fishing, mining and farming industries. The school helped to bring an economic resurgence to the area by encouraging individuals to vacation in the area and study and practise art.

For a 1909 publish date, Forbes illustrated Mary Russell Mitford's Sketches of English Life and Character. Some of the illustrations were Old Cronies, Bringing Home the Milk, and February Sunshine.
In 1910 Forbes was elected a Royal Academician. Forbes became a member of the St Ives Society of Artists in 1928. In 1933 he was made a Senior Royal Academician.

Forbes died in Newlyn on 2 March 1947 at the age of 89.

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Michael Ford (1920-2005)

Michael Ford, a freelance artist, was born in Winchester on 28 July 1920. His father Major Edward Maurice Ford MC was a soldier, farmer and managing director of a seed merchants company on the Winchester/Basingstoke borders at Quidhampton Farm, Overton. His mother Phyllis Louisa Young contracted rubella during her pregnancy and, as a consequence, Michael was born deaf. As a child he attended, along with other children from Quidhampton, the 'Home School', which his mother started on their farm. Here he learned the basic skills of lip reading, and developed his artistic skills. His mother took the view that her son had to live in a hearing world, and thus did not teach him sign language. 

Ford received his art training at Goldsmith's College Art School from 1937-40 under the Principal, Clive Gardiner, who was an excellent teacher. He travelled daily to London and was 'very popular there and in spite of his handicap entered into all that was going on with great zest', including membership of the Art Students' Association.

Life on the farm ended in 1941 when Major Ford retired and the family moved in October to nearby Cobley Wood, Micheldever Station. Ford joined the Local Defence Volunteers, later the Home Guard, on its formation in May 1940, after the fall of France and commenced three days a week coal mining. He became a dispatch rider and rode both solo and side-car combination machines.

Ford exhibited in London at the Royal Academy and also with various societies, including the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, Royal Society of British Artists and the New English Art Club.
He would only work from live subjects, including animals. He produced detailed sketches and his wartime paintings in particular are characterised by minute observation and a naïve, narrative quality. Ford was comfortable working in several media - pastels, charcoal, inks, pencil, water colour or oils. Post-war, he had a long-standing contract with the Farmers Weekly magazine, to sketch a featured farmer or landowner. This involved meeting a range of interesting people while his mother noted the 'gossip'. He died in Winchester on 16 June 2005.

We are grateful to Gill Clarke.

Gill Clarke, The Women's Land Army, A Portrait. 
ISBN 978-1-904537-87-8

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Eric Fraser (1902-1983)

Illustrator and painter but especially an outstanding pen and ink draughtsman. Fraser studied at Goldsmiths College School of Art under Frederick Marriott and Edmund J Sullivan. He exhibited at the RA and SSA, but it is on the printed page that he established his reputation. He worked for the Folio Society, Golden Cockerel Press and the Radio Times. He made murals for the Navigators Memorial in Westminster Abbey and Babcock House, and a huge one in connection with the Festival of Britain in 1951. Latterly Fraser said that he preferred commissions that allowed him to use his imagination and did not limit him to representing reality. A wide-ranging exhibition of Fraser's work, sponsored by British Gas (one of Fraser's many industrial clients), toured the UK in the early 1990s. In 2000 the V&A organised an exhibition to mark their acquisition, directly from his family, of several hundred works.

Selected Literature: Sylvia Backmeyer, Eric Fraser, Designer and Illustrator, Lund Humphries, 1998

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Barnett Freedman (1901-1958)

Illustrator, painter, printmaker and teacher, Freedman was born to Russian Jewish immigrants living in poverty in the East End of London. In 1916, he worked as draughtsman to a monumental mason, and at the same time took evening classes at St Martin's School of Art. In 1922, he won a three-year scholarship to the Royal College of Art. In 1928, he joined the staff of the Royal College, and not long afterwards began to teach at the Ruskin School of Art, Oxford. He soon became a pioneer in the revival of colour lithography. He was an Official War Artist in World War II. By the time of his death Freedman had established an enviable reputation as an illustrator and designer of posters, stamps, books and book-jackets. He believed that there was no such thing as commercial art, 'only good art and bad art'. His first exhibition was held in 1929 at the Literary Bookshop, Bloomsbury. A memorial exhibition was organised by the Arts Council in 1958. Manchester Polytechnic, which holds the Freedman archive, held a major show in 1990. Examples of his work are in the collection of the Tate Gallery.

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Barbara Constance Freeman (1906-1999)

Barbara Constance Freeman was born on 29 November 1906 in Ealing, near London. She attended the Tiffin Girls' School in Kingston upon Thames in Surrey and later studied at the Kingston School of Art.

She illustrated many books by other writers, including The Treasure Hunters by Enid Blyton, and many collections of fairy tales, both traditional tales by Grimm and Andersen and modern stories. Some of her earliest illustrations are found in The Cuckoo Book (1942), a book of fairy tales by Edith Mary Bell. She also contributed to comics, including Playhour, and to annuals, such as, Blackie's Children's Annual 1934.

By the 1960s she had begun writing and illustrating her own books for children and young adults. Some have a touch of fantasy: in Two-thumb Thomas the eponymous hero is raised by school cats; in Broom-Adelaide, a fox rides a flying broomstick. Some, including Lucinda and The Name on the Glass, are set in the past, while in others, such as A Book by Georgina and The Other Face, the lives of the main characters are interwoven with history.

Her artwork is both clean-cut and winsome: an unmistakable style. Some of her illustrations are still in print as posters and art prints.

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Annie French (1873–1965)

Annie French was a Scottish painter, engraver, illustrator, and designer associated with the Glasgow School. 
French was a student of Jean Delville and Fra Newbery at the Glasgow School of Art from 1896 to 1902. She returned to the Glasgow School to teach ceramic decoration from 1909 to 1912. 

As a member of a group of designers and artists known as the Glasgow Girls, French was best known for black-and-white illustrations in the Art Nouveau style. French's work was exhibited at the Royal Academy and published in The Studio.

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Elisabeth Jean Frink (1930-1993)

Sculptor and printmaker born at Thurlow, Suffolk. She studied at Guildford School of Art and Chelsea School of Art and first captured the public's attention in 1951 at an exhibition at the Beaux Arts Gallery, London. Since then exhibited regularly and was for twenty-seven years associated with the Waddington Gallery in London and Toronto, Canada. Her main subjects were man, dog and horse. The appeal of her work lies in its directness, the expurgation of all artiness in a frank statement of feeling. Often the anatomy is exaggerated or incorrect, the life-likeness grows more out of her interest in the spirit of the subject: the urgency animating Running Man, the alertness in Barking Dog. During the Algerian war, she began making heads, blinded by goggles and which have a threatening facelessness.  

Her numerous public commissions include Wild Boar for Harlow New Town, Blind Beggar and Dog for Bethnal Green, a lectern for Coventry Cathedral, Shepherd for Paternoster Square beside St. Paul's Cathedral and a Walking Madonna for Salisbury Cathedral. In 1982, she was for her services to art created DBE. A 1985 retrospective was given to her at the RA of which she was an elected member. As an exhibitor she showed at all major UK venues including the RSA, SSWA, WIAC, RGI, Grosvenor Gallery, Compass Gallery, Glasgow, Marjorie Parr Gallery and at the New Grafton Gallery, Barnes and at venues around the world. Her work is represented in the Tate Gallery, Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Jerwood Sculpture Park, Lancaster University Art Gallery, Liverpool University Art Collection, New Hall College, Cambridge, University of Warwick Art Collection, Yorkshire Sculpture Park and in public collections world-wide. Many of her drawings from the 1960's appeared as prints executed by the Curwen Press. Elisabeth Frink was diagnosed with cancer in her early sixties. Despite this, she was working on a colossal statue, 'Risen Christ', for Liverpool Cathedral. This sculpture would prove to be her last as, just one week after its installation she died aged 62. Frink was the mother of the painter Lin Jammet and her estate is handled by and exhibited at Beaux Arts Bath and Beaux Arts London. Her estate at her death was valued at £4.6 million the equivalent in 2014 of £8.4 million.

Bibliography: The Art of Elisabeth Frink by Edwin Mullens. Published by Lund Humphries London, 1972. ISBN 0853313369. 

Frink, Elisabeth, 1930-1993: Sculpture: A catalogue raisonné. Published by Harpvale Books, Salisbury, 1984. ISBN 0946425051.

We are grateful to artbiogs.co.uk for assistance

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Terry Frost (1915-2003)

Abstract painter and printmaker born Terence Ernest Manitou Frost in Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. He enlisted in the army in World War II in 1939 and after serving in Sudan, Abyssinia, Egypt and Crete he was taken prisoner-of-war in June 1941. In the POW camp at Hohenfais, Bavaria, he met Adrian Heath who encouraged him to paint. After the cessation of hostilities in 1945 he began attending evening classes at Birmingham School of Art and the following year he relocated to Cornwall where he attended St. Ives School of Painting. In 1947 Frost held his first solo exhibition at G.R. Downing's bookshop in St. Ives, and that autumn began studying at Camberwell School of Arts & Crafts. He did not paint his first abstract picture until 1949 and from then on his work became totally abstract and during the next decade was associated with the short-lived Constructionism movement. 

He settled permanently in St. Ives in 1951 and for a time was a studio assistant to sculptor Barbara Hepworth. He was appointed Gregory Fellow at Leeds University, 1954-56. Frost taught variously at Leeds School of Art, Bath Academy, Corsham, Coventry Art College and Reading University and received a Knighthood in 1998. In a long and extensively fruitful career he showed at every major art societies in his adopted Cornwall including the STISA and the NSA. He also exhibited across the UK and indeed on a world-wide basis. Latterly many of his works were reproduced as limited edition prints and sold through outlets like CCA Galleries and the Curwen Gallery. Frost's estate is handled by and exhibited at Beaux Arts Bath and Beaux Arts London and has also been exhibited at Belgrave Gallery, Austin Desmond Fine Art and at KHG.  

Frost’s work is in major public collections and galleries across the world including in the UK. They can be seen in the ACGB, Bolton Art Gallery, Bournemouth & Poole College Collection, Cheltenham Art Gallery, Cornwall County Council, GAC, Fitzwilliam Museum, Gulbenkian Foundation, Hepworth Wakefield, Huddersfield Art Gallery, Jerwood Foundation, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, National Museum of Wales, Oldham Art Gallery, Peter Scott Gallery, Pier Arts Centre, Portsmouth Art Gallery, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Stirling University Art Collection, Swindon Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, University of Warwick Art Collection, Ulster Museum and the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. Abroad his work is in the collections of art galleries and museums in Australia, New Zealand, Israel, USA and Canada. 

Bibliography: Terry Frost, Warm Frost: Featuring the work of Sir Terry Frost, RA by Alison Hodge. Published in Penzance, Cornwall, 2003. ISBN 0906720621. 

Terry Frost : A personal narrative by David Lewis. Published by Scolar Press, Aldershot, 1994. ISBN 1859280412. 

Terry Frost prints : A catalogue raisonné by Dominic Kemp. Published by Lund Humphries, Farnham, UK, 2010. ISBN 9781848220355. 

Terry Frost: The Biography by Roger Bristow. Published by Sanson & Co, Bristol, 2013. ISBN 9781906593780.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Ethel Leontine Gabain (1883-1950)

Ethel Gabain was born in France but received her formal art

education in London – at the Slade School of Fine Art (1902) and

the Central School of Arts and Crafts (1904–06) – as well as Paris


In 1908 she co-founded with John Copley (1875–1950) and

A.S. Hartrick (1864–1950) the Senefelder Club, which sought to

promote the art of lithography. The sale of her prints provided her

with a working income. She married John Copley in 1913. In 1926,

she provided illustrations for Anthony Trollope’s The Warden.

She exhibited throughout her career, including at the RA, the

NEAC, and the SWA, and her oil painting Flora Robson as Lady

Audley was awarded the De Laszlo Silver Medal by the RBA in


Gabain was employed by the WAAC during WWII to produce

lithographs of Women’s Voluntary Services members. Despite

deteriorating health, she travelled across Britain to record women’s

invaluable contributions to traditionally masculine industries.

See all works by the artist Ethel Leontine Gabain >

Gerald Gardiner (1902–1959)

Landscape painter in oil, and teacher. Born in London, he studied at Beckenham School of Art, under Percy Jowett, 1919-23, then at the Royal College of Art, 1923-7. Exhibited RA, NEAC, RSA and Cooling Galleries. During World War if he completed wall decorations for the Cheltenham Services Club, a year later illustrating Fred Kitchen's book Jesse and His Friends. Work in several public collections, including Swindon and Bristol Art Galleries. Gardiner's landscapes are notable for their translucent colour. Lived in Stroud, Gloucestershire.

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Tirzah Garwood-Ravilious (1908–1951)

Eileen ‘Tirzah’ Garwood attended Eastbourne School of Art

(1925–28), where she was taught by Eric Ravilious (1903–1942)

whom she married in 1930.

She first exhibited in 1927, at the Redfern Gallery, and an early

woodcut shown at the 1927 SWE exhibition received significant

praise in The Times. Such was the originality of her printmaking that

she exerted an influence over Ravilious’ own wood engravings. She

was also commissioned by the BBC in 1928 to illustrate Granville

Bantock’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, and made whimsical but exacting

observational pictures that were popular with children and exhibited

by the Society for Education in Art.

While recovering from emergency mastectomy surgery in 1942

she wrote her autobiography, Long Live Great Bardfield & Love to

You All (published posthumously in 2012). After Ravilious’ death

that same year, Garwood remained in Essex until her remarriage

in 1946. She was again diagnosed with cancer in 1948 and died

in 1951. In 1952, a memorial exhibition was held at the Towner

Gallery in Eastbourne.

See all works by the artist Tirzah Garwood-Ravilious >

Walter Bonner Gash (1869 - 1928)

Walter Bonner Gash was born in Lincoln on February 2nd 1869 the youngest of four children. Early in his life, the family moved to Nottingham and it was there that he was brought up and educated.
Although art was not encouraged at his home, records show that his talents developed early. After leaving school, it seems that he worked on the design side in a lace factory. However, the urge to make his career in Art was so strong that he decided to return to the place of his birth and become a student at the Lincoln School of Art. The reward of various prizes and medals while he was there, is proof of his success: In due course he was advised to further his studies at the Ecole des Beaux Are in Antwerp and this he did in the years 1893 and 94.
Following his return to England and after a spell as an assistant tutor at the School of Art in Lincoln, he moved south to Kettering and that became his home for the rest of his life. He set up a studio there, and continued to develop his own painting while teaching some adult groups and in 1907 taking on the post of Art master at the Old Grammar School.
He married in 1911 Sarah Ann Miles and they had two children - Norman and Margaret. From then on he led a busy life teaching, accepting commissions, mostly for portraits, and exhibited widely in many cities over the country and in London at the Royal Academy of Arts. On a number of occasions his work was also shown at the Paris Salon.
Portraits and general figure subjects, as well as landscapes formed the main part of his output and he appeared to enjoy working as much in water-colours and pastels as he did in oils.

He died in Kettering in 1928 aged 59 years.

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Frederick William George (1889-1971)

In the spring of 2008 a discovery was made. At the bottom of an overgrown garden of a terraced house in Aberdeen was a large corrugated iron shed, a shed that had not been opened for over thirty years. This shed once served as the studio to the painter, sculptor and designer Frederick William George. Once the door was opened and the cobwebs cleared away, the dim light revealed the world of Frederick George much as he had left it, thirty-seven years before. The artist's cloak still hung on a peg on the back of the door, his brushes and paint, now cracked and dry with age sat on the bench, his easel with an unfinished canvas waiting to be completed sat in front of rows of sculptures and boxes filled with canvasses and sketches. Since his death in 1971, his studio was sealed as a shrine to the man, none of his work was sold, left exactly as he had left it. Dusty sheets covered the contents of many years of work, protecting this time capsule that represented works spanning the artist's career. The discovery was made after the recent death of George's companion, as agents prepared to value and sell the property in Aberdeen.

Frederick William George was born on the 12 August 1889 in the village of Burbanks, Nigg - a community based just south of the city of Aberdeen. His descendants came from farming
stock, but his father chose to pursue a career in the railways, joining as a foreman wagonwright. As a sideline George's father John and his mother Elizabeth Morrison ran a cottage industry producing bagpipes. She would sew the tartan bags whilst John turned the drones, chanter and mouthpiece out of ebony. As a result Frederick learned the pipes alongside his education in the local school.

When Frederick completed his schooling he decided that he wanted to take an apprenticeship as a monumental mason, as some of his forebears had done before him. On completion he joined Gray's School of Art for Modelling Life Drawing and Sculpture, Aberdeen. Despite his father's opposition to this development, Frederick proved an able and worthy student, winning certificates for excellence in each of the subjects taken followed by prizes for modelling in a competition on the subject of `Poverty', offered by Lord Innes of Learney, and another for his sculpture of King Edward VII in coronation robes.

As war was declared in 1914, George, who was in the Yeomanry, was called up and sent to Mesopotamia as a gunner in the Royal Artillery. He was not an official war artist however he used his time overseas to continue to sketch. He was billeted in Sammara, near Baghdad and his sketches in watercolour and pastel of the blue and gold domes of the city were later to be used in full-scale canvasses on his return to Scotland. As peace broke, George like many others of his generation who survived, found it difficult to settle down at home and get a job. There was little out there and the artistic training of which his father had been so resentful, did not help. Eventually he was to find employment for a firm making fish boxes in Torry, however his dream of being an artist and sculptor never waned.

It seems apt that George's artistic career was rekindled as the demand for commemorative memorials to the war increased. He was commissioned for several War Memorials mostly in the North East of Scotland including the one in Inverurie, to the west of Aberdeen. These in turn led to other sculptural commissions including the work of modelling the capitals for the pillars for the National Commercial Bank of Scotland and modelling the heraldic work at the House of Schivas for the then Governor of the Bank of England. As well as public commissions George continued to paint draw and sculpt on his own behalf, exhibiting his work at The Royal Scottish Academy in Edinburgh and various exhibitions in Aberdeen.

Inevitably George was to turn to teaching and in 193 S he was offered the post of teacher of sculpture and life drawing at Gray's School of Art, where he himself had been a student. The post, which he much enjoyed was short lived as his students were called up in turn to serve their country in the Second world war. As numbers dwindled it was decided to close the school. George was sent to then teach younger pupils at the grammar school and later on at Torry Grammar School where he became involved in the amateur dramatics, painting the theatre sets and scenery.

George continued to sculpt, specialising in his depictions of children, he was also an avid sketcher and painter. He is perhaps best know for his monument to Scott skinner, `the Strathspey King' one of Scotland's most popular composers. The Scottish soprano Violet Davidson launched an appeal for funds to erect a monument to Skinner and George was commissioned to model the bust of the composer and decorate the lower section of the stone showing a violin and a scroll of music, the music being `the Bonnie Lass of Bon-Accord' which was one of Skinner's signature tunes. Contributions towards the memorial came from far and wide, including the Prime Minister J. Ramsay Macdonald. The Monument was unveiled at Allenvale by Sir Harry Lauder in 1931.

After George retired from teaching, old age began to take it's toll, his eyesight began to fail and his artistic output suffered. He spent time at his country house in Cookney as his daughter describes `back, to his roots tilling the ground and growing vegetables and a variety of potatoes ... sometimes he played the bagpipes and those within hearing distance called him the Lone Piper'.

Frederick William George is somewhat of an enigma, his work today is virtually unknown although people pass his monuments and sculptures in Scotland every day. He is very much a forgotten figure in the world of art, explained in part by the disappearance of his life's work after his death in 1971. Thirty-eight years after his death we hope that the rediscovery of these works will bring Frederick William George the recognition that he so justly deserves.

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Margaret Gere (1878-1965)

Painter, notably in tempera, born in Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. She was the sister of the artist Charles March Gere, studied under him from 1897 at Birmingham School of Art and like him was an original member of the Birmingham Group of Painters and Craftsmen. The copying of Piero della Francesca in tempera in Florence in 1901 had marked effect on her work, and she further studied at Slade School of Fine Art, 1905. Showed with and was a member of NEAC and RBSA and had first exhibition with her brother at Carfax Gallery, 1912. Represented in The Earthly Paradise exhibition at Fine Art Society, 1969. Cheltenham Art Gallery devoted a show to her in 1984. Tate Gallery holds her picture Noah's Ark. She and her sister Edith, who married the artist Henry Payne, were known as "the masterful Miss geres".

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Charles March Gere (1869-1957)

Painter, illustrator designer of wall decorations and stained glass and teacher. Born in Gloucester, Gere won scholarships to Birmingham School of Art, where he studied under Edward Taylor and later taught. Gere's early work was much influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite-favoured Italian painters and for a time he studied tempera painting in Italy. Worked with William Morris at the Kelmscott Press and later at the Ashendene Press and did much to make the Birmingham School a centre of excellence for book design, contending that illustrations and type should be complementary. Was interested in the revival of wood engraving. Gere was a member of the Birmingham Group of Painters and Craftsmen, which was strongly Arts and Crafts-oriented. Brother of the artist Margaret Gere. He exhibited prolifically, especially at RWS and NEAC, also Fine Art Society,v Carfax Gallery holds his work. Gere's landscapes are notable for their careful design and serene atmosphere. Lived at Painswick, Gloucestershire, and died in Gloucester.

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Mark Gertler (1891-1939)

Painter, born in Spitalfields, London, the son of Polish refugees. In Gertler's childhood, his family, in desperate poverty, moved to Austria, then America, before settling back in London in 1896. Gertler studied at Regent Street Polytechnic, 1906, but the following year, at his father's insistence, was apprenticed in a stained-glass works. In 1908 he entered the Slade, with financial assistance from the Jewish Education Aid Society and in 1910 won the Slade prize for portrait painting. Here he was associated with the Whitechapel Boys but left the Slade in 1912, having already made friends with the patron Edward Marsh, and the artist, Dora Carrington, who brought him into the Bloomsbury set and with Lady Ottoline Morrell. Through them, he exhibited with the Friday Club and went on to paint his most famous picture, Merry-Go-Round, (now in the Tate Gallery) in 1916. As a conscientious objector, this was a clear statement of Gertler's abhorrence of war. In 1918, Gertler briefly showed with the with Roger Fry's Omega Workshops. In 1992 an important exhibition of his paintings and drawings took place at the Camden Arts Centre. He held his first solo exhibition in 1921 at Goupil Gallery and also showed at the NS in its early years and with the Pastel Society. Periods were spent in sanatoriums in the early 1920�s owing to his tuberculosis, but he continued to paint and exhibit despite ill-health. Unhappiness, hardship and severe depression contributed to his suicide. During the 1930's he became a part-time teacher at the Westminster School of Art to supplement his spasmodic income from painting. The Ben Uri, Brighton and Hove Museums and Art Galleries, Fitzwilliam Museum, Gracefield Arts Centre, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Hull University, Jerwood Gallery, Northampton Museum and Art Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent Art Gallery and the Tate Gallery are among major museums in the UK that hold examples of his work.

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Phelan Gibb (1870 - 1948)

Painter and potter, born in Alnwick, Northumberland, his full name Henry William Gibb, son of the artist Thomas Henry Gibb and brother of Sadie Gibb. Until 1895, he showed as H W Gibb, then began using his grandmother's maiden name Phelan after the initials H W, later describing himself as Henry - or Harry - Phelan Gibb, or just Phelan Gibb. Phelan (pronounced Faylan) Gibb studied in Newcastle, Edinburgh, Paris, Antwerp and Munich. For a quarter of a century he worked in Paris and was influenced by the work of Cezanne. He exhibited in group exhibitions at Salon d'Automne, the AAA as well as Wertheim, Alpine and Redfern Galleries, RHA, RSA and in New York. Had first London solo show at Baillie Gallery, 1911. Gibb's rather earthy and apparently naive work was highly thought of by Roger Fry, Gertrude Stein and the dealer Lucy Wertheim. She supported him and his much younger second wife in their declining years with money, assistance to travel to France and even clothes but Gibb, an uneven painter, was unable to match his finest work of the period 1910-20. Gibb appears in Wertheim's memoir Adventure in Art. Between the wars the Gibbs had as one of their adresses in London and the provinces a cottage near Brendon, Devon, called Desolate, distinctively marked on the Ordonnance Survey map. Phelan painted "pot-boilers", which he donated to agricultural shows as prizes for the best sheep. He died of a heart attack in Great Hampden, Buckinghamshire. There was a posthumous solo exhibition at Alwin Gallery, 1961, but only one picture sold. Duncan Campbell Fine Art latterly handled Gibb's work. Tate Gallery and Victoria & Albert Museum hold examples.

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Robert Gibbings (1889-1958)

Robert Gibbings was an Irish artist and author who was most noted for his work as a wood engraver and sculptor, and for his books on travel and natural history.  

We are grateful to Widewalls for their assistance.

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Evelyn Gibbs (1905-1991)

Evelyn Gibbs studied at the Liverpool School of Art (1922–26)

and at the Royal College of Art (1926–29).

Credited with making significant gains for women in art and

academia, she was the second woman to win the Prix de Rome for

Engraving (1929) and was elected an associate of the RE in the

same year.

In London, after returning from Rome in 1931, she taught at

a school for handicapped children and later wrote The Teaching of

Art in Schools, which was published in 1934 – the same year she

was appointed lecturer at Goldsmiths College.

She founded the Midland Group of Artists in 1943 after

Goldsmiths was evacuated to Nottingham, and in that September

was commissioned as an official war artist to record Women making

Munitions, working in Blood Transfusion and in the Women’s

Voluntary Service. Seven of the works made during this time are

held in the Imperial War Museum in London. In 1945 she married

Hugh Willatt, later Secretary- General of the Arts Council.

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Colin Gill (1892-1940)

Decorative and genre painter, born in Bexley Heath, Kent. He was a cousin of the sculptor and printmaker Eric Gill. He studied at the Slade School, and in 1913 won a scholarship to the British School at Rome. His scholarship was interrupted by the First World War: he served in France 1915-18 and was appointed an Official War Artist. From 1922-25 he was a member of staff at the Royal College of Art. He died in South Africa in 1940, while working on a series of murals for the Magistrates Court in Johannesburg. His work is held in the Tate Gallery and the Imperial War Museum.

Gill can lay claim both to being the first painter to win a scholarship to the British School at Rome and to have produced its most iconic image: Allegory, 1921. He also started the fruitful tradition of scholars taking up residence in the small village of Anticoli Corrardo, just south of Rome, during the hot summer months. However, like many of the Rome Scholars who came after him, there is a sense that Gill never fulfilled the remarkable promise of his early work. After returning from Italy his paintings appear to be caught uncomfortably between two desires: on one hand, to continue in the nineteenth-century tradition in which he had been trained, and, on the other, to embrace something more contemporary and avant-garde. He was a keen photographer and also a novelist.

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John Thomas Young Gilroy (1898-1985)

Painter and illustrator, born in Whitley Bay, Newcastle upon Tyne. He studied at Armstrong under R. G. Hatton in his hometown. His father William Gilroy was a marine and landscape painter and technical draughtsman and it was obvious from an early age that his son would follow in his father’s footsteps. In 1912 he enrolled at the Armstrong College Art, Durham University where he studied under Professor K.G. Hatten. 
World War I interrupted his studies and he served with the Royal Field Artillery in France, Italy and Palestine. In September 1919 he resumed his studies taking a place at the Royal College of Art, London. During his time there he produced illustrations for the college student magazine and in 1920 he attained his Board of Education certificate and the RCA diploma in decorative painting. 
His work was also rewarded through scholarships and prizes, winning, in 1919, the North Lordbourne prize for composition and in 1921, the college drawing prize and the British Institute Scholarship for decorative painting. In 1922 Gilroy won an RCA travelling scholarship in mural painting having missed the Prix de Rome by only one vote. 
From 1924-26 he also taught drawing in the evenings at Camberwell School of Arts & Crafts. By 1925 Gilroy was in the employ of advertising agents S H Benson Ltd where his projects included designs for Skipper Sardines, Bovril, Macleans and for Monk & Glass Custard Powder.

By now his employers Bensons had won the Guinness contract and in 1930 Gilroy produced his poster for the beer company. This association would last until the 1960’s during which time he produced in excess of 50 memorable designs for them, “Guinness is Good for You” being arguably the most famous. During the 1920’s Gilroy would simultaneously build a reputation as a fine portrait painter and his sitters would include the Prince of Wales, later to be Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor. Other dignitaries included Lord Mountbatten, Lord Hailsham, Edward Heath and Field Marshal Earl Alexander of Tunis, now in the NPG, and Winston Churchill and Pope John XXIII. 
During WWII, he created many of the well-remembered posters which directed the nation to be discrete by reminding them to “Keep It Under Your Hat” and “Careless Talk Costs Lives”. A retrospective of his work was held at the Upper Grosvenor Galleries in 1970 and he was appointed a Freeman of the City of London in 1981. A sale of his works was held at Christie's, South Kensington in 1986. He exhibited at the RA, ROI, RBA, NEAC, and Upper Grosvenor Galleries and examples of work are in the GAC, Hertfordshire County Council, Hull University Art Collection and the Tate Gallery poster museums in the UK and abroad.

Literature: McGill: The Story of A University by Hugh MacLennan illustrated by John Gilroy. Published by George Allen & Unwin, London, 1960.

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Charles Ginner (1878 - 1952)

Painter in oil and watercolour and occasional printmaker, born in Cannes, France. From 1899 in Paris he studied architecture, then turned to painting. Was from 1904-8 at the Academie Vitti, under the Spaniard Anglada y Camarosa, then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Ginner's sister was the dance teacher Ruby Ginner Dyer. Ginner made a journey to Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1909, where he held his first one-man show. His oil paintings showed the influence of Vincent van Gogh, the paint thick, making them difficult to handle. Having shown with the AAA in 1908, Ginner after Buenos Aires trip settled in London, where he became a key mamber of the Fitzroy Street, Camden Town and Cumberland Market groups. He was especially friendly with Harold Gilman and in 1914 in the New Age spelt out their paintings creed known as New Realism. In that year he showed jointly with Gilman at the Goupil Gallery. During World War I Ginner painted for the Canadian War Records, and he was an Official War Artist during World War II. Ginner's watercolours are unmistakeable, with meticulous detailing of trees and buildings. The Tate Gallery and many other galleries hold his work, the National Portrait Gallery a typically precise self-portraits. Arts Council memorial show and touring, 1953-4.

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Gluck (1895-1978)

Gluck (born Hannah Gluckstein) was born into a wealthy Jewish family, the child of Joseph Gluckstein, whose brothers Isidore and Montague had founded J. Lyons and Co., a British coffee house and catering empire. Gluck's American-born mother, Francesca Halle, was an opera singer. Gluck's brother, Sir Louis Gluckstein, was a Conservative politician.

In the 1920s and 30s Gluck became known for portraits and floral paintings; the latter were favoured by the interior decorator Syrie Maugham. Gluck insisted on being known only as Gluck, "no prefix, suffix, or quotes", and when an art society of which Gluck was vice president identified Gluck as "Miss Gluck" on its letterhead, Gluck resigned. Gluck identified with no artistic school or movement and showed Gluck's work only in solo exhibitions, where they were displayed in a special frame Gluck invented and patented. This Gluck-frame rose from the wall in three tiers; painted or papered to match the wall on which it hung, it made the artist's paintings look like part of the architecture of the room.

One of Gluck's best-known paintings, Medallion, is a dual portrait of Gluck and Gluck's lover Nesta Obermer, inspired by a night in 1936 when they attended a Fritz Busch production of Mozart's Don Giovanni. According to Gluck's biographer Diana Souhami, "They sat in the third row and she (sic) felt the intensity of the music fused them into one person and matched their love." Gluck referred to it as the "YouWe" picture. It was later used as the cover of a Virago Press edition of The Well of Loneliness. Gluck also had a romantic relationship with the British floral designer Constance Spry, whose work informed the artist's paintings.

In 1944 Gluck moved to Chantry House in Steyning, Sussex, where she lived with her lover Edith Shackleton Heald until her death.

In the 1950s Gluck became dissatisfied with the artist's paints available and began a "paint war" to increase their quality. Ultimately, Gluck persuaded the British Standards Institution to create a new standard for oil paints; however, the campaign consumed Gluck's time and energy to the exclusion of painting for more than a decade.

In Gluck's seventies, using special handmade paints supplied free by a manufacturer who had taken Gluck's exacting standards as a challenge, Gluck returned to painting and had another well-received solo show. It was Gluck's first since 1937, and Gluck's last: Gluck died in 1978.

Gluck's last major work was a painting of a decomposing fish head on the beach entitled Rage, Rage against the Dying of the Light.

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Sarah Margaret Goldie (1849-1936)

Painter born in Cocanada (now known as Kakinada) in the Andhra Pradesh area of India. She was the daughter of an Anglo-India Civil Servant and received her early education in India but is recorded as living in Bath by the 1861 census. Her mother was a 'Fundholder' (her father was not listed) that was someone living off investments and had many servants, there being 12 people including various servants living in a Georgian house in a prominent position in Bath. By the next census in 1871 Sarah was still living there joined by her father who is described as 'Retired Civil Servant'. There is as yet no indication that Sarah Margaret Goldie exhibited her work or where she received her art education. When her father died in 1894 he left the 2015 equivalent of nearly £6million.

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(Attributed to) Spencer Gore (1878-1914)

Spencer Frederick Gore (26 May 1878 – 25 March 1914) was a British painter of landscapes, music-hall scenes and interiors, usually with single figures. He was the first president of the Camden Town Group, and was influenced by the Post-Impressionists.

He was born on 26 May 1878 at Epsom in Surrey, the youngest of the four children of the Wimbledon tennis champion, Spencer Gore and his wife Amy Margaret (nee Smith). His father's brother was the theologian Charles Gore. His father sent him to board at Harrow School in London. He went on to study painting in London at the Slade School of Fine Art, where he was a contemporary of Harold Gilman.

In 1904 Albert Rutherston introduced him to Walter Sickert at Dieppe; and afterwards he associated in Fitzroy Street, London, with Sickert, Lucien Pissarro, Harold Gilman and Charles Ginner. In 1909 he became a member of the New English Art Club, and in 1910 contributed an article to The Art News on 'The Third London Salon of the Allied Artists Association'.

In 1911 he was a co-founder and first president of the Camden Town Group.

In January 1912 he married Mary Joanna ("Molly") Kerr, with whom he had two children - Margaret Elizabeth (1912-1994) and Frederick John Pym (1913-2009); the latter would become well known as the painter Frederick Gore.

In 1913 he became a member of the London Group.

His later works show growing concern with pictorial construction, under the influence of the Post-Impressionists. He experimented with colour in his works, as may be seen in his painting "Hartington Square".

He died of pneumonia at Richmond, Surrey, on 27 March 1914, aged thirty-six.

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Auguste Gorguet (1862-1927)

Auguste François-Marie Gorguet was born 27 september 1862 in Paris. French painter, illustrator, etcher and poster designer.

He studied at the 'Ecole des beaux-arts' in Paris. Under the name of Auguste François Gorguet his work was exhibited from 1885 onwards and received a prize in Chicago in 1892.
He painted several oils, murals and ceilings. 
He designed posters for several opera's and illustrated several books, like 'le Sapho' and 'Jack' by Alphonse Daudet, 'le Lys Rouge' by Anatole France, but also editions by Victor Hugo. He etched several financial documents, as well as bank notes.

Between 1914 and 1916, he supervised, with Pierre Carrier-Belleuse, the making of 'Panthéon de la guerre', a huge circular panoramic picture, created with help of 20 artists and exposed in a building that was specially built for this, next to the famous 'Hotel des Invalides'. Inaugurated 19 October 1918, the building was destroyed in 1960 and the picture lost forever.

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Sylvia Gosse (1881-1968)

Born Laura Sylvia Gosse, the daughter of Sir Edward Gosse, eminent novelist and critic, she was an English painter and print-maker, best known for her street scenes and interiors. She studied at the St John’s Wood School of Art, the Royal Academy Schools and the Westminster Technical Institute in 1908 as a student of Walter Sickert’s etching classes. Sickert much influenced her art and she became his loyal disciple, teaching with him at his Rowlandson House School. She exhibited at the Allied Artists Association from 1909, the New English Art Club 1911, Royal Academy from 1912, the Camden Town Group exhibition in Brighton in 1913 and with the London Group in 1914 as a founder member. Her first solo exhibition was held at the Carfax Gallery in 1916. From 1920 she lived at Envermeu near Dieppe – both towns the subject of numerous works - where she tended Sickert’s wife Christine during her terminal illness and nursed Sickert back to health and sanity after Christine’s death. In 1934 she instigated a fund to support him in his old age. Her work is represented in the collections of the Tate, the National Portrait Gallery, the Fitzwilliam Museum and numerous provincial art galleries in England.

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Imre Goth (1893-1982)

Painter, notably of portraits, and inventor, born in Szeged, Hungary, who studied at Budapest Academy of Fine Arts, then in the 1920s in Berlin. He became noted for fashionable portraits of film stars and among his patrons was Field Marshal Hermann Goering, the Nazi air chief. After a successful exhibition in Birmingham at the New Grafton Galleries, in 1935 Goth moved to England where through friendship with the Hungarian film director Alexander Korda he came to paint portraits used in productions staring Ralph Richardson, Michael Wilding, Ann Todd and Margaret Leighton. When later in life Goth's eyesight failed he returned to inventing. In Berlin he had designed parachutes and headlights for cars. In London he formed a company to market his inventions, which included a non-drip device for bottles. Exhibitions of his work were held in 1939 at the Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, and Russell-Cotes Museum & Art Gallery, Bournemouth; in 1948 at RP; and in 1949 at Grundy Art Gallery, Blackpool.

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Edith Granger-Taylor (1887-1958)

Edith Granger-Taylor began painting as a child, attending the

Royal Academy Schools (1910), St. John’s Wood Art School,

and the Slade School of Fine Art for a term in 1919, where she

studied under Henry Tonks. She also returned to the Slade in the

early 1930s to study stage design.

She exhibited numerously in the 1920s and 1930s, including

at the NEAC, the RE exhibition in 1935, and with solo shows at

the Grosvenor Galleries (1922) and Beaux Arts Gallery (1932).

However, her increasing frustration as a female artist working

in the inter-war years, showcased in paintings such as Allegory

(1934) (which she referred to as a “delicate feminist satire”),

caused her to retreat from the art world, and after the 1930s her

work would not be exhibited again in her lifetime.

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Ian Grant (1904–1993)

Painter, art historian and teacher, born in Scotland. He studied at Glasgow School of Art, 1922-6, under Maurice Greiffenhagen, then in 1927 at Atelier Colarossi, Paris, and Royal College of Art, 1927-30. Grant became senior lecturer at Manchester Regional College of Art, staying there, 1937-69; his wife Margaret Gumuchian, whom he married in 1953, was a student in his class. Other appointments included part-time work at Mauldeth Road College of Further Education, 1959-79, and lecturing in art history at Manchester University extra¬mural department. Grant was for a time vice-president of MAFA, where he won a major prize in 1986. In 1989 he was included in The Last Romantics at Barbican Art Gallery. Manchester City Art Gallery holds his work, which was exhibited at solo shows at Salford Art Gallery and elsewhere in the north. Lived in Stockport, Cheshire.

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Norah Neilson Gray (1882-1931)

Norah Neilson Gray attended the Glasgow School of Art (1901–

06) under Fra Newbery (1855–1946), who sought to promote

women’s inclusion in art and academia. Indeed, Gray became a

member of the Glasgow Girls whilst studying and returned to

teach at the school soon after leaving.

By 1910 she had her own studio and held her first solo

show at the Warneuke’s Gallery, Glasgow. She also exhibited at

the RSA, Glasgow Society of Lady Artists and the Paris Salon,

and illustrated an edition of Intimations of Immortality from

Recollections of Early Childhood by William Wordsworth (1913).

After volunteering as a nurse during WWI, she was

commissioned to paint the Scottish Women’s Hospital at

Royaumont Abbey. In 1921, she became the first woman to be

appointed to the Hanging Committee of the RGI and was also

awarded a bronze medal by the Société des Artistes Français for

her painting The Refugee.

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Douglas Stannus Gray (1890-1959)

London-born painter who was much influenced by John Singer Sargent. He attended Croydon School of Art, 1904-8 before winning a scholarship at the RA Schools, 1908-11, being taught there by Charles Sims and Ernest Jackson. Gray was the recipient of the coveted Landseer Scholarship in 1912 and also of the British Institution Scholarship both of which enabled him to travel and work in France. In his early days, he is known to have exhibited with the South London Art Group. He also showed at the RA, ROI and RP the latter two societies electing him as a member. His friendship with Sargent is acknowledged in his work and he often depicted family and friends at his home, relaxing in sun-drenched gardens or sitting inside. He also painted scenes of flowers and trees, reminiscent of the Post-Impressionists. Gray taught at Brighton College of Art in the immediate post-World War II years and examples of his work are in the Tate Gallery. Fame came to him posthumously when in 1986 Spink & Son, London held an exhibition of his work, much of which is today reproduced as greetings cards. His daughter is the artist Virginia Robinson.

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Walter Greaves (1846-1930)

The son of Charles William Greaves, a Chelsea boat builder and waterman, and his wife, Elizabeth Greenway, Greaves was born in 1846 at 31 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London. His father had been J. M. W. Turner's boatman. Greaves and one of his brothers, Henry Greaves (1844–1904), met Whistler in 1863, introducing him to the sights of the River Thames, and becoming his studio assistants, pupils and close friends for over 20 years.
The American painter later used these Thames expeditions for inspiration when painting his ‘nocturne’ views of the river at night. "He taught us to paint", Walter Greaves said, "and we taught him the waterman's jerk". 

The most famous of Greaves' paintings is Hammersmith Bridge on Boat-Race Day, a naive masterpiece which he claimed to have painted when he was aged sixteen in 1862; however, since he was unreliable over dates, its history has never been settled. The Greaves brothers accompanied Whistler to life class and Walter Greaves attempted to paint portraits, some of his most successful being of their neighbour Thomas Carlyle, whom Whistler also painted. Greaves also drew and painted Whistler, sometimes in caricature, in Chelsea settings and in characteristic moods. In 1876 the Greaves brothers helped Whistler decorate the Peacock Room (now in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), for the shipowner Frederick Leyland. 

During the late 1870s Whistler began to gather a more sophisticated group of friends about himself, including Walter Sickert and Mortimer Menpes. Excluded from this distinguished circle, Greaves suffered years of neglect, misfortune and poverty before his discovery by William Marchant, proprietor of the Goupil Galleries, who exhibited Greaves's work in his London gallery in 1911. Greaves's new-found glory was short-lived, however: three weeks after the exhibition opened, Whistler's self-appointed biographers, Joseph Pennell and Elizabeth Pennell, damaged Greaves's reputation by claiming that he had plagiarized Whistler's work. 

In May 1911, Greaves sold eight letters from Whistler to his father and himself at auction. Another exhibition of his work was held in 1922 at the Grosvenor Gallery arranged by Augustus John, William Nicholson and William Rothenstein. He was elected an honorary member of the Chelsea Arts Club. Despite the support of a few fellow painters, including Sickert, Greaves again fell into obscurity and spent his last eight years as a Poor Brother of the London Charterhouse. Greaves died, unmarried, of pneumonia in the West London Hospital, Hammersmith, on 23 November 1930. He was buried in the Charterhouse graveyard at Little Hallingbury in Essex. 
The Tate Gallery holds examples of his work, including two self-portraits. 
The Parkin Gallery held exhibitions of his work in 1980 and 1984.

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Lambert Guenther (b. 1883)

Lambert Guenther  was born 1883 Sept. 13th in Wesel. the son of Bernhard Günther (a butcher) and Sibille Salomon.  He attended Wesel grammar school 1893-1900, and went in 1900 to work as a clerk in Düsseldorf .  The first reference to him working as a painter,  [Kunstmaler] dated to  1903.  In 1908 he emigrated via Rotterdam to the United States, where he married with a German immigrant. His brother Siegmund who lived in Düsseldorf friom 1919 was also a painter.

We are gratefult to Dr. Martin Wilhelm Roelen for this information.

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Robin Guthrie (1902 - 1971)

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, born in Harting, Sussex. He was the son of the artist and printer James Guthrie and the husband of the artist Kathleen Guthrie, after divorce from her marrying Deborah Dering. Studied at Slade School of Fine Art, 1918-22, with Philip Wilson Steer and Henry Tonks; Guthrie was like Tonks a fine, sensitive draughtsman, especially of portraits. In the early 1930s he was with Rodney Burn joint director of painting and drawing at the Goupil Gallery in 1926. Also exhibited at NEAC of which he was a member, Leicester Galleries, Arthur Tooth and Sons, Tate Gallery and many other venues. The Tate, British Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum, National Portrait Gallery and other public institutions hold his work. Guthrie also taught at St Martin's School of Art, City and Guilds School and Royal College of Art, 1950-2. His book illustrations include Eleanor Farjeon's All the Way to Alfriston, 1919, and his father's A Wild Garden, 1924. Lived in London

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Kathleen Guthrie (1905 - 1981)

Kathleen Guthrie (1905-1981) studied at the Slade School under Henry Tonks, (1922-24) and at the Royal College of Art (1925).  At the Slade she met Robin Guthrie (1902-1971) whom she married in 1927.   In 1930 Robin Guthrie and Rodney Burn (1899-1984), a fellow student from the Slade, were invited, on the recommendation of Tonks, to go to America and become co-directors of the Boston School of Fine Art. This two year appointment allowed Kathleen to see the New England countryside, especially around Wilmington, Vermont, where they spent the summer vacations. In 1932 she had a solo show of figure paintings and landscapes at Boston’s Stace Home Gallery.  

From the 1930’s onwards Kathleen exhibited widely, especially at The New English Art Club and The Royal Academy.  Her work from this period, which consisted mostly of still lifes, landscapes and genre scenes, was painted in a whimsical figurative style.

In 1941, following the breakdown of her marriage to Robin Guthrie, Kathleen married Cecil Stephenson, a member of the group of constructivist artists led by Ben Nicholson.  From this point on her work moved increasingly towards abstraction. In the 1960’s she embarked on her Camelot Series, bold, hard-edged compositions of contrasting forms arranged as pure fields of colour.  These formed the main body of work exhibited in 1963 at the New End Gallery and her retrospective at the Drian Galleries in 1966.  

In the mid 1960's Kathleen was introduced to silk screen printing and become one the most accomplished practitioners of her generation.  The main body of these works were inspired by paintings from her Camelot series and Stephenson’s iconic images including  Egg Tempera 1936 and Egg Tempera 1937.

Acknowledgement: www.artboigs.co.uk


One man shows:
1932 Grace Horne Gallery, Boston, USA 1947 Little Gallery, Piccadilly, London 1951 Kalman Gallery, Manchester
1963 New End Gallery, Hampstead, London 1966 Drian Gallery, London 1968 The Art Gallery, Brighton
1968/69 Trentham Gallery, Emsworth, Hampshire 1970 Forge Gallery, Cookham, Middlesex
1972 Erica Bourne Gallery, Golders Green, London 1974 Camden Arts Centre, Finchley, London 1977 Coach House Gallery, Guernsey 1977 Centaur Gallery, Highgate, London

Group shows (WIAC, Free Painters, Hampstead Artists Council, London Group, etc.), at: King Street Gallery, Cambridge
AIA Gallery, London
New Vision Centre, London
FBA Gallery, Suffolk Street, London (WIAC & FP)
Gallery Greuze, Paris, France
Pittsburgh, USA
Galleria Numero, Florence (WIAC)

Mixed shows, at:
London Galleries: Goupil Gallery, Royal Academy, National Gallery (war pictures official purchase), London Group, Redfern Gallery, Leicester Galleries, Gimpel Fils, Whitechapel Art Gallery (Guggenheim Award Exhibition), Drian Gallery
Others: Galerie Hervé, Paris; Leicestershire County Hall

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Allan Gwynne Jones (1892-1982)

Gwynne-Jones was born in Richmond, Surrey. He was educated at Bedales School and then qualified as a solicitor, but never practised. He instead developed a love of art and began painting watercolours. In 1914 he began a course at the Slade School of Fine Art, but three months later was commissioned into the Cheshire Regiment. He was wounded and awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) at the Battle of the Somme in 1916. He returned to the Slade after demobilisation in 1919 and in 1923 became Professor of Painting at the Royal College of Art. He remained at the Royal College for the remainder of his career, and also gained renown for his own painting, most notably portraits and paintings of flowers.

Gwynne-Jones became a Royal Academician in 1956. He was rather belatedly appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1980, only two years before his death.

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Karl Hagedorn (1889-1969)

Painter, born in Berlin, Germany, who moved to England in 1905, later adopting British nationality. He went to Manchester in 1905 to train in textile production and also studied art under Adolphe Valette at the local Manchester School of Art and then at The Slade School of Fine Ar, followied by two yearss in  Paris, in 1912-13, when, working under Maurice Denis, he absorbed a range of avant-garde styles. On his return to England, he made a consciously pioneering attempt to introduce Modernism into Manchester through his work as both painter and designer. He became a British subject in 1914 and served as a Lance-Corporal in the Middlesex Regiment during World War I.

He exhibited at the Manchester Society of Modern Painters, RA, RBA, RSMA and with the NEAC. In 1925 he received the Grand Prix at the International Exhibition of Decorative Art, Paris and in 1935 he was elected RBA. He exhibited at a number of leading galleries in London and the provinces, and was elected to the Royal Society of British Artists, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, the Royal Society of Marine Artists, the New English Art Club and the NS. In 1995, the Chris Beetles Gallery hosted 'Manchester's First Modernist', an important retrospective exhibition of the work of Karl Hagedorn organised in conjunction with the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester. It was accompanied by an illustrated biographical catalogue. His work is in the collection of the Atkinson Art Gallery, BM, GAC, Manchester City Art Gallery V&A and the Wellcome Library.

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John Haggis (1897-1968)

Portrait, landscape and figure painter in oil and watercolour. Born in London, Haggis studied art in Australia and at the Royal College of Art under Malcolm Osborne. He showed widely, including Walker Galleries London, the RA, RP, NEAC, RCamA, RWA and Paris Salon. His work is in Australian and British museums. His portrait commissions included Fredric March, Mai Zetterling and Claire Bloom. He painted many landscapes in Britain, especially in Yorkshire and Hertfordshire, where he lived at Welwyn. In 1921 he founded the Welwyn Garden City Art Club. According to The Dictionary of British Artists 1880-1940, in addition to painting Haggis 'worked as an Australian Boundary rider, station hand, plumbers mate, beekeeper and in insurance.'

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Clifford Hall (1904-1973)

Painter in oil and watercolour, draughtsman and etcher, born in London. In the early 1920s he began to study at Richmond Art School, then Putney Art School, 1922-1925, and the Royal Academy Schools, 1926-7. 
He was influenced especially by Walter Sickert, and much of Hall's work bears the stamp of Sickert's palette and subject-matter: landscapes, genre scenes and London low life. In the late 1920s he lived in Paris, studying with Andre Lhote. 
Had a one-man show at the Beaux Arts Gallery in the mid-1930s, then served with a stretcher party during much of World War II. In 1941 he showed work at the Leger entitled 'Exhibition of War Drawings - Bombs On Chelsea'.
In 1946 he had the first of a number of one-man exhibitions at Roland, Browse and Delbanco, and his monograph on Constantin Guys was published. Making a living in Bohemian Chelsea was often a struggle for Hall, who recorded his experiences in an unpublished journal covering fifty years from the 1920s. 
In the early 1960s he began a new series of pictures: women wrapped in towels, usually seen from behind or side on, their faces obscured. 

Hall died in 1973.  He married one of his students from the Regent Street Polytechnic School of Art, Ann Hewson, in 1956, and they lived in London. In 1957 their son Richard was born. 
"We lived in Chelsea until December 1960 when we moved to Bayswater. My mother was his second wife. His first, Julian's mother, Marion Zass, he married in 1933. Julian was born in 1939 - the day before war was declared. Marion was also an artist. They divorced in 1952."
His work is in many public collections in Britain, and abroad, including the Imperial War Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum, and Arts Council. The Belgrave Gallery held a memorial exhibition in 1977; a studio sale took place at Christie's, London, in 1982.

We are grateful to Richard Hall for assistance and the additional information
Hall painted in tempera and acrylic paint as well as oil and watercolour - watercolours he used fairly rarely actually. He started using tempera for some of his larger paintings in the early 50s and he sometimes used a mixture of tempera and oil paints as well. He started using Cryla Acylic paints in 1966, and most of the larger paintings he did from then on are acrylic on board. Hall quite often wrote 'Acrylic' along with information about the varnish used on the back of his paintings. 

Hall studied at the Royal Academy Schools from 1925 to 1927, not 1926 -27. He studied there with Charles Simms, F.Ernest Jackson, Sir George Clausen and Walter Sickert for a few months when Sickert was a visiting master at the Schools. While there he won a Landseer scholarship in painting: only one student a year could win this award. The scholarship meant he had enough money to rent his own studio in Twickenham in 1927, where he received and completed a number of portrait commissions. One of these was for a full length portrait of Sir Henry Norris, the then chairman of Arsenal Football Club and former Mayor of Fulham. For this he earned 100 guineas - about £5,500 in today's money. 
His portrait commissions are what gave him enough money to go to France for an extended period.
Hall really only studied briefly with Andre Lhote in Paris and though he liked him Lhote did not have any significant influence on his technique or style. 
A one-man show at the Beaux Arts Gallery was in held 1935. It was not his first one-man show as many sources state it was actually his third. 
His first was at the St Martin's Gallery, London WC2 in 1929. 
He made £80 from it and used the money to go back to Paris. His second was at the Leger Gallery in 1932. He first met Lillian Browse when she was working for Harold Leger in the early 30s. After the Beaux Arts Gallery show he had two more at the Leger: in 1938 and 1941. His other shows at Roland, Browse and Delbanco were in 1947 and 1950. 

Hall's Bathers' series started in the early 1960s. They evolved gradually, predated by paintings from as early as the mid-forties which presage the bathers. The main difference between the early bathers and the late bathers is that from 1966 onwards most of them were acrylic on board whereas before they were mostly oil on canvas. The oil painting bathers are mostly painted in rather sombre colours whereas the acrylic paintings are generally much higher in key. 

Photograph with thanks to The Estate of Clifford Hall

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Edward Irvine Halliday (1902-1984)

Painter in oil and watercolour mainly of portraits. Born in Liverpool, Halliday studied at the City School of Art there, in Paris at the Atelier Colarossi and at the Royal College of Art. He was awarded the Prix de Rome and worked at the British School there. Exhibited at RA, RBA, Paris Salon and RP, of which for a time he was president. His work is in the collections of HM The Queen, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, the Athenaeum Club, Wolverhampton Royal Hospital and Bootle Dyeworks. His work was reproduced in The Studio, Illustrated London News and The Times and he was interviewed by Stanley Casson for his book Artists at Work, published in 1933. In 1997, the University of Liverpool held an exhibition which concentrated on Halliday's efforts to popularise art between the wars. Halliday's daughter Charlotte is also an artist. He lived in London.

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Richard Hamilton (1922-2011)

Painter, collagist and printmaker, born in London, who left school at fourteen, working as a jig and tool draughtsman, 1940-1945. He then worked in advertising, attending evening classes at St. Martin's School of Art and Westminster School of Art. During this period Hamilton also worked in the Window Dressing department of the influential Reimann School in London's Pimlico and furthered his studies at the RA Schools, 1938-1940, leaving to do war service as an engineering draughtsman. Returned to RA Schools in 1946 and was expelled, but continued his studies at Slade School 1948-51.
In 1952 he became a teacher of silver work, typography and industrial design at the Central School of Arts & Crafts and was also a visiting lecturer at Bath Academy of Art. One of his colleagues there was Eduardo Paolozzi, with whom Hamilton was a founder member of the Independent Group at the ICA and went on to become an influential figure in the Pop Art movement. This was a group of artists and intellectuals who met to discuss cultural change in the age of technology.

In 1953 he became a lecturer in the Fine Art Department at the King's College in the University of Durham and from 1957 to 1961 he taught interior design at the Royal College of Art. In 1960 he was awarded the William and Norma Copley Foundation Prize for Painting. Hamilton has held solo exhibitions and been seen in group shows in the worlds major artistic venues. One of his recent one-person shows 'Imaging James Joyce's Ulysses' was organised by the British Council in 2001. He has reconstructed Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass and, on occasion, collaborated with Dieter Roth. He published Collected Works 1953-1982 and in 1983 collaborated with Rita Donagh, his wife, on an exhibition based on the Maze Prison at the Orchard Gallery, Londonderry. A retrospective exhibition was held at the Tate Gallery in 1970 which travelled to Eindhoven and Bern, the Guggenheim Museum, New York.
Further showing venues include Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin, John Morers, Liverpool and elsewhere. He was Britain's representative at the 1993 Venice Biennale. A great printmaker, examples of this discipline are in the collection of the Fitzwilliam Museum, while a cross section of all his work is housed in the Tate Gallery, the University of Warwick Art Collection, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, Hatton Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne, New Art Gallery Walsall, Pallant House Gallery, Chichester and in Wolverhampton Art Gallery.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Captain Edward HANDLEY-READ (1869-1935)

Handley-Read – father of Charles Handley-Read, the dedicated enthusiast for Victorian art, architecture and design and knowledgeable scholar about the work of William Burges – was an artist with a varied, lively, engaging style and a life to match.

Born in 1870, Handley-Read had first studied at the Kensington School of Art (then, the National Art Training School, at South Kensington), which was distinguished, in the 1880s, by treating male and female students with a greater degree of equality than many other art schools of the day, concentrating, as it did, on studies of the human form, and allowing women to study the nude, as well as the draped, model. Handley-Read moved from here to the Westminster School of Art, which, from 1877 to 1893, was headed by Fred Brown and, by the late 1880s, was regarded as one of the most progressive art schools in London. Brown’s curriculum was, to a considerable extent, influenced by Alphonse Legros, then at the Slade, and by the Académie Julian, in Paris, where Brown himself had studied in the winter of 1883-4, and where he must have encountered the radical developments in France. He required that young artists should first concentrate on life drawing - but not just conventional, static, poses. Rather, they were to capture their sitters on the move, and thus acquire highly sophisticated skills of observation. Then, students were encouraged to sketch en plein air and to explore and express their individual perceptions and styles. There can be no doubt that Handley-Read’s swift, discerning draughtsmanship and his confident manipulation of colour was shaped by this training.

Handley-Read followed Westminster with the Royal Academy Schools, where he won the Creswick Prize for his landscape painting. In 1895 he became a member of the Royal Society of British Artists - that body which had become ‘Royal’ in 1887, in the Queen’s Jubilee, when it was under the presidency of James McNeill Whistler, who wished to transform the Society into an exciting, modern exhibition venue, with high standards and challenging ideas. Whistler’s ambitions stirred up some resentment - and it was not long before he and his admirers resigned, with the quip, ‘the Artists came out and the British remained’. But, even though his tenure had been brief, the R.B.A. had been altered by Whistler’s involvement and, for some years, continued to be regarded as a place for radical art.

Handley-Read quickly embarked on his career as an illustrator, with early commissions including three illustrations to Walter Wood’s 1912, Grant the Grenadier, His Adventures: A Novel. Full of tales of heroism and derring-do, this lavishly illustrated book was obviously aimed at boys and young men who were hoping to play a role in building and defending the British Empire. The frontispiece itself was a colour lithograph by Handley- Read, entitled, ‘ “Keep it up”, said the Chief, “I shall not forget it” ’ – an exhortation to a young man who, with the Union flag flying behind him, keeps on drumming, through the smoke and chaos of battle. This image, and the others produced by Handley-Read – ‘Grant Captures the Eagle’ and ‘Hurled him into the Dreadful Ditch’ – are fascinating, not only as a reflection of the imperial and militaristic ambitions and fears during this period of intense political confrontation, in Europe and beyond, but also as evidence of Handley-Read’s undoubted brilliance at conveying the vigour and energy of men in battle – their awkward movement, their expressive poses.

It is hard to know whether to describe Handley-Read’s next artistic output as an irony or an inevitability. In the First World War, he served in the Artists’ Rifles. He was a sergeant-instructor in the Machine Gun Corps, producing many illustrations for training purposes. Ultimately, he was made a Captain. His pictures – often swiftly executed, with charcoal and watercolour – included the ‘Battle of the Somme, Tanks in Action’, ‘The Twisted Rails, Ypres-Dickybosen Road’, ‘Loos, September 1915’ and, ‘Killing Germans; the machine at work’. Like the shockingly powerful images of dead and empty landscapes by Paul Nash – also enlisted in the Artists’ Rifles – Handley-Read’s 'Somewhere in France' offers a fallen bough and plume of smoke in an otherwise deserted landscape, as a sign of a war that challenged the imagination by the intensity of its horrors. These fierce pictures provide a rather shocking contrast to his earlier illustrations: Handley-Read – in common with other artists and writers of the period – now had a more sombre view of the impact of militarism. Some of his pictures, capturing this War so powerfully and swiftly, were exhibited in May 1916, 1917 and 1918, at The Leicester Galleries, in London. These were part of a long series of exhibitions held throughout the War and Handley-Read kept good company: preceding and following his shows in these years were works by William Rothenstein, Henri Harpignies, Lady Butler, Gaudier Brzeska and Eric Kennington.

After the First War, Handley-Read never again turned to the heroic - at least, not on the battlefield. He had married, before the War, and his wife was one of the first women to qualify as a medical doctor, as well as being an active suffragette[1]. In 1916, their son, Charles, was born. He was sent to school at Bryanston - only established in 1928, with a handful of pupils and a focus on sponsoring a free-spirited, artistic approach to life. Indeed, Charles even returned to Bryanston as a ‘charismatic … knowing and stylish’ art teacher[2], with a love of the work of Paul Klee, Picasso and Wyndham Lewis. Clearly, this was a family which fostered a bold, dynamic, intellectually demanding approach to life.

Edward Handley-Read seems to have revelled in this busy, enquiring, experimental environment. Amongst his portraits, there is a vivid image of his son, aged about three – now in the Higgins Art Gallery and Museum, Bedford – ‘Bull’s Eyes’[3]. This small picture is one of the most fresh and engaging portraits of a child that we have seen: a portrait revealing both the vulnerability and the optimism of extreme youth, expressed with the energy of an artist loving his post-War life and his family.

By the 1920s, Edward Handley-Read’s artistic output was very varied. He painted the green English countryside bathed in its soft light; the beaches and the sea; colourful parades and celebrations in town; elegant women and nudes. He was also called on to paint portraits of military men and local civic celebrities; even these are witness to Handley-Read’s mastery of bold composition, lively colour and ability to convey a strong sense of an individual life. His training – his artistic schooling and the more bitter training offered by war, as well as the warm family existence he seems to have enjoyed after the Great War – equipped him with a penetrating eye and brain, and enabled him to capture a busy scene or a single individual with vivacity and humanity.

This is an artist whose work is worth searching out. Edward Handley-Read deserves a considerably greater profile.

© Dr. Hilary Taylor, 2013

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William Lee Hankey (1869-1952)

William Lee Hankey (1869–1952) RWS,RI,ROI,RE,NS was a British painter and book illustrator. He specialized in landscapes, character studies and portraits of pastoral life, particularly in studies of mothers with young children such as "We’ve Been in the Meadows All Day". He was born in Chester and worked as a designer after leaving school. He studied art in the evenings at the Chester School of Art (now the Department of Art and Design at University of Chester), then at the Royal College of Art. Later in Paris he became influenced by the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage, who also favoured rustic scenes depicted in a realistic but sentimental style. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1896 and was President of the London Sketch Club from 1902 to 1904. He stayed in France in the early 1900s, painting many of his works in Brittany and Normandy, where he depicted a peasant lifestyle which was already disappearing in England. From 1904 until well after World War I he maintained a studio at the Etaples art colony. "The Refugees", based on Hankey's observations just behind the front line at Étaples Writing in The Studio (Vol. XXXVI, No. 154, Jan. 1906) A.L. Baldry commented that “He is in his water-colours an absolute purist; he paints entirely with transparent pigments, and never has recourse to opaque colours; his brushwork is broad and confident – free, on the one hand, from affectation of showy cleverness, and, on the other, from niggling minuteness or over-elaboration; and he does not insist, as is the fashion with many present-day painters, upon lowness of tone.” His French paintings include land- and seascapes such as "The Harbour at Étaples" and the distant view of the town in Auckland Art Gallery and figure studies like "Mother and Child" and "The Goose Girl". But it was Hankey's black and white and coloured etchings of the people of Étaples, several developed from these paintings, which gained him a reputation as 'one of the most gifted of the figurative printmakers working in original drypoint during the first thirty years of the 20th century'. One that is particularly striking for its stylistic presentation was "The Refugees", his contribution to raising awareness of the consequences for ordinary people of the German invasion of France and Belgium in 1914. He went on to serve with the Artists' Rifles from 1915 to 1918. In Britain he had been associated with the Newlyn School, a group of English artists based in the titular village in Cornwall who were themselves influenced by the romantic poets such as Wordsworth and Keats.

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Alfred Frank Hardiman (1891-1949)

Sculptor, born in London, the son of a, silversmith. Hardiman won a London County Council Scholarship to the Royal College of Art in 1912, and four years later transferred to the Royal Academy Schools. 
After a period as an engineering draughtsman in the Royal Flying Corps during World War I, Hardiman was elected a member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1918. 
He resumed his studies and in 1920 was awarded the Prix de Rome, spending two years at the British School at Rome. 
Hardiman’s best-known public commission is the controversial Earl Haig Memorial situated in Whitehall, London. It caused outrage in some circles as Hardiman did not depict Haigh’s likeness as his widow Lady Haigh had expected. It was not completed until 1937.

More widely admired are his heraldic lions flanking the main entrance to the City Hall, Norwich, a work which more fully represents his style. Hardiman also carved three large stone figures for the council chamber. 
Other public commissions include statues at County Hall, Westminster, a memorial fountain at St James's church, Piccadilly, in remembrance of Viscount Southwood and a statue of Cecil Rhodes in Oxford. 
Hardiman who was a member of the Chelsea Arts Club was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1936 and a full member in 1944. He was awarded a Fellowship of the Royal British Society of Sculptors in 1938. 

Bibliography: Sculpture and the Pursuit of a Modern Ideal in Britain, c. 1880-1930 edited by David J. Getsy. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004. ISBN: 0754609960. A kick in the teeth : The equestrian monument to Field Marshal Earl Haig, Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies in France 1915-1918 by Alfred Hardiman by Nicholas Watkins. Published by Henry Moore Institute, Leeds, 2008. ISBN 9781905462179 .

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Dudley Hardy (1867-1922)

Dudley Hardy was born in Sheffield, Yorkshire, England on 15 January 1867 and studied at the Akademie der Kunste in Düsseldorf, Germany, in Antwerp, Belgium (1884-85), and in Paris. He was also taught by his father, the marine painter Thomas Bush Hardy. Dudley Hardy worked as a book illustrator and contributed illustrations and cartoons to numerous magazines including ‘Ludgate Monthly’, ‘Eureka’, ‘Illustrated Bits’, ‘Punch’, ‘The English Illustrated Magazine’, ‘Illustrated London News’ and ‘The Graphic’. Curiously, he worked as a “war artist” in Sudan while living in London. He produced many posters, notably for theatrical productions. Hardy exhibited at the Fine Art Society, the Royal Academy, the Goupil Gallery, the International Gallery, the London Salon, the Royal Society of British Artists, the New Gallery, the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, the Royal Miniature Society and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in London; the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, the Royal Society of Artists in Birmingham, and the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. He was elected a member of the Royal Society of British Artists (RBA) in 1889, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours (RI) in 1897, and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters (ROI) in 1898. He died in London on 11 August 1922.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for his assistance.

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Hilda Mary Harvey (1890 - 1982)

Painter, notably of portraits, printmaker and miniaturist on ivory. She was daughter of the artist John Rabone Harvey, her older brother being Herbert Johnson Harvey. Attended Birmingham School of Art for about six years from age of 15, then worked for firm of Birmingham silversmiths, closed down by World War I, the owners being German. She joined London couture house Mechinka, studying part-time, then full-time at Slade School of Fine Art under Henry Tonks. In London was courted by the artist Gilbert Spencer. After going with another artist to Paris in early 1920s and catching paratyphoid fever she was advised not to winter in England so lived in south of France for two years. After her return she married Charles Meeke of Birmingham and had one son, Harvey, before divorcing him. After periods in Cornwall and Llangollen during World War II she returned to St Ives where she continued to paint until 1950. Showed at NEAC, RA, Paris Salon and RBSA, being elected an associate in 1933.

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Harold Harvey (1874-1941)

Painter, born in Penzance and who studied under Norman Garstin and afterwards in Paris at the Académie Julian, 1894-96, Académie Colarossi and Académie Delecluse also in 1896. He began his painting career as a follower of the early Newlyn artists, particularly Stanhope Forbes. He exhibited at the RA from 1898, also at the RHA, ROI, Goupil Gallery and in the provinces and abroad and held solo exhibitions at the Leicester Galleries in 1918, 1920 and 1926. Harold Harvey was an elected member of the RCamA, 1909-13 and the NSA. He achieved public recognition and was selected to take part in the Venice Biennale of 1924. During the 1920’s he ran a school of painting with his friend Ernest Procter.  

His work is represented in several public collections including the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Brighton and Hove Museums and Art Galleries, Manchester Art Gallery, National Museum of Wales, Oldham Art Gallery, Penlee House Museum, Plymouth Art Gallery, Royal Cornwall Museum and the University of Exeter Art Collection. Harvey also produced some paintings for the church at St. Hilary. His wife Gertrude Harvey was also an accomplished painter. 
In 2001, Penlee House Museum organised a major touring exhibition of his work, entitled 'Painter of Cornwall'. 

Literature: Harold Harvey: Painter of Cornwall by Kenneth McConkey, Peter Risdon and Pauline Shepherd. Published by Sansom, Bristol, 2001. ISBN 1900178532.

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John Hassall (1868-1948)

Cartoonist, illustrator, designer, painter and teacher, born in Walmer, Kent. He was the father of the artist Joan Hassall and the writer Christopher Hassall. After education in England and Germany, and twice failing to gain a commission at Sandhurst, he emigrated to Manitoba, Canada, where he farmed. In the early 1890s, after some success contributing sketches to The Graphic, he moved back to Europe, studying art in Antwerp, then enrolling at the Academie Julian in Paris. Returning to England in the mid 1890s Hassall became a popular cartoonist and one of the most celebrated poster designers of his generation (his designs Included the well-known advertisement "Skegness Is so bracing."). Hassall illustrated numerous books (especially for Blackie and Co.) and periodicals such as The Idler, London Opinion, Pearson's Magazine and The Tatler. For many years he ran his own school of art, the New Art School and School of Poster Design. He was a member of RI, RWA, London Sketch and Savage Clubs. He lived in London and designed posters for the Great Northern Railway and numerous other clients. Like many artists who achieved a huge reputations through commercial work, Hassall craved public recognition of a different sort. Through his Royal Academy exhibits - larger, ambitious, historical works - he sought to establish himself as an academic painter. These works, however, lack the originality, liveliness and invention of his instantly recognisable and hugely successful commercial work.

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Enid Hay (Fl1902 - d.1911)

Primarily a flower painter, Hay exhibited at the Baillie Gallery, London, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and at the London Salon. She was the daughter of Sir William Rutherford MP, the Lord Mayor of Liverpool 1902-3, and studied at the Liverpool School of Art. She married in 1907 the artist James Hamilton Hay who was associated with the Camden Town Group. His portrait of her, The Lady with the Japanese gown - portrait of Miss Enid Rutherford, 1907, is in the collection of the Walker Art Gallery. Enid Hay's work is held in the Government Art Collection. She painted in a broadly handled, richly textured pointillist technique.

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Marjorie Hayes (1913-2005)

Marjorie Hayes studied at the Royal College of Art in the 1930's.  She excelled in the design of clothes and handicrafts and established her own commercial design and bespoke clothes business.  She also contriubted regularly to Queen Magazine, illustrated children's books.  She exhibited at the Society of Women Artists, (over 50 works from 1936-1972), Royal Insitute Galleries and the Royal Academy.  Her father was also a painter Albert Edward Hayes (1879-1968)

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Isobel Atterbury Heath (1908-1989)

Isobel Atterbury Heath studied at the Académie Colarossi in Paris

and later Leonard Fuller’s St Ives School of Painting in the 1930s.

During WWII, she was commissioned by the Ministry of

Information to paint workers in munitions factories and at a

camouflage factory in St Ives, which gave her the opportunity to

showcase how women were employed outside the perceived female

wartime roles of nurses and care-givers.

She broke away from the STISA to help found the Penwith

Society of Arts in 1949, but resigned in 1950 and rejoined STISA

in 1957, continuing to exhibit with them for the rest of her life.

She also showed with the ROI, the RI and the RSA, and was

included in the 1955 centenary exhibition of the SWA in London.

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Francis Helps (1890-1972)

Painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in Dulwich, southeast London. At Dulwich
College, 1903-7, Helps was the only boy to take art lessons and had a private tutor. In 1908 went to Slade School of Fine Art, where taught by Henry Tonks and Fred Brown. In 1915 Helps volunteered for service with Artists' Rifles, serving in France. In 1924 he joined the 1922-4 Everest Expedition as official artist, completing 8o paintings and drawings, most now in America. Between 1931-4 Helps taught at Royal College of Art, then volunteered to be evacuated with it to Ambleside, in the Lake District, 1940-4. From 1953 until his retirement Helps was head of the school of painting in Leeds, where he settled, returning in his last year to Bromley, Kent. Helps showed with RBA, of which he was elected a member in 1933, and in 1924 had a show at Alpine Club Gallery of his Himalayan work. Further shows were at City Art Gallery, Leeds, 1959; Manor House Museum and Art Gallery, Ilkley, 1971; and South London Art Gallery, 1979.

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Keith Henderson (1883 - 1982)

Painter, muralist and illustrator of great individuality, educated at Marlborough College. Studied art at Slade School of Fine Art, then in Paris. Initially he was principally a portrait painter. After Army cavalry service in World War I Henderson travelled widely, including Africa and South America, the local plants and wildlife finding their way into his often colourful work. Official War Artist attached to Royal Air Force in World War II. Among books that Henderson illustrated are W H Hudson's Green Mansions, 1926, and The Purple Land, 1929, and he published several titles himself, including Palm Groves and Humming Birds, 1924. Exhibited RA, Fine Art Society and RWS extensively, as well as ROI and RSW. Pelter/Sands, Bristol gave him a solo show in 1980. Galleries in Glasgow, Manchester, Preston, Worthing and elsewhere hold his work. Lived at Spean Bridge, Inverness-shire.

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Thomas Barclay Hennell (1903-1945)

Painter, born in Ridley Rectory, Kent, who studied at the Regent Street Polytechnic, London, 1921-26. From 1928-32 Hennell taught art at Bruton School, Somerset and Kingswood School, Bath. At that time he began making drawings of country crafts and farm implements. In 1934 he published his first book, 'Change in the Farm', with his own illustrations but during the mid-1930’s he suffered a breakdown and was confined to Claybury Mental Hospital, later recounting his experience there in 'The Witnesses', published in 1938. In 1938 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Watercolour Society and early in World War II in 1940, he was commissioned by the Pilgrim Trust to make drawings for the Recording Britain scheme. During the following two years Hennell was also commissioned by the Ministry of Information, to record aspects of tool making and land work in wartime. He spent three months in Iceland as an Official War Artist in 1943, and in 1944 his watercolours of Iceland were exhibited in the National Gallery. By 1944 he was in France attached to the Royal Navy and subsequently he flew to India, attached to the RAF. He was captured by terrorists in Java and reported missing, nothing more being heard of him. Examples of his work are in the collections of the RAF Museum, Hendon, Imperial War Museum, and in 1995 the Victoria Art Gallery, Bath held a show of his work.

Literature: Thomas Hennell: Countryman, Artist and Writer by Michael Macleod. Published by Cambridge University Press, 1988. ISBN: 0521331242; 
The Countryman at Work. Written and illustrated by T. Hennell. With a memoir of the author by H. J. Massingham. Published by Architectural Press, 1947;
The Windmills of Thomas Hennell by Alan Stoyel. Published by Landmark Publishing Ltd, 2006. ISBN: 1843062240.

With thanks to www.artbiogs.co.uk

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Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975)

Sculptor, born in Wakefield, Yorkshire, who studied at Leeds College of Art, 1919-21 and the Royal College of Art, 1921-24. While at the RCA, Hepworth was not entirely satisfied with the teaching there and took part-time drawing classes at Leon Underwood's Brook Green School. In 1924 she travelled to Italy on a scholarship, studied the Italian technique of marble carving and married the sculptor, John Skeaping. She returned to London, and in 1928 moved to Parkhill Road Studios, Hampstead, where her neighbours were Cecil Stephenson, Henry Moore and Ben Nicholson. She had her first major exhibition in 1928 at the Beaux Arts Gallery, her work there consisting of stone carvings of figures and animals. About this time she showed at the Lucy Wertheim Gallery and in 1932 and 1933 she and Ben Nicholson visited the Paris studios of leading French artists. Her marriage to Skeaping ended in 1932. In 1933 she joined the Abstraction-Creation, an international Paris-based exhibiting society. Moving into an abstract phase and, like Henry Moore, she introduced the use of a hole into carved sculpture. With Nicholson and others, she was for a period, at the forefront at the modern movement in England. When World War II broke out, she moved with Nicholson and their triplet children to Carbis Bay, Cornwall and did not sculpt again until 1943. She also began employing strings to explore the tension or space within a sculpture. From 1951 she lived permanently at Trewyn Studios, St. Ives after the dissolution of her second marriage to Nicholson. Hepworth was a founder member of the Crypt Group with her husband Ben Nicholson but resigned in 1949 two years after its formation. She exhibited with the Penwith Society of Artists, St. Ives Arts Club and early in her career with the 7 & 5 Society and Unit One. Barbara Hepworth received many commissions from home and abroad and held retrospectives at the Venice Biennale, 1950, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1952 and 1962, São Paulo Biennale, 1959 and at the Tate in 1968, the Yorkshire Sculpture Park, 1980 and at the Tate Gallery, Liverpool in 1994. Hepworth was created DBE in 1965 and after her tragic death in a fire, her studio was opened as a public museum. Arguably her most prestigious commission was 'Single Form' for the United Nations Building in New York which was unveiled in 1964. 

Examples of her work, both sculpture and drawing are to be found in collections around the world. These locations include Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Arts Council England, Barbara Hepworth Museums and Sculpture Gardens, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Bournemouth & Poole College Collection, Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Government Art Collection, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Hepworth Wakefield, Kettle's Yard, Lancaster University Art Gallery, Leeds City Art Gallery, Liverpool University Art Collection, National Portrait Gallery, National Trust, New Art Centre, Roche Court, New Hall College, Cambridge, Pallant House Gallery, Pier Arts Centre, Royal College of Surgeons, Rugby Museum and Art Gallery, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Stirling University Art Collection, Tate Gallery, University of Birmingham and York Museums Trust. With Ben Nicholson she had triplets in 1934, Simon, Rachel and Sarah, the two former being artists as well.

Bibliography: Barbara Hepworth: St Ives Artists series, by Penelope Curtis. Published by Tate Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1854372254. Barbara Hepworth: A Pictorial Autobiography. Published by Tate Publishing, 1985. ISBN: 1854371495.

We are grateful to artbiogs.co.uk for assistance

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Dorothy Hepworth (1894-1978)

Painter, and lifelong friend and companion of the painter Patricia Preece, whom she met at the Slade School of Art. While studying there she first showed at the RA and in 1918-19 graduated with first-class honours. With Preece she set up a studio in London, then spent four years with her in Paris, where Hepworth studied at Atelier Colarossi. After returning to England in 1925 they rented cottages in the west of England. By 1927 they had settled in Cookham, Berkshire, where she lived with Preece, even during Preece's bizarre marriage to the painter Stanley Spencer. Much of Patricia Preece's output is known to be by Hepworth. A studio sale was held at Christie's in 1984. Michael Dickens is currently preparing a biography of the artist.

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Patrick Heron (1920-1999)

Painter and art critic born at Headingly in Leeds, Yorkshire who lived in West Cornwall as a child, 1925-1929. He studied part-time at the Slade School, 1937-1939. During World War II, from 1940-44, Heron registered as a conscientious objector and worked as an agricultural labourer in Cornwall. After the cessation of the War he spent the next year working as an assistant at the Bernard Leach pottery in St. Ives. He started work as an art critic in 1945 and wrote in the New English Weekly, the New Statesman and Nation and continued to write for most of the rest of his life. He held his first solo exhibition at Downing's Bookshop, St. Ives, in 1947 and back in London in 1956 held his first major solo show at the Redfern Gallery. In 1953 he organised, wrote the catalogue and exhibited in ‘Space in Colour’ an exhibition of ten contemporary artists at the Hanover Gallery, London. From 1953-56 he taught at the Central School of Arts & Crafts and in 1955 published his first major book ‘The Changing Forms of Art’. From 1955-58 he was the London correspondent at the American magazine ‘Art Digest’ and in 1956 he moved into Eagle's Nest at Zennor, near St. Ives where he lived for the rest of his life. Heron was awarded the Grand Prize in the 2nd John Moores Liverpool Exhibition in 1959. He represented Britain in the 1965 VIII Bienal de São Paolo exhibition where he won a Silver Medal. Heron was created CBE in 1977 and from 1980-87 he was a Trustee of the Tate Gallery. He travelled extensively in America and Australia exhibiting and lecturing on both continents. He designed the coloured glass windows for the Tate St. Ives and was also responsible for the site specific outdoor installation at Stag Place in Westminster, London entitled 'Big Painting Sculpture'. Heron held retrospective exhibitions of his work at Hepworth Wakefield in 1952 (then known as Wakefield Art Gallery), Museum of Modern Art, Oxford in 1968, the Whitechapel Art Gallery in 1972 and at the Barbican Art Gallery in 1985. A major retrospective exhibition of his work was held at Tate Britain in 1998. Locally in his beloved Cornwall Heron showed with the short-lived Crypt Group and at the Newlyn Society of Artists as well as with the Marjorie Parr Gallery and the Arnolfini Gallery.

Examples of his work are in the collections worldwide. In the UK these locations include Aberdeen Art Gallery, Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Arts Council England, Arts Council of Northern Ireland, Barclays Bank Collection, BBC, BMAG, Bristol City Art Gallery, British Council, British Museum, Contemporary Art Society, Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Exeter University Fine Art Collection, Fitzwilliam Museum, Gulbenkian Foundation, Granada Television, Hatton Gallery, Lakeland Arts Trust, Leeds City Art Gallery, Leicestershire County Council, Manchester City Art Gallery, MoMa, Oxford, National Museum of Wales, National Portrait Gallery, National Westminster Bank, Norwich Castle Museum, Oldham Art Gallery, Oriel Mostyn Gallery, Pallant House Gallery, Peter Stuyvesant Foundation, Peterborough Museum & Art Gallery, Pier Arts Centre, Plymouth City Art Gallery, Portsmouth Art Gallery, RAMM, Towner Art Gallery, Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Southampton Art Gallery, Stirling University Art Collection, Tate Gallery, University of Warwick Art Collection and the Victoria & Albert Museum. His daughter Katharine Heron, is an architect and Susanna Heron, a sculptor.

Bibliography: Patrick Heron by Mel Gooding. Published by Phaidon Press Ltd, 1995. ISBN: 0714834440.

Patrick Heron Garden Paintings by Andrew Wilson. Published by Tate Publishing, 2001. ISBN: 1854373544.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Ira L. Hill (1877-1947)

Ira L. Hill opened his New York Studio the same year that Florenz Ziegfeld first staged his Follies-1907. Both would enjoy a gradual ascent to preeminence in their fields. Hill, offspring of a patrician Virginia family and a man of charm and energy, became the foremost Society photographer of Manhattan by 1910, the first call camera artist for publications such as Town & Country. He invested deeply in the painted backdrops for his sittings, hiring New York’s best scenic artists from the opera and theater to supply echt-English Gainsborough groves. For a modern note, he constructed a window seat in the latest style, and used electric lamps to emulate a sunny world beyond the window glass. The idea was picked up by other studios—particularly George Moffett’s in Chicago.

In the 1910s, whenever Ziegfeld wanted to lend luster to a talented young woman considered for elevation to featured status in his productions, he would dispatch her to Hill’s studio. Because his prices were the steepest in New York City, Ziegfeld did not use Hill for general publicity, or contract him to do production work. Rather, he was hired for ‘personality portraiture’—images highlighting the special radiance of a woman. Hill did not use the soft focus atmospheres of the art photographers, or the Rembrandt lighting that the early glamourists employed. Rather, he fashioned images of privilege—rural otium, or great house holiday. He preferred full length portraits in fancy dress, and so became one of the favorite fashion photographers of the second decade of the 20th century.

Ziegfeld used him until back paintings seemed old-fashioned—circa 1923. Hill, however, remained the foremost Society portraitist in the city until his death in 1947

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P.J. Hill ()

21017 Private P.J. Hill, D Company, 20th Battalion, The County of London Regiment. Studied at Lambeth School of Art, St. Oswald's Place, Upper Kennington Lane. Resided at 6 Amott Road, Peckham Rye, London in 1895.

During the War, Hill had produced, a series of watercolours recording life on the Home Front as  he moved around London and the Home Counties from Cromwell Gardens in Kensington to guard duty at Alexandra Palace,e from the Cliffe Fort in the village of Cliffe on the Hoo Peninsular in Kent, to Chislehurst (the White Horse Hotel) and Beckenham. Well into his 40s during the war he would have been too old to serve overseas.

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Norman Hirst (1862-1956)

Printmaker and painter, born in Liverpool, who in 1885 took up a two-year scholarship at Herkomer's School in Bushey, where he remained until 1895. Later lived on the south coast, notably at Seaford, Sussex. While in Bushey Hirst learned his engraving and mezzotint skills at the fine art printing studios of H T Cox, and after he moved he continued to use the studios for mezzotinting, at which he was an expert. His reputation was mainly as a mezzotint engraver of works by Gainsborough, Lawrence, Watteau and Romney, and in 1917 he was called as an expert witness in a notable court case in which an attribution was disputed. (Hirst's opinion that the work was not by Romney was eventually borne out.) Hirst was made an associate of the RE in 1931. Frost & Reed published his works Sea Melodies and Capture and Agnew The Mall and Gamme d'Amour. Showed extensively at RA, also at Fine Art Society, Abber Gallery and RI, but a lack of interest in original mezzotints after World War II prompted Hirst's executors to burn most of his studio collection. Some of what remained was exhibited in Three Bushey Artists by the Bushey Museum Trust in 1991.

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Harold Hitchcock (b. 1914)

Painter in watercolour and gouache, born in London as Raymond Hitchcock, whose pictures are of a visionary nature and have been called "the visual embodiment of Jung's philosophy". Financial problems prompted Hitchcock's parents to send the children to live with the maternal grandparents in Thundersley, Essex, where in a cultured environment he began to paint at the age of nine. At Thundersley he had a vision "of harmony and well-being and peace" which influenced his subsequent development, his painting being an attempt to recapture this. Back in London aged 13 he began painting imaginary natural landscapes. His work was seen by the painter Laura Knight and he was called a child prodigy, but he entered a long period doing commercial artwork - broken by service during World War II as a non-combatant, volunteering for bomb disposal - which often left him depressed. For years was plagued by trigeminal neuralgia until surgery in 1958 cured this. In 1947 had first public showing of his work at the International Art Centre; by 1964 was able to give up commercial work; in 1965 had an exhibition at Woburn Abbey, his picture The Mill being purchased for the Lidice Memorial Museum, Czechoslovakia; and in 1967 had first major retrospective at RI galleries. Had a successful tour of America in 1969. Hitchcock's pictures owe much to those of Claude Lorrain and J M W Turner, being idealised, lightdrenched landscapes peopled with mysterious figures. Essentially self-taught, he employed a form of automatism as advocated by Andre Breton. Hitchcock's joining the Subud Brotherhood, a religious-type group, in 1960 was a profound influence. Lived in Ugborough, Devon.

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Frank Hobden (1859-1930)

Hobden lived in South Benfleet, and made its locality the subject of a number of landscapes. His works are often on a small scale, very closely controlled tonally and painstakingly finished, as if they were miniatures. He also illustrated a number of books. He exhibited at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, RA, RI, ROI and RBA, to which he was elected in 1901.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for his assistance.

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David Hockney (1937-)

David Hockney (1937-) trained at Bradford College of Art, and then the Royal College, London, where his painting began to attract the attention of critics and collectors. He was associated with the Pop Art movement and in his experimentation with different styles, he showed great originality. His print-making career took off after he visited California when he worked at the studios of Gemini GEL in making remarkable etchings and lithographs, including a set of 39 prints inspired by the magical yet gruesome fairy tales from the Brothers Grimm.

Born and brought up in Bradford the fourth of five children, he now divides his time between London and California. He has however, never forgotten his ties with Yorkshire and has spent time living in Bridlington on the coast. The largest permanent Collection of David Hockney’s artworks are in Salts Mill, a renovated industrial mill in the village of Saltaire, a UNESCO World Heritage Site not far from Bradford.

Hockney’s first solo show was at the Whitechapel Gallery, London when Hockney was aged 26, he has since exhibited regularly and extensively all over the world including a massive recent retrospective at Tate Britain with a selection of his most famous works celebrating his skill in painting, drawing, printmaking, photography and video over the past six decades. In 2014, Richard Lloyd, International Head of Prints at Christie’s curated “Hockney Printmaker” at the Dulwich Picture Gallery before going on tour to the Bowes Museum. This exhibition highlighted Hockney’s prolific and technically expert career as a printmaker.

In 2006, Hockney's painting, The Splash, sold for £2.6 million. In 2008, Beverly Hills Housewife (1966–67), a 12-foot-long acrylic that depicts the collector Betty Freeman standing by her pool in a long hot-pink dress, sold for $7.9 million at Christie's in New York and in 2016 his Woldgate Woods landscape made £9.4 million at auction.
In 1990, Hockney was offered a Knighthood but he declined, he did however accept an Order of Merit in 2012 for his contribution to the arts

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Francis Edwin Hodge (1881-1949)

Decorative artist and portrait painter born in Plymouth, Devon and educated at Westminster School of Art where his tutors included Frank Brangwyn and Augustus John before furthering his studies at the Slade School of Fine Art and in Paris. He later assisted Gerald Moira at the Royal College of Art and showed at the Royal Academy, International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, New English Art Club, Royal Society of Portrait Painters, Royal Institute of Oil Painters, Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh, USA, Paris Salon and at the Royal Society of British Artists who elected him a member in 1915. He also showed at the Chenil Gallery, Cooling Galleries, Grosvenor Gallery, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Goupil Gallery, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Manchester Academy of Fine Arts, New English Art Club and at the Royal Scottish Academy.

Hodge who enlisted in the Artists' Rifles saw active service in World War I as a Captain in the Royal Field Artillery and later published watercolours relating to his battle experiences in France. Examples of his work are in the collection of Bewdley Museum, Burgh House, Hampstead, Derby Museum and Art Gallery, Doncaster Museum Service, Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Imperial War Museum, National Museums Northern Ireland, National Trust, Plymouth Art Gallery, Royal Air Force Museum, Royal College of Surgeons, Royal West of England Academy, Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, Southampton Art Gallery, Usher Gallery, Victoria & Albert Museum and Worthing Museum and Art Gallery. Government records give his birth year as 1881 not 1883 as is regularly cited.


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Howard Hodgkin (1932- 2017)

Howard Hodgkin (British artist, born 1932, died 2017) was born in London and studied at the Camberwell School of Art followed by the Bath Academy of Art. Hodgkin's early work suggested a sense of claustrophobia and unease but became more open as he travelled extensively and experimented with new ways of representing the natural world. 
His paintings and prints use bright colours. He painted on a small-scale at first, but in the 1980s began producing much bigger works. 
While a student he explored most printmaking methods, including screen-printing, lithography, collage, carborundum etching, aquatints, hand-colouring and continued making prints throughout his career. 
He has a reputation as one of the finest colourists in contemporary art. He won the Turner Prize in 1985 and was knighted in 1992 for his services to the arts. 

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Eliot Hodgkin (1905-1987)

Painter, notably in tempera, of small, highly detailed pictures of flowers and fruit; mural painter; writer. Born at Purley, near Reading, Berkshire, Hodgkin after Harrow School studied at Byam Shaw School of Art and at the Royal Academy Schools under Ernest Jackson. First one-man show at Picture Hire Gallery, 1936. Later showed at RA, Wildenstein, Leicester Galleries, NEAC, RBA and in New York. Among his books are She Closed the Door, 1931, and Views of London, 1948. Tate Gallery holds his work. Hodgkin sought to show things "exactly as they are, yet with some of their mystery and poetry, and as though seen for the first time". Hodgkin, a religious man, was a notable collector. A selection from his collection was shown in a memorial exhibition at Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox in 1990, and it included Sir Thomas Lawrence, Corot, Rubens, Graham Sutherland, Degas and Japanese prints. Lived in London.

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Frances Hodgkins (1869-1947)

Painter, born in Dunedin, New Zealand, who came to London in 1900. She earned the money to do so from piano lessons, selling watercolours and black and white illustrations for newspapers. Hodgkins travelled around Europe, particularly in France and spent ten years in Paris, taking a watercolour class of her own at Académie Colarossi where in 1910 she was appointed the first female teacher. Hodgkins first visited Cornwall in 1902 spending about 3 months there in the springtime having previously attended Norman Garstin's summer sketching classes in France in 1901. Soon after she showed at the Newlyn Art Gallery and then returned to France. She returned to England shortly before the WWI and befriended Cedric Morris who encouraged her to stay, which was to make St. Ives, Cornwall her home until 1920. 
From 1923-26, she lived in Manchester and while there she worked for the Calico Printing Association and exhibited at the little-known Manchester Society of Modern Painters. Moving to London she showed with the London Group and 7 & 5 Society and at the Storran Gallery. An association with the St. George's Gallery in London and then the Lefevre Gallery, latterly brought her fame in her sixties. Originally a member of Unit One she eventually resigned and was replaced by Tristram Hillier.

She showed at a variety of venues that included the International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Baillie Gallery, Chester Gallery, Fine Art Society, Grosvenor Gallery, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Goupil Gallery, Walker Art Gallery, Lefevre Gallery, Leicester Galleries, London Salon, New English Art Club, Royal Academy, Redfern Gallery, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, Royal Scottish Academy, Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Watercolour and the Society of Women Artists. Examples of her work are in the collections of Bangor University, British Council, Brighton Museum & Art Gallery, Bristol Art Gallery, Glasgow Museums, Government Art Collection, Leeds Museums and Galleries, Manchester City Galleries, Pallant House Gallery, Plymouth Art Gallery, Southampton Art Gallery, Tate Gallery and the Towner Art Gallery.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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George Herbert Buckingham Holland (1901-1987)

Painter, educated at the Grammar School in Northampton, where he was born and made his career. He worked as a commercial artist before studying at Leicester School of Art and Chelsea Polytechnic. Was a founder-member of Northampton Town and County Art Society and its president in 1940-50. He was noted for his portraits and showed at RP, Alpine Club Gallery, ROI and elsewhere. National Portrait Gallery, Royal Academy of usic and National Library pf Wales hold his work. Holland's fine 1947 portrait of Lady Margaret Isham is in the Isham family home, Lamport, Northamptonshire.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Dudley Holland (1915-1956)

Painter, muralist, designer, printmaker and teacher whose work had a Neo-Romantic tinge and a strong sense of design. Holland was educated at Kingston Grammar School, Chelsea, and Willesden School of Art. He was awarded an exhibition to the Royal College of Art, 1936, which he refused, preferring to paint on his own. He taught design, painting and drawing at Willesden, Harrow and Goldsmiths. He was appointed principal of York School of Art in 1949, and Guildford School of Arts and Crafts in 1951. His mural commissions included decorations for Cunard Line, as well as schools and libraries. He exhibited at the RA from 1937, also with NEAC, LG and Redfern Gallery and in touring shows. In 1950 he shared an exhibition with Austin Wright at York City Art Gallery, which holds his work, as does the Arts Council. Holland was killed in a road accident.

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Edgar Holloway (1914-2008)

Painter and etcher, born in Mexborough near Doncaster, Yorkshire, the son of a frame maker. Holloway intended going to art school but was already selling his work through his father's framing shop at the age of fourteen. He felt little need for instruction and reluctantly attended part-time evening classes at his local art school. He said that he learnt his skill at etching from books, especially Ernest Lumsden's 'The Art of Etching'. 

In 1931 he held his first solo exhibition and attended life classes at the Slade School of Fine Art, met Alec Buckels and through him, Herbert Read, Stephen Spender and T.S. Eliot, whose portraits Holloway drew and etched. In 1943 Holloway visited Eric Gill at Capel-y-ffin and met and soon after married Daisy Monica Hawkins Gill's favourite model. Edgar Holloway settled in Ditchling, Sussex, in 1949 and became a member of the Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic in which Gill was involved. By now Holloway had taken up lettering, sign-writing, calligraphy and wood engraving, and he designed and worked as a cartographer for major publishing houses. 

He exhibited at the RA, Royal Society of British Artists, New English Art Club, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, Society of Artist Printmakers and RSA. A retrospective was held at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford in 1991 and in the same year he at last enjoyed the official recognition of his peers, who elected him a member of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers. His work is in the collections at the BM, V&A, National Museum of Wales, Harvard University and the New York Public Library. In 2004, Wolseley Fine Arts held a ninetieth-birthday exhibition.

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Percy Horton (1897-1970)

Born in Brighton, Percy Horton attended the School of Art there from 1912-1916. During the First Word War he became a conscientious objector and was sentenced to two years hard labour in Carlton Prison, Edinburgh, from 1916-18. After the war, he took up his studies again at the Central School of Art 1918-20 and the Royal College of Art 1922-24. In 1925 he was appointed art master at Bishop's Stortford College and also began giving classes at the Working Men's College in London.

As a member of the AIA (Allied International Artists) during the 1930's he believed that artists should be socially committed and he painted a series of portraits of the unemployed during the Depression. He taught at the RCA between 1930 and 1949. During the Second World War the college was evacuated to Ambleside and he produced a series of paintings of the Lake District and its people. At the request of the War Artists Advisory Committee he drew portraits and painted scenes in war factories and this collection is now in the Imperial War Museum. In 1949 Horton was elected Ruskin Master of Drawing at Oxford University and remained in this post until his retirement in 1964. His favourite areas for his paintings were the South Downs around Firle and the farmsteads of Provence.

His style was restrained and traditional; in 1973 came this quote - "the landscapes of his maturity are carefully composed and closely observed, the artist's strong sense of form and pictorial structure making them serious works which require time to assimilate and appreciate. As a figure draughtsman, he was outstanding and his portrait drawings and paintings are the work of a sensitive artist of intense concentration, intellectual power and human understanding."

Percy Horton painted many scenes of Dulwich . He and his wife, Lydia lived at 11 Pond Cottages for many years. His neighbours were fellow artists James and Margaret Fitton who lived at 10 Pond Cottages. After the Hortons left the two cottages were amalgamated and the Fittons took over the entire property. One of Horton's pupils at the RCA was the North American-born artist, R.B. Kitaj, who also lived in Dulwich, in the 1960's, in Burbage Road.

Horton exhibited in numerous group shows, including the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, Arts Council travelling exhibitions, Royal Society of British Artists, New English Art Club, Ashmolean Museum and the Brighton Art Gallery. A memorial retrospective was held at the Mall Galleries in 1971. His work may be seen in the permanent collections of the Tate, National Portrait Gallery, Arts Council, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge., and a number of city art galleries.

We are grateful to Professor Edward Chaney for assistance.

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Margaret Maitland Howard (1898 -1983)

Margaret Maitland Howard was a painter and draughtsman, notably in black-and-white, born in London. She studied at the Byam Shaw and Vicat Cole School of Art and Royal Academy Schools, where she was a multiple silver medal-winner plus other awards. Exhibited RA, NEAC, SWA, RP and ROI. 

Just after World War II Margaret Maitland Howard was appointed draughtsman to the Institute of Archaeology at London University. Ridley Art Club member, daughter of the artist Henry James Howard. She lived in Sutton, Surrey and died in 1983.

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Walter Hunt (1861-1941)

Walter Hunt was born into a family of painters. His father, Charles, was a genre artist (a painter of everyday scenes) and his brother Edgar was well-known for his paintings of animals. So, too, was Walter Hunt an animal painter, best known for his paintings of farmyard scenes. He began painting when he was thirteen years old.

Hunt lived in  Wandsworth,  South West London. He exhibited his works at the Royal Academy beginning in 1881 when he was twenty years old, and also exhibited at the Royal Society of Artists and at the Walker Gallery. His painting, The Dog In The Manger, was purchased by Chantrey Bequest in 1885.He died in 1941.

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Henry J Hunt (1867-1951)

Inspite of emigrating to America in 1888 Henry Hunt, who had been trained by his father in London in the art of stained glass, continued to accept commissions in England, including windows for Croydon Airport (officially opened in 1928).  He also submited works for the Royal Academy Summer exhibitions (five examples of which were shown between 1931 and 1941).

Hunt settled in Pittsburgh in 1890 where he established the Hunt Stained Glass Studios specialising in the supply of murals, sculpture and stained glass supplying western Pennsylvania and sites across the United States.
His watercolours are highly distinctive on account of the rich velvet effect he achieved in this medium and he was equally gifted in tempera painting.

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Ethel Hunter (1878-1936)

Relatively little information is available about this artist.  Nine oil paintings by Ethel Hunter are in UK National collections. Touring the towns and cities of France during the height of the war in 1917 she  has left a remarkable record of  life on the Home Front.  After the War she also  made watercolours of soldiers in Germany.  

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Hal Hurst (1865-1938)

Born Henry William Lowe Hurst in London in 1865, he was the son of Henry Hurst, a well-known African traveller and publisher. He was educated at St. Paul's School in London and soon after started recording the political instability of Ireland through drawings and illustrations. He travelled to the United States of America where he found work illustrating newspapers in New York and Philadelphia. Hal returned to Europe studying art at the Royal Academy Schools and the Acad�mie Julian in Paris. He exhibited extensively at all the principal London galleries and was elected member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1896, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours in 1898, and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters in 1900.

He was a founder member of the Royal Miniature Society from its inception in 1896 and elected Vice President, a position he held until stepping down in 1913 - he was given the distinction of Honorary member status the following year.
Hal shared a studio at 23a South Audley Street, Mayfair, London with Alyn Williams founder of the Royal Miniature Society. A motivated, prolific and respected artist, Hal illustrated in excess of 20 published books including Mark Twain's The American Claimant. In addition, his illustrations were published in Punch, Harper's Weekly, Vanity Fair, The Idler and the Illustrated London News, amongst others.

He married and had one son and two daughters. He was the friend and neighbour of Douglas Sladen, the well-known author and travel writer, who also owned many of Hurst's paintings. Sladen described Hurst as being 'a very clever painter' and having a 'beautiful young wife.'
The National Art Library, London holds letters written by Hurst to Sir Isidore Spielmann and Reginald S. Hunt. Hal Hurst died in 1938.

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Thomas Bayliss Huxley-Jones (1908-1969)

Sculptor in a variety of materials who studied at Wolverhampton School of Art under Robert Emerson, 1924-9, and at the Royal College of Art, 1929-33, under Richard Garbe and Gilbert Ledward. Marriede to the sculptor Gwyneth Holt. He exhibited RA, NEAC, RSA, SSA and RBSA. Huxley-Jones' sculpture is generally smooth and simple in profile, as depicted in Arthur T Broadbent's monograph Sculpture Today in Great Britain 1940-43, and in Eric Newton's companion volume British Sculpture 1944-46. Huxley-Jones completed a large volume of public work, at the BBC Television Centre, London, in Chelmsford Cathedral, outside Hornsey Library and in London's Hyde Park. Aberdeen and Wolverhampton Art Galleries hold his work. Was a member of Chelsea Arts Club. Lived in Chelmsford, Essex.

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Gladys Hynes (1888-1958)

Gladys Hynes was born in Indore, India, to an Irish Catholic

family, with whom she emigrated to London in 1891, later

studying at the London School of Art in Earl’s Court. After her

family moved to Penzance in 1906, she attended the Stanhope

Forbes School of Painting, Newlyn, She returned to London in

1919, where she settled in Hampstead.

Hynes was a supporter of the Irish Republican cause (her

correspondence with Desmond Fitzgerald is the subject of an article

by Ed Vulliamy in The Guardian 26.03.2016). A member of the

CWSS, she was also an impassioned campaigner for women’s rights,

often challenging the social construction of gender and sexuality in

her work. Many of the paintings she produced during WWII were

shaped by her mainly pacifist convictions.

During her career, Hynes contributed to Roger Fry’s (1866–

1934) Omega Workshops, illustrated books – including the folio

edition of Ezra Pound’s A Draft of the Cantos nos. XVII to XXVII

(1928) – undertook sculpture commissions and theatre designs.

She exhibited with the RA, the LG, the International Society of

Sculptors, the Paris Salon and at the 1924 Venice Biennale.

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Rudolph Ihlee (1883 - 1968)

Painter and draughtsman, born in London. He was apprenticed to Ferranti as an engineer in 1902, but entered Slade School of Fine Art, 1906-10, where he proved a brilliant student, winning many prizes. After two solo shows at Carfax Gallery, 1912-14, Ihlee worked as an engineering draughtsman in Peterborough during World War I. The year after he became a member of NEAC, in 1921 Ihlee had a successful show at Leicester Galleries, but then settled in Collioure, in the south of France. Although he had a solo exhibition at Chenil Gallery in 1926, between the wars his life qnd exhibiting career was in France; his second wife, Isabelle, was French. He returned to England when World War II broke out, working in a factory in Leicester, settling eventually in West Deeping, Lincolnshire. He had a solo show at St Peter's College Hall, Peterborough, with Arts Council support, in 1951, and another in Sleaford in 1968. There was a show seven years after he died at Rutland Sixth Form College, Oakham, then in 1978 a retrospective at Graves Art Gallery in Sheffield and Belgrave Gallery. Victoria & Albert Museum, Manchester City Art Gallery and Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Bedford, hold work. (The family pronunciation of Ihlee is Eelay, although Ighly is common.)

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Evelyn Grace Ince (1886-1941)

Painter, born in Bhagulpur, Bengal, India the daughter of a clergyman. Ince studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art in London, 1911-16 and during World War I served in the Women's Land Army, 1916-18. Following the war she commenced her career as an artist and over the next two decades exhibited at the Alpine Club, Cooling Gallery, International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, New English Art Club, Royal Society of Portrait Painters, Royal Academy, Royal Society of British Artists, Royal Institute of Oil Painters, RWS, Walker's Gallery in London, MAFA and the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. She was primarily a flower painter in tempera and oils but also showed landscapes and the occasional seascape. She was elected an Associate of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1923 and an Associate of the RWS in 1926. A painting by her, 'Flower Piece', was purchased by the Chantry Bequest in 1934. She died in Hitchin, Hertfordshire. Her work is represented in Hitchin Museum and Art Gallery, RA, Russell-Cotes Art Gallery, St. Andrews University and the Tate Gallery.

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David Jagger (1891-1958)

David Jagger was born in Kilnhurst, near Rotherham, in 1891. He was the son of colliery manager Enoch Jagger and his wife Mary Sargeant, and had a sister Edith (approx. 1880–1938) and brother Charles (1885–1934). Edith became a landscape artist, and founded Painted Fabrics Ltd in 1923; Charles became a sculptor. Jagger went to the Sheffield School of Art, together with his sister and his brother. After his education, he became a leading member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters (R.O.I.), and exhibited regularly at The Royal Academy, the Royal Society of British Artists (R.B.A.) and the R.O.I. In 1940, Jagger exhibited together with his sisten and brother (posthumously) in a special exhibition at the Rotherham Art Gallery and Museum, under the title The art of the Jagger Family. Jagger's most notable work is the painting of Robert Baden-Powell, as presented to Baden-Powell during the Coming of Age Jamboree on 10 August 1929. Numerous copies of this portrait have been created, and are displayed on Scouting premises worldwide. The original is on display in the collection of Baden-Powell House, the former headquarters of The Scout Association. A significant copy is in the office of the Secretary General of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in Geneva. Jagger produced portraits of illustrious people, such Queen Mary, exhibited in the Royal Academy exhibition of 1930, Winston Churchill, the artist Robert Fowler, physician Dr Thomas Forrest Cotton (1926), and business man J.G. Graves, Mrs Thelma Bader, wife of Wing Commander Douglas Bader (1942), Lady Lady Millicent Taylour, and his brother Charles Sargeant Jagger (in the National Portrait Gallery since 1998). Jagger was a prolific painter, and also painted more anonymous persons, such as Portrait Of An Officer Of The Raf During World War II (1941), Portrait of an architect holding plans (unk date), Portrait of a woman (1945), The silk scarf, Negro profile, and Olga. But he also painted landscapes and stills such as Corfe Castle (date unk), Mountain road, Majorca (date unk), Meissen porcelain parrot (unk date), and Mother & Child by Stream (1912).

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Charles Sargeant Jagger (1885 - 1934)

British sculptor. He was a highly regarded student at the Royal College of Art, London (1908–11), whose early sculpture showed a fanciful treatment of classical and literary themes. In 1914 he gave up the Prix de Rome to enlist in the army. He began work on No Man's Land (1919–20; London, Tate) while still convalescing from war wounds. This low relief presents a stark vision of trench warfare. Corpses stranded on barbed wire are ranged across a ravaged landscape, while the solitary live figure of the look-out in the foreground, a surrogate for the spectator, uses them for cover. Jagger attempted to maintain such realism in commissioned war memorials, most successfully in the Royal Artillery memorial (1921–5; London, Hyde Park Corner; see Monument, public, fig. 4). His obsessive concern for detail, shared by the regimental committee who commissioned the work, reached its zenith in the stone replica of a howitzer, which surmounts his vivid representation of war as hard and dangerous labour. Although he remained in demand as a sculptor of monuments, it is for his war memorials that he is chiefly remembered. He received a Military Cross in World War I and was made an ARA in 1926.

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Alexander Jamieson (1873-1937)

Painter of landscapes, townscapes, flowers and some portraits in oil. He was born in Glasgow in 1873 and studied painting at the Glasgow School of Art, where he won a scholarship to Paris in 1898. There he met many Impressionist painters, and perfected the wet-in-wet painting technique which he was to use to great effect for the rest of his life. He held a solo exhibition at the Carfax Gallery in 1912 and subsequently exhibited in London, the provinces, at the ROI (member 1927) and at the RA. He also showed in Europe and is represented in public collections including the Tate Gallery and the Louvre. He made many visits to France and in 1911 went to Spain. During World War I he served with the 10th York and Lancaster Regiment as a Quarter-Master, serving in France from 1915 to 1918. He lived in Buckinghamshire and painted many of its landscapes. He was married to the artist Gertrude Macdonald, known as Biddy.

Selected Literature: J.B. Manson, "Alexander Jamieson", The Studio, 1910, pp. 274-82.

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Augustus John (1878 - 1961)

Painter mainly in oil. draughtsman and printmaker. Born in Tenhy, Wales, brother of the artist Gwen John, he attended the Slade School of Fine Art, 1894-8, winning a Scholarship in 1896 and the Summer Composition Prize two years later. John's prodigious natural ability as a draughtsman won the admiration of Henry Tonks, and lie soon established himself as a star student and an art world character. Became professor of painting at Liverpool University art school, 1901-4. John started an association with gypsies, learning their language and painting them. Began his wide travels in Britain and on the continent, sometimes travelling by caravan. Over several years painted with J D Innes and Derwent Lees. Started to exhibit widely, having his first one-marl show at the Carfax Gallery in 1903. Also showed at the Chenil Galleries, NEAC, Alpine Gallery, Independent Club, RA and elsewhere over the coming years, where he became noted for drawings and paintings of his second wife, Dorelia, his children, his sister Gwen, personalities such as George Bernard Shaw, T E Lawrence, W B Yeats and Dylan Thomas, and for his landscapes and romantic scenes of peasant life. Although sometimes out of fashion, John is assured a place as one of the great figures of British painting in his lifetime. His work is in many galleries, including the Tate Gallery and National Portrait Gallery. Elected RA 1928, resigned 1938, re-elected 1940. Awarded Order of Merit 1942. Autobio¬graphical reminiscences Chiaroscuro were published in 1952, Finishing Y'oaches, 1964. Retrospectives included one at National Portrait Gallery, 1975, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, and tour, 1996, and Olympia Fine Art and Antiques Fair, 1999. In 2004--5 Tate Britain held the first large-scale exhibition to focus on Augustus and Gwen (1876-1939). Notable among Augustus's many children were Admiral of the Fleet Sir Caspar John (by his first wife, Ida); the painters Edwin John (by his first wife, Ida), Gwyneth Johnstone (by Nora Brownsword, a model) and Vivien John (by Dorelia); and the cellist Amaryllis Fleming (by Eve Fleming, a rich society hostess widow whose sons included Peter Fleming, writer and explorer, and Ian, the writer and creator of James Bond). John lived at Fording¬bridge, Hampshire.

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Charles Johnson (1902-1983)

A self-taught painter who was born in Stansted, Essex. He showed at the National Society of Painters, Sculptors and Printmakers, The Portrait Society,and The Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Msueum, Bournemouth and he held a solo exhibition locally in Bishop's Stortford, near his home.

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Andrew Johnson (1893-1973)

Andrew Johnson was born in 1893 and studied at studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts in London. 
He worked for various advertising agencies and in the 1920s and 1930s designed posters and advertising graphics for London & North Eastern Railway, Southern Railway, Eno’s Fruit Salts, Hudson Soap, Lever Brothers, ‘The Times’, General Motors, Moss Bros, Legal & General Assurance Company, General Motors, Buick Cars, Baker’s Cocoa and the National Playing Fields Association. 

In 1927 Andrew Johnson went to New York for eighteen months where he produced designs for J. Walter Thompson, Barton Durstine & Osborn, and other American agencies. He was co-founder (with Tom Grainger) of the poster design partnership Grainger Johnson and was a member of the British Society of Poster Designers. 
Johnson died in 1973.

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Lucien Jonas (1880-1947)

Born in 1880 and awarded the Prix de Rome in 1905Jonas was appointed the official painter of the French Navy in 1916, and was already an accom­plished artist when the Banque de France asked him to design its notes in 1933.

By that time he had pro­duced a pro­lific and diverse body of work. His early com­pos­i­tions were very real­istic depic­tions of working life, notably of the mines in northern France where he was born. He also painted a number of por­traits, both official (for example, General Per­shing in 1917 – cur­rently in the Met­ro­politan Museum of New York – and Marshal Foch) and private, along with major murals in the north of France (the ceiling of the Chamber of Com­merce, the town hall in Valen­ciennes, for example) and in Paris (the Maison des Centraux building). Jonas’s work also included illus­tra­tions for major lit­erary works and paintings of intimate scenes such as land­scapes. In 1933, at the age of 53Lucien Jonas was recog­nized as a highly tal­ented artist.

In that year, the Banque de France decided to drop the alleg­orical themes that until then had illus­trated its bank­notes, and reduce them in size. It asked Lucien Jonas to produce sketches, and the artist went on to design France’s bank­notes for the last six years of the Third Republic, from the Occu­pation to the first months of Charles de Gaulle’s pro­vi­sional gov­ernment. His talents as a por­trait painter can clearly be seen in the notes depicting famous men from France’s history

While working for the Banque de France, Lucien Jonas con­tinued to paint until his death in 1947, notably pro­ducing mil­itary por­traits. In1944, he painted General Koenig, de Larminat and de Lattre de Tassigny (the first two por­traits are in the Musée de l’ordre de la Libération).

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David Jones (1895 - 1974)

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker and writer and maker of inscriptions, born in Brockley, Kent, son of a Welsh printer. Drew as a child , then studied with A S Hartrick at Camberwell School of Art, 1909-15. Between 1915-18 served with Royal Welch Fusiliers during the World War I, being wounded and invalided home after action in France. The war, Welsh myth and landscape, his Roman Catholic faith, poetry and legend were some of the themes that threaded their way through Jones' writings and pictures, usually watercolours rich in layered imagery. From 1919-22 Jones studied under Bernard Meninsky and Walter Bayes at Westminster School of Art, then joined Eric Gill's Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic, in Sussex, 1922-24, also working with Gill in Wales, 1925-7. First one-man show at St george's Gallery in 1927. Was a member of SWE and the 7 & 5 Society and was exhibited widely abroad. Became an accomplished engraver, working for the Golden Cockerel Press and illustrated Douglas Cleverdon's 1929 edition of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner with 10 superb engravings on copper. His book In Parenthesis, of 1937, won the Hawthornden Prize and The Anathemata, 1952, the Russel Loines Award. Cleverdon was involved in the important National Book League exhibition of Jones' work in 1972. He was made a Companion of Honour in 1974. In 2002 a Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, swansea, exhibition celebrated 50 years of The Anathemata. The Tate Gallery and many other public collections hold his work. Jones lived at Harrow-on-the-Hill in modest circumstances for many years.

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Glyn Jones (1906 - 1984)

Painter and muralist, born in Manor Park, Essex, who attended Coopers School, Row, 1919-23, then the Slade School of Fine Art, 1923-6, under Henry Tonks and Philip Wilson Steer, won the Prix de Rome in decorative art, 1926, studying in Rome with Rex Whistler. While there, he travelled widely around the Mediterranean and was commissioned to paint for the Lord Milner memorial, Canterbury Cathedral. Returned to London, he took a flat at 105 Charlotte Street, which doubled as the Spectrum Gallery, running it with the sculptor Marjorie Meggitt, whom he married in 1937. Exhibited at RA, Leicester Galleries and Fine Art Society, where Lord d'Abernon, Lord Howard de Walden and Sir Joseph Duveen bought his work, patrons for many years. Solo exhibitions included The Fine Art Society, 1931, and The 'Twenty One Gallery, 1932. During World War 11 Jones was commissioned in the Army, working in Britain as an interpreter with Italian prisoners and in censorship. He completed many murals, venues including British Legion Hall, Parson's Green; St Augustine's, Fulham; St Bride's, Fleet Street (plus a stained-glass window design); St Alphege, Greenwich; and Trinity House. Many portrait commissions included the prime minister Lord Wilson with his wife Mary. Died in London.

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Barbara Jones (1912-1978)

Barbara Jones first attended art school in Croydon (1931–33) before

winning a scholarship to the Royal College of Art (1933–36), where

she met painter Cliff Barry whom she married in 1941.

A prolific and varied artist, during WWII she worked with

the Pilgrim Trust on the Recording Britain series, making one of

the largest contributions of the 63 artists taking part. She wrote

and illustrated books on design history, many of which are today

considered seminal, including The Unsophisticated Arts, 1951 and

Design for Death, 1967.

In 1951, she organised the Black Eyes and Lemonade: Curating

Popular Art exhibition held at the Whitechapel Gallery for the Festival

of Britain. A fellow of the Society of Industrial Artists from the same

year, she was made vice president in 1969. She was also a fellow of

the Royal Anthropological Institute and a member of the Society of

Authors. A retrospective exhibition of the contents of her studio was

held at Katharine House Gallery, Marlborough, in 1999.

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Nellie Joshua (1877-1960)

Nellie Joshua was a genre painter who made works that primarily
centred around figures and interiors. Her sister Joan Joshua
(1884–1965) was also an artist. Nellie attended the Heatherley
School of Fine Art in the 1890s and lived in London throughout
her career, exhibiting at the RA, the ROI and the SWA between
1902 and 1911.

As well as her intricate, realistic depictions of everyday
scenes, she also produced paintings that explore folklore, such
as Dragonfly (Fairy Boy) (c.1905), which had some success as
popular prints.

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Percy Jowett (1892-1955)

Painter, especially of landscapes in watercolour, and teacher, who in 1912 married Enid Ledward, sister of Gilbert Ledward the sculptor. He was born in Halifax, Yorkshire, and studied at Leeds and Royal Colleges of Art, latterly under Gerald Moira, winning the Prix de Rome which took him to Italy. he taught first at Beckenham School of Art and after World War I service in the Army returned there. He was also principal at Chelsea, the Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1930-5, then the Royal College of Art, 1935-48, where he was influential, making shrewd appointments such as Henry Moore and Gilbert Spencer. Exhibited at RA, RWS, NEAC, Redfern Gallery, Fine Art Society and had a series of solo shows at St George's Gallery in the 1920s. His work is in many British and overseas galleries. Jowett's watercolour Boats, illustrated in Percy V Bradshaw's book Watercolour, is typical of the artist's loose and fresh style. Lived in London. Michael Parkin Gallery had a show of his work in 1955.

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E McKnight Kauffer (1890–1954)

1890-1954 Poster designer who also did some textile and theatrical work, painted and illustrated books and magazines. Born in America at Great Falls, Montana, Kauffer grew up in Evansville, Indiana, where was assistant scene painter in the opera house. His early training as a painter was in San Francisco and at the Art Institute of Chicago, where he saw the controversial Armory Show of modern European art. A patron assisted him to study in continental Europe where in Paris he was influenced by Van Gogh's work. Resolved to support himself by poster design, at the outbreak of World War I he had to flee to London where he associated with painters such as Harold Gilman and Charles Ginner and gained commissions for the Underground Electric Railways Com­pany. For the next quarter-century he was the main designer of posters for London Underground under Frank Pick's patronage. Did work for Roger Fry's Omega Work­shops, helped to found Group X with Wyndham Lewis and early in the 1920s returned for a while to New York, where he designed for the Theatre Guild. Showed at Goupil Gallery, Arthur Tooth and Son and NEAC. Illustrated for periodicals such as Radio Times and Fanfare and books such as Arnold Bennett's Elsie and the Child, 1929, 'I' S Eliot's Triumphal March, 1931, and Edgar Allan Poe's Complete Poems and Stories, 1946. However, his reputa­tion rests mainly on his outstanding contribution to modern British poster design, inspired by Cubism and Vorticism, working for such clients as Shell-Mex and BP, the General Post Office and Imperial Airways. His Soaring to Success - the Early Bird poster, used by the Daily Herald, epitomised Kauffer's aspirations as a designer. After the outbreak of World War 11 Kauffer, who married the designer Marian Dorn, returned to New York. Victoria & Albert Museum travelling exhibition in 1973.


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Louis Keene (1888-1972)

Born in England Keene spent his youth in South aftrica and most of his life in Canada but studied art in London, Paris  and Munich.  He came from an artistic background: his mother was a prominent photographer (the first woman to be elected to the Royal Photographic Society) and his father and artist and craftsman.  When he was only 17 Louis and his father held a joint exhibition of their paintings in South Africa.  Keene travelled throughout his life,in Europe but also Egypt, Turkey, Morocco, Hong Kong, Mexico and Siberia. Throughout his army career Keene was an avid artist, using watercolour, ink and pencil, and India ink and chalk to create his pictures. They range from scenes he completed in Siberia during WWI (Canadian Expeditionary Force) to WWII paintings inspired by events in Surrey and London.

When Keene was stationed at Tweedsmuir Camp  (Surrey) during the Second World War, he permitted a few of his paintings to be exhibited in Thursley village (in close proximity to the camp) in aid of the roof fund for St Michael's church, Thursley. 
Many of Keene's works are held at the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation (CMCC). 

Keene had a distinguished career in both World Wars.   In WW1 he was commissioned as second lieutenant and was wounded at Ypres his right hand smashed by shrapnel. He later spent six months with the Canadian Army in Siberia. In the Second World War, as Commanding Officer of the Lorne Scots he witnessed the bombing of Liverpool and London.  He was presented to King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and Prime Minister David Lloyd George.

On 20 March 1943 'The Hamilton Spectator' (Canadian newspaper) announced that NDHQ had promoted Lieutenant-Colonel Louis Keene to full Colonel, with address of his next of kin. Hereafter Keene has been referred to as Colonel Keene of Oakville, Ontario. Reporting in the Spectator on 4 December 1944 Doug How, Canadian War Correspondent, stated that Keene's promotion, in February 1943, made him the highest ranking Lorne Scots Officer serving in western Europe.

Throughout his army career Keene was an avid artist, using watercolour, ink and pencil, and India ink and chalk to create his pictures. They range from scenes he completed in Siberia during WWI (Canadian Expeditionary Force) to WWII paintings inspired by events in Surrey and London.

According to his Obituary, While in England Col. Keene did some paintings of the air raids and these were later purchased by the British government. Some of his wartime paintings were also sold to the Canadian government and the artist later sold several of his works to Sir Edmund Walker, Canadian financier and one of the founders of the Toronto Art Gallery.

"The Trench Raid," Louis Keene, 1917.

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Lt Richard Barrett Talbot Kelly (1896 - 1971)

T.K., as he was known to his friends, was born in Birkenhead on the 20th August 1896. His grandfather, R. G. Kelly, and his father, R. G. Talbot Kelly, were both artists. At the age of 6, the family moved to London, where he attended the Hall Prep School in Hampstead, and then went to Public School at Rugby. From there, in November 1914, he entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich via the special entry scheme for boys from Public Schools, was commissioned on the 22nd April 1915, and joined the 52nd Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, in May. The Brigade was then serving in France as part of the Divisional Artillery of 9th (Scottish) Division - this was the first Territorial Division to go to France. He served with the 52nd Division for the next two and a quarter years during which time the 9th Division spent long periods in the trenches and Kelly found himself at the battles of Festubert, Loos, 2nd Ypres and the Somme in 1916. As a gunner subaltern, his job generally would take him to live up front with the infantry where he would observe the fire of his batteries on the German positions. T.K. was fascinated by birds and was to become a famous painter of birds in the 20s and 30s. He had several books published: in 1937 - “The Way of Birds”, in 1945 - “Birds of the Sea”, in 1955 - “Bird Life and the Painter” and in 1966 - “A Bird Overhead.” He was known as the most imaginative and charming painter of birds in the country since Archibald Thorburn. He wrote a small article on wild life on the Western Front, saying “in a grey rolling downland, my most constant companion was the kestrel. They were everywhere, close up to the front trenches, in the ruined suburbs of the old city, beside our guns. During the bitter cold of early 1917, they hung like grey specks in the white mists above the snow-bound land. Wire pickets or a splintered crucifix were good perches for them. They worked hard for our health, keeping in check the ever increasing hordes of rats that war breeds.” He was blown up on the 5th August during a bombardment and invalided home. His diary reads “Sunday 5th - fine day. Pioneers start work on new track. Go down to wagon line in afternoon via new position. 8 hours of gas shelling by Hun. Thompson gassed ! Feel rotten about mid-day and go to bed ?” In his memoirs, he recounts how he was talking to the Captain from a neighbouring battery, when a German shell burst beside them. It was so close that he found himself at the bottom of the crater it had made, and as he crawled up the side, slightly dazed, he saw some men running up with shovels either to dig him out or cover up his remains. For some hours he was alright, but the force of the explosion had severely concussed all his “insides” which then began to swell and pain him greatly. Next morning he was evacuated to the base hospital at Le Tréport, a converted hotel (where Crippen had spend his last nights in Europe before bolting to America). He was , for the first time in his life, and interesting medical case, and because no piece of shell had cut his skin and drawn blood he was officially unwounded. Yet he was on the danger list for some ten days before they dared ship him to England. The final paragraph in his memoirs - “A Subaltern’s Odyssey” says “One does not hear the shell that gets one. If the ground had not been a bog and as soft as it is, it is absolutely certain that I would have been blown to bits.” Just a few words about his career after the war. After his recovery, he returned to France in March 1918 to study concealment techniques and then came back to England to become Specialist Instructor in Camouflage at the School of Artillery at Larkhill. His interest in flying was such that he applied to be trained as a pilot. He was posted to the Royal Flying School at Reading but the war ended just as he was about to join his training squadron. While the wartime army was being demobilised, Talbot Kelly returned to the Royal Artillery. He served for a time in India, returned to England in 1921 where he joined a special anti-aircraft unit in Aldershot and in 1929 he resigned his commission and went back to his old school, Rugby, as Director of Art. In 1939, he became Chief Instructor at the War Office Camouflage Development and Training Centre at Farnham. For his services there, he was made an M.B.E. After this war, he returned to Rugby School again and taught there until his retirement in 1966. A book entitled “A Subultern’s Odyssey” - A Memoir of the Great War, 1915-1917 was published in 1980 based his own diaries. He was particularly gifted as a teacher, and generations of boys from Rugby School remember TK with gratitude. He died on the 30th March 1971. We are grateful to David and Judith Cohen for the above note.

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Sir Gerald Festus Kelly (1879-1972)

Painter in oil of portraits and landscapes. Born in London, he was educated at Cambridge University, later living and studying art in Paris. Whistler was an early influence. Kelly was an enthusiastic traveler, visiting among other countries Spain, America, South Africa and Burma, where he painted some of his most characteristic and charming figure studies. He became known as a sound academic painter of attractive children and elegant women. His sitters included Somerset Maugham, whom he painted several times, and he undertook numerous state portraits. Kelly is represented in many public collections, including the Tate Gallery, which holds seven works. He had retrospective exhibitions at the Leicester Galleries in 1950 and in 1957 at the RA. He was elected RA in 1930, was the Academy's keeper 1943-45 and President, 1949-54. Kelly held a number of official positions, such as his membership of the Royal Fine Arts Commission, 1938-43, and was knighted in 1945. Between 1909 and 1970 Kelly exhibited over 300 works at the RA. During his lifetime his work became well known through popular prints. Since his death however - and in spite of his technical brilliance and colourful, wide-ranging subject matter - his reputation has stagnated. The artist John Napper worked as his assistant.

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Arthur Kemp (1906-1968)

The following biography was written by Jeremy Kemp, the artist's adoptive son:

The earliest recollections I have of my Father was more to do with his music than any of his other artistic accomplishments. This is more than likely to be because music fills the home with its audible presence,especially when my Dad played and taught the ‘celo along with my Mother who played and taught the violin and viola.They were also one half of the KERA Quartet,a widely known string quartet and also played with some of the leading orchestras of the day. Dad had played with the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra(CBSO) and Mother,under her maiden name of Irene Crowther,played with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Orchestra.Mother was incidentally,of her time, the youngest to gain her LRAM. So music had a large part to play in my childhood memories as our homes in both the midlands and north Wales were in part ,practice studios, schools, rehearsal rooms and a popular meeting place for many of their musical friends,many of them being the composers,conductors and principle players of the period.

It was through music that my parents (by adoption) met back in the mid twenties.Mother at that time was playing for the CBSO as well as invigilating for the Royal Acadamy of Music.My Dad,who had studied the ‘celo at the Midland Institute,Birmingham,applied for a post with the CBSO and so they met. Their common ground,apart from their love of music,was that they were both from well established Quaker (Religious Society of Friends) families though from different sides of the social divides of the period. Dad,one of three children,was from a relatively humble background living in Kings Heath,Birmingham and Mother was from Kings Norton ,Worcestershire and the only daughter of modestly well to do small factory and shop owner. My Dad had always had a leaning towards painting and the ‘Arts and Crafts’movement in general and had wished to follow a career as an artist but this had been frowned upon by his father as not being a suitable means by which to earn a living and was therefore encouraged to pursue a career as a musician as there was a measurable earning potential attached with that.So hence the Midland Institute and the ‘celo culminating at the CBSO and my Mother.

My Mother was by then a well established violinist as well as being of ‘independent means’.She understood Arthur’s frustration at not being able to follow his passion in art and was able to support and encourage him to enter the Birmingham School of Art following their marriage in 1934. Their wedding was in the accepted form of a Quaker Marriage,known as a Solemnization of Marriage and the ‘Book of Solemnization’ that Arthur made for the occasion is a beautiful example of some of his artistic talents in painting,illuminated writing and book making. I have had pleasure in showing this book at several Friends Meetings over the years and in the opinion of many Friends this book is a wonderful example of the Quaker way as well as being a work of art.

Arthur managed to complete a three year course at the School of Art in only two years while at the same time completing his Diploma of Education to become a teacher. In 1936 he won the Lucas Award for excellence in Arts and Crafts and having also gained his teaching qualifications was able to become a teacher of art and therefore make a living within the world of art. Teaching,especially to young people, was something that Dad always put great effort and enjoyment into and even when I was a young child some twenty years later it was commonplace for ex pupils to come to tell him how they were getting on. Through marriage to Irene or Rene as she preferred to be known as,Arthur came under the influence of his father in law,George Crowther,an engineer with considerable skills in draughtsmanship and metalsmithing. Over and above their common relationship of father/son in law they became very close friends and Arthur gained an insight into the skills that would have otherwise have been impossible to gain elsewhere.Georges ability in designing and working in metal was rewarded in him seeing Arthur’s advancing skills in silversmithing,many of his pieces winning awards and being commissioned by Churches (one or two Royal ones I believe). One of the most lasting testimonials to this close friendship is the painting that Dad did shortly after the death of my Grandad in 1954 which I have since titled ‘George and I’. In this painting Dad has shown the inter-relationship of their combined influences on each other. Grandad’s professional abilities as an engineer and draughtsman –the callipers and micrometer-leading him to make even the requirements of his hobbies and pastimes such as the shuttlecock and spinning wheel,he was a keen weaver and spinner.The fork or spade handle,he was a keen gardner.A chess piece that he would have turned himself and his fishermans fly-case that held his own tied flies. Interspersed with these things of Grandads were Dads interests as well,a silver chalice, a ‘celo,a set-square to denote the art of draughtsmanship in both paintings and silversmithing. A musical instruments cleff. Central to all this is Grandad himself having earned his ‘wings’ and last but not least Grandads beloved pipe. What an epitaph from one man to another.

Once qualified to teach arts and crafts Dad had no difficulty in being suitably employed as his CV and some testimonials bear out. During this short time before the war Dad was able to consolidate his reputation as a painter,silversmith,musician and teacher all of which he engaged in with great proffiency and enthusiasm .The war brought changes to him as it did to everyone. Both Dad and Mother were in protected occupations but Dad did his share of fire spotting from the higher vantage points around Birmingham and Coventry. Witnessed the destruction and death all around him, saw the bombing of Coventry Cathederal,saw the blitz at its worst when streets of ordinary terraced houses were raised to the ground and their families either killed or homeless. As a Quaker and therefore a pacifiest this only served to solidify his views on the futility of armed aggression and I can only assume that this thought was the foundation of some very surreal murals and paintings produced in the late forties and very early fifties. Neither Arthur or Rene were removed from their own period of personal tragedy during the war.In 1940 Rene was expecting their child. She was engaged to give a recital at Stratford upon Avon and decided to cycle there to conserve her petrol coupons. So off she set with her rather fine example of a Maggini violin strapped to her bicycle,however the long journey there and back to Kings Norton caused her to miscarry and also prevented her in ever being able to bear children. Arthur had very much wanted children and though Rene was maybe not so keen in 1941 they adopted a little baby boy they named Michael. At this time they also moved from my Grandfathers house in Kings Norton to a new home in Rugby,Warwickshire . As he had done before Arthur did much of his silversmithing at home and one of the products used in working with silver is a clear acid and in 1943 young Michael,then a two year old toddler went into Arthur’s studio and drank some of this acid. It took him a long to die in Rene’s arms as no doctor could be summoned. Michael had a teddy called Scottie and after Michaels death Arthur did a painting of Scottie which hung in their bedroom for the rest of their lives,the teddy being wrapped up and put away in a blanket drawer until found by me in 1977 after the death of Rene.

In July 1945,by some private system that I still know nothing about I came into the Kemp household with the already given forenames of Jeremy Raynham.I knew nothing of my adoption until I applied for a passport when I was about 13 years old.I knew nothing of my real mother till my wife and I came to adopt a very young mentally handicapped boy from Maesteg in Glamorgan in 1982 and Barnadoes ,the adoption agency we used,after some very clever detective work came up with a name of Elizabeth Raynham but that is another story.

My first recollection of watching my Dad paint was I think somewhere around Newquay in maybe 1950 or so. I can remember Dad walking along a very dangerous wooden pier in a creek near to the sea. Dad would go back to the same place for two or three days studying the changing light and shadows while Mother and I would amuse ourselves by the car. We had an old steel ammunition box that had a Primus stove in it and a very large wicker picnic basket that strapped to the car boot lid and as long as Dad had plenty of tea and sandwiches everyone was happy! Holidays were special in those days,both parents being teachers we enjoyed the long holidays and North Wales in those days was such a peaceful and picturesque place to be. We were of course so fortunate in that Grandfather had his second home near to Llanystumdwy on his beloved river the Dwyfach where he had quite a useful stretch and there taught me the art of fly fishing. I must have made a comical sight with waders up to my chin and wielding a 14 foot Greenheart fly rod-aged about eight !! It was at that age I was sent away to boarding school and so it was only in the holidays that I was aware of Dad getting out and about painting but in those days it was only in Wales that Dad did paint anyway. Back in Rugby Dad was the head of the Art School and with all what that entailed as well as his silver work and music he had little time to apply himself to painting. He used to say that to paint a worthwhile painting one needed to spend time getting into the subject and he was a little scornful of the ‘artist’ that performed the ‘half hour image’.” Might as well take a photograph,at least that would be more accurate”-he would often say! As a young boy at prep school there was the odd time when my parents might have some musical engagement that took them away and so I would travel to wherever Grandad was at that time fishing,wonderful journeys on the overnight sleeper to Inverness from London to join him on the Spey or the London to Dublin packet via Hollyhead,docking at Dun Laoghaire and then travelling on to Limerick to join him on the Shannon. Not only would my school trunk have a large brown tie-on label with my name and final destination on it but so would I !!

Mostly though holidays were spent at Llanystumdwy and after Grandad’s passing I took up his rods and would accompany Dad wherever he went painting. The nice thing about Wales is that you are never far away from the fish. Mother seemed to take more of a back seat so it was Dad and I then,him with his paints and me with my rods.Off we would go together to magical places. To name but a few – Nantle and Talysarn,Dad loved the raw drama of the old slate workings as well as the better known ones of Dinorwig and Blaenau Ffestiniog .In those far of days health and safety in the workplace was not the issue that it is today so the quarry managers and foremen were quite happy to let Dad wander about painting and I was free to play around as I pleased and for an example I remember workmen up at the old Dorethea quarry taking me down the very precarious chain ladders to the lower blast chambers and feeling the ground heave and shake as the explosives ripped the slate away from the huge buttresses of granite. There used to be a little ‘puffa’(a miniature railway steam engine) called Wendy up there and Dad and I would open up the steam valve and trundle down the track in the upper workings just to end the day with a bit of fun. We would go up the Cwm Ystradllyn where Dad would leave me at the lake while he would trudge up the valley to paint the Moel Hebog. When the fish had finished taking the fly I would pack up and go to join Dad and we would look at what he had achieved and if he didn’t like the result we would go back another day when the light may be different. In the same area, on the upper reaches of the Dwyfor in Cwm Pennant was another favourite place.There is a little chapel at Llanfirangle at the lower end of the valley where a gravestone has written on it,in welsh,’God made the world in six days and on the seventh he gave us Cwm Pennant. Further up the valley is a small stand of old pine trees on the slope leading up to Garenddgoch and a ruined house where Dad often found a subject to paint. Coming down from there or Cwm Ystradllyn next door we would travel over the top gated road to Prenteg, stopping off on the way to have tea with Robin Williams,Hendre Hywell and watch him work his sheep dogs. Another often combined outing would see me left at the old sluice gates across the estuary at Porthmadog to fish while Dad went off to paint further up through the Aberglaslyn and on to Nantgwynant,where views of Cnicht and the Moelwyns never failed to give him a subject to paint. Another painting of his evokes happy memories of days spent down at Borth y Guest and Morfa Bychan and the view across the Treath to Portmerrion,Talsarnau and on a good day Harlech. It was there on the Black Rock sands at Morfa Bychan that at the age of 12 or 13 Dad would let me drive his car, sometimes at quite shocking speeds,up and down the 5 miles of almost deserted beach while Dad worked away at one or two paintings sat comfortably in the sand dunes enjoying the good natural light. It was here that I first became aware of a change of style in Dads paintings.Although,to my untrained eye, he had always done some ‘avant guard’ works especially in some of his murals, here at Borth y Guest he started to use a new technique for the first time. ‘Regatta day at Borth y Guest’ had originally been two paintings in his more conventional form but he had started to fiddle around with them and ended up with one long narrow painting but where all naturally curved lines were portrayed as straight lines therefore giving the depicted seen a triangular effect. Shortly after this foray into a new style he took things a stage further and took a previously finished work-Avenue of Trees,Chwilog- and redid it in this new approach and had great delight in hanging both paintings side by side. These days were rather exciting as sometimes it was hard to tell what the subject was till the painting was finished.

There were so many other places visited, all around the Llyn peninsular and down to Dyffryn Ardudwy and across to Dolgellau where Dad would paint around the Rhinogs and Y Lletyr and I would fish the Lyn Hywell or climb the old roman steps at the head of Cwm Bychan. Further down the coast we would go to Llwyngwrill and Tywyn, where Dad sent me to the Outward Bound school for a summer camp before I joined the much renowned H.M.S.Conway at Plass Newydd up on the Menai Straits. Carrying on down the coast we would get to Borth and back up the Dyfi valley to Machynlleth where a good view of Cadair Idris was to be had from Llyn Can. Across the main road I would amuse myself by hiking up the Mynydd Ceiswyn to the top of Waun-oer and down the Mynydd Dolgoed while Dad found a good point to paint from. It was something of mixture of chance, amusement and a touch of skill that we always managed to meet up at the right time and place for the return journey to Llanystumdwy and a welcome supper and often a quick trout or two on the evening fly. Often we would get home to find friends come to visit,more often than not musical ones from London or Birmingham but often local friends as well come to discuss ,enjoy or influence ‘Matters Art’ with Dad. I remember well a Mr.Pollicoff, a grand gentleman from near Pwllheli,a larger than life character who enthused vociferously over Dads works and was instrumental in getting him to agree to put on exhibitions in Pwllheli. Another ardent admirer was a lovely old gentleman,Mr Kirkhope who had something to do with explosives and he too managed to persuade Dad to put on a one man show in Tremadog I believe. I remember that Dad who was in no way interested in being commercial with his paintings put sold signs on them before the shows even opened! One or two local artists also used to visit now and then and I can remember lively discussions on style,perspective,colour and technique. One painter who comes to mind was younger man than Dad who I thought came from Pentrefellin and used to discuss the practicalities of block colour washes.50 years later when I see the works of Kyffin Williams and compare the dates of their respective works I cant help but wonder if there is anyone who now could throw more light on that one? It was in this period of Dads life that he had the first of his catastrophic heart attacks and strokes. The summer of 1957 saw him have the first major one and I remember only too well watching him struggle back to some sort of normal health. He had a private room with a wonderful view over the old harbour and across to ‘ballast island’ at Porthmadog’s Memorial Cottage Hospital where Aunty Blodwin was matron and commanded a gaggle of nurses,and the doctor too, to care for Dads every need. What wonderful days when Matrons ruled by sheer presence . Dad slowly got back to better health with a remarkable amount of fortitude and slow learning of how to get some use back into his paralysed limbs, he would sit for days trying to draw the various scenes before him from his bay window in what he humorously called his room at ‘Blods Isbitty’. I can remember going one day to Caernarfon with Mother to buy the requirements needed to do some tapestry ,something Dad had never done before. He ,with just a little help from Mother and I, struggled for days to do the needle work necessary to create a cushion cover that he designed himself. That cushion is on my chair as I write this now,when Dad made something it certainly was made to last! I remember one particular day when Mother and I were getting ready to go to see Dad there was a terrible storm and the day went as dark as night and the river was a raging torrent having flooded across our fields to the river side of the cottage. Mrs.Roberts, Tyddyn Du,the farm above us was already flooded out when a tractor arrived from Gwynfryn Plas to see if those up river were in need of help and kindly took the three of us, sat precariously in the tractors back box, up to Plas Talhynbont. Mrs.Roberts,then in her 80’s had little English but one of her few phrases was- ‘well well I never did- isn’t it’, and that in the lovely soft Llyn welsh accent. Dad thought this was immensely funny and it kept him chuckling for days as visitors came to see him at ‘Blods Isbity’. Dad finally left hospital after more than two months but by then I had returned back to Mill Hill School in London and was not home again to Rugby until the Christmas holidays when I found Dad to be much recovered and happily sketching away. It was about this time that he undertook what was probably one of his longest and most technically demanding commissions, he did a few but rarely for a significant sum. He had been asked to do something significant for Rugby College of Techinology,of which his School of Art was now a part. He elected to do a large mosaic measuring some 6ft. by 4ft. This required a very large and heavy polished concrete plinth built into an even larger wooden lifting frame all to lifted through the roof of his garage,that being the only suitable place to do the job. The mosaic pieces,100’s of them he went to Italy to select and order them and when they duly arrived Dad would have to then cut them into the required shapes. A slow and exacting procedure to cut and then fix them onto the base plinth that took up more or less the rest of that year. Dad could no longer play the ‘celo as his fingering had gone, and he did little silver work anyway, so it was that this large mosaic kept him suitably occupied . Again around this time Dad was asked to consider submitting something for the new Coventry Cathedral that was under construction, I know he had some ideas about another mosaic and did draught up one or two designs which were discussed along with John Piper,Graham Sutherland and Basil Spence. I remember his submission of the Madonna and Child was well received but may be it just as well nothing came of it as in the spring of 1960 he had his second and even more debilitating stroke and so back up to ‘Blods Isbity’ in Porthmadog he went. This time the paralysis took away all the use of the left hand side of his body and his speech as well. He really was very poorly this time but once again Aunty Blod pulled out all the stops for him and very slowly he started to regain some of his health. Once again he undertook a mammoth piece of occupational therapy. This time a 5ft.by 3ft. ‘ready-cut’ rug,but with the difference he made and cut his own wool,he didn’t like to make things too easy for himself! That rug is also still in use some 48 years later, albeit a little frayed around the edges now. By the summer holidays I had left Mill Hill and was due to start on the H.M.S.Conway spring term 1961 so there had been various activities arranged for me including a fortnights O.T.C. camp at Thetford followed by another camp at the Outward Bound School, Aberdovey. I think my parents thought I needed some more ‘toughening up’ before joining the Conway, and in hind sight maybe they weren’t so wrong. The Conway in those days struck me as a place that if you could swim,row,sail,climb,box,hit a six or score at least two tries per match you would make a reasonably good ships officer with well taught navigation and seamanship coming a very close second. After all our ships motto was-‘Quit ye like men, be strong’. Not a bad maxim in life to follow I think.

Back to Dad again and by the end of the summer he was back home in Llanystumdwy again and able to have the odd day out with his paints. Now I was on hand to help him set up his board and easel and help him with some of the other chores so that it was possible for him to paint.We got on well together. I loved my Dad and even in those early formative years as a young teenager I realized that he was producing something that in many years to come people would still be able to enjoy. The rest of 1960 seemed to come to a close rather slowly, Dads health continued to improve and I was getting more and more excited about joining the Conway. From my very earliest memories I had always wanted to go to sea, why I knew not as I thought I had no nautical connection whatsoever. Of course my parents knew differently but never enlightened me. 1961 saw more improvement in Dad and for the first time ever the three of us went away for a holiday to the Orkney Islands. I had hired a rowing boat and Dad and I would go of together where he would be quite content to sit and sketch while I did a spot of fishing. Other days we would go off around the headlands and find a suitable subject to paint. I remember one day the wind was so strong that I had to hold the paper down on his board for him to paint or the lot would have been blown away to sea. He still had no use of his left arm and could not walk very well.His speech was affected as well so things were not at all easy for him but we all seemed to manage reasonably well. One unusual and interesting point in that holiday was that Dad again did a double painting of the same subject- this time ‘Yesnaby Castle’. Instead of doing the conventional painting first and then maybe later doing his triangular version, he did things the other way round,but actually painting the subject twice from the same spot, the second one in less wind I may add!

The summer of 1962 saw Dad undertake a long awaited and much planned trip Canada. There had for some years been a hint of a story that a painting of his,hanging in the summer exhibition of the Royal Academy sometime in the mid 50’s had along with others accompanied the Queen on her first tour to Canada. However one of Dad’s paintings had ended up in Canada the upshot of which was an invite to go there,and which was finally achieved in 1962. I was still on the H.M.S. Conway and so,proud in my uniform of a Midshipman R.N.R. I accompanied them to Liverpool to see them off on their way across the Atlantic on one of the great Canadian Pacific liners. Having the ‘right’ uniform on helped in me being allowed aboard to help stow their luggage and while so doing Dad suffered a massive nose bleed caused by high blood pressure. The ships doctor was summoned and eventually the Captain and chief Purser were having to make a decision as to whether or not Dad could sail. I can recall the Captain saying that since Dads little problem had happened aboard his ship it was therefore up to him and his officers to see that Mr.Kemp’s voyage was a safe and comfortable one. In those days when a Captain spoke you said ‘Yes Sir’, something I soon learnt a few months later when I finally went to sea as a young cadet officer with the Royal Mail Lines. However Dad got safely to Canada without further mishap and enjoyed visits to Quebec,Montreal,Ottawa,Winnipeg and finally finishing up in Vancouver where they spent three happy months staying with the Ludfords, friends of theirs from back in 30’s Birmingham. Dad managed a few drawings and one or two paintings but I do remember him saying that everything was so vast over there that he found it difficult to get a sense of perspective.

The next three years I did not see so much of my parents as I was away at sea. Dad made one or two trips to Spain where he seemed to get a new lease of life in his paintings, he enjoyed the quality of light and the new subject matter and I think some of the paintings from this short period were some of the strongest he had done for some time. However by the end of 1966 he was not in very good health again and the next year was one of steady decline. Little new work was undertaken and Dad seemed to spend a lot of time looking closely at paintings done years before and on finding a fault,often only imagined , would want the offending work unframed so he could ‘fix’ it. That may only involve a brush stroke here or a bit more colour there but he was fractious if the alteration wasn’t made. Shortly before the final few months of his life Dad had a form of rally and it was in that short period of time that he did what I think was to be his greatest painting of all. He refused to title it and he jokingly used to say that it was something of a self portrait but was in fact the face of Christ with his crown of thorns and shedding a solitary tear. One can draw ones own conclusions. I was grateful to spend Dads final days with him, right up to the end he maintained an interest in his paintings even telling me how to make improvements where necessary. He had already discussed with me the custodianship of his collection and what ideas he had towards that. However that is yet another sad story and in no way reflects on my Dad.

Dad passed away in February 1968. He had left his body to the medical school in Birmingham and within an hour or so of his death a doctor came to our home to remove his eyes. He would have been so thrilled to know that the next day someone would have their sight restored. What can be more valuable to an artist than his eyes. In accordance with his wishes there was no funeral or internment,Birmingham Medical School politely informing my Mother of the scattering of his ashes in their Garden of Remembrance some weeks later. In my humble opinion his paintings are his Epitaph.

Copyright © Liss Llewellyn Fine Art. All Rights Reserved

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Eric Kennington (1888-1960)

Sculptor, draughtsman and painter. Born in London, son of the artist Thomas Benjamin Kennington, he studied at Lambeth School of Art (1906-08) and afterwards at the City and Guild School. He exhibited at the RA from 1920; and also showed at Leicester Galleries, Fine Art Society, Goupil Gallery, ROI and RP. Kennington was an Official War Artist, 1916-19, after being invalided out of the army in June 1915. The experience was to have a marked influence on his work: his first one-man show at the Goupil Gallery, April-October 1916, of the Kensingtons at Laventie, created a great impression and identified him in the public mind with depictions of men of action. Soon after the war he travelled in Jordan and Syria (March-May 1921) to illustrate T. E. Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom. During World War II he produced two books: Drawing the RAF, 1942, and Britain's Home Guard, 1945. He was elected RA in 1959 and died at Reading, Berkshire the following year. His work is represented in the National Portrait Gallery and the Tate. His public sculptural commissions include the Great War memorial at Soissons, France, five relief panels for the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, and a stone relief for the Harold Cohen Memorial Library, University of Liverpool. Between 1936 and 1939 Kennington carved his masterpiece: a recumbent effigy of his great friend T. E. Lawrence. During the last fifteen years of his life, he concentrated on producing sculptures for church interiors. He signed his work 'Eric H. Kennington' (1907 - circa 1915) and 'EHK', (1916-1959).

Selected literature Jonathan Black, The Sculpture of Eric Kennington, Lund Humphries, 2002

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Jessie Marion King (1875-1949)

Painter and illustrator, born at New Kilpatrick, Bearsden, Scotland. She showed a precocious ability for drawing and illustration as a child. Her parents allowed her to attend Glasgow School of Art in the 1890’s. She later taught there collaborating with her colleague Peter Davidson on many decorative designs. She worked for a variety of publishing companies including Routledge and illustrated such works as Morte d'Arthur by Tennyson and Oscar Wilde' A House of Pomegranates. A great traveller, she shared her time between Scotland and Paris using her multi-faceted abilities to not only illustrate books but to work in batik and as a ceramic painter. Her work as an artist was recognised as early as 1898 by theStudio Magazine. 
From 1902, some sources say 1899 she began to teach book cover design at Glasgow School of Art, and for one year (1907) also taught on the ceramics decoration course. About this time she started to diversify her design activities to include costumes for pageants, gesso panels, wallpapers, fabrics, posters and bookplates. She also began to design jewellery and silverware for Liberty & Co. and worked on interior design and decoration projects. 

In 1908, she married Earnest Archibald Taylor, a fellow student and lecturer at the Glasgow School of Art. Soon after they relocated to Paris w and together they ran the Shealing Atelier returning to Scotland at the outbreak of World War I. They settled in the artists colony of Kirkcudbright. King's main artistic oeuvre was books of which she illustrated more than a hundred. She exhibited with the Bruton Galleries, Glasgow Society of Women Artists, RBSA, RA and RSA and examples of her work are in museums around the world including the Stewartry Museum, Kirkcudbright, SNGMA, Lillie Art Gallery, Milngavie, Glasgow Museums, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh and the Cecil Higgins Art Gallery in Bedford. 

Literature; Jessie M. King, 1875-1949 an exhibition catalogue published by the Scottish Arts Council, 1971. 
The Book of Bridges [of Paris] by Edme Arcambeau. Illustrated by Jessie M. King. Published by Gowans & Gray, London & Glasgow, 1911.  
Glasgow Girls Women in Art and Design 1880 -1920 by Jude Burkhauser, published by Canongate Books Ltd, 2001. ISBN 184195151X .
The enchanted world of Jessie M. King by Colin White. Published by Canongate, Edinburgh, 1989. ISBN: 0862412358.

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Jock Kinneir (1917-1994)

Richard 'Jock' Kinneir (11 February 1917 – 23 August 1994) was a typographer and graphic designer who, with colleague Margaret Calvert, designed many of the road signs used throughout the United Kingdom. Their system has become a model for modern road signage. 

Kinneir was born in Hampshire in 1917. He studied engraving at the Chelsea School of Art from 1935 to 1939. After World War II Kinneir was employed as an exhibition designer by the Central Office of Information. He next worked for the Design Research Unit, and then opened his own practice in 1956. He also taught part-time at the Chelsea School of Art.

Kinneir's first big commission was the design of the signage for Gatwick Airport. He chose one of his students at Chelsea, Margaret Calvert, to assist him. When Sir Colin Anderson, the chairman of the P&O Line shipping company read about the Gatwick signage, he chose Kinneir to design a baggage labelling system for P&O. 

In 1957 a government committee was formed to design signs for the new British motorway network, and afterwards to review signage on all other British Roads. The objective was to produce signs that could be read at speed. 
Jock Kinneir was commissioned as the designer. 

In 1964 he made Margaret Calvert a partner and renamed his practice Kinneir Calvert Associates. They devised a code of carefully chosen shapes and colours that largely complied with the protocol proposed by the 1949 UN World Conference on Road and Motor Transport. Kinneir and Calvert developed a new typeface, based on Akzidenz Grotesk. This typeface was later named Transport. It was first used for the Preston By-pass in 1958. Kinneir and Calvert later completed other design projects. They introduced the Rail Alphabet typeface for British Rail and worked for hospitals, the Army and for other airports. 

Kinneir taught at the Royal College of Art and was head of the graphic design department for a while. The original road sign maquettes (models) produced by Kinneir and Calvert for a presentation to the Ministry of Transport are now held at the St Bride Library in Fleet Street.

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Josh Kirby (1928-2001)

Artist in oil, watercolour and occasionally gouache, born in Waterloo, Liverpool, as Ronald William Kirby. He attended Liverpool City School of Art, 1942-9, teachers including Martin Bell, Will C Penn, George Jardine, Alfred Wiffen and Allan Tankard. Kirby's influences "were Brueghel, Bosch and Brangwyn. I aim to continue the classical tradition and avoid the fads and fashions of the moment. I would like to preserve a sense of wonder in a world obsessed with materialism." This found expression in his The Voyage of the Ayeguy, latterday altar-pieces in science fiction mode. As a science fiction book illustrator, Kirby was noted for his Ray Bradbury and Terry Pratchett jackets. Kirby had periods painting in a film poster studio in London and freelanced briefly in Paris. Was a member of the Association of British Picture Restorers. Group exhibitions included Portal Gallery, Bluecoat Chambers in Liverpool, ICA and Brighton Art Gallery. Solo shows included DLI Museum & Durham Art Gallery, 1995. Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey holds Kirby's work. Lived at Shelfanger, Diss, Norfolk.

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Clara Klinghoffer (1900-1970)

Clara Klinghoffer emigrated from Austria to England with

her family in 1903. She studied art at the John Cass Institute

in Aldgate and the Central School of Arts and Crafts before

enrolling at the Slade School of Fine Art (1918–20).

Gaining immediate critical acclaim at a remarkably young

age with her first solo exhibition, held at the Hampstead Gallery

in 1919, she exhibited widely in the UK, Europe and North

America in the ensuing years, including at the 1924 Venice

Biennale, and the Redfern Gallery (1925) and RA (1933) in

London. She also travelled extensively throughout her life,

moving to Amsterdam in 1929 and New York in 1939.

Much of Klinghoffer’s work is characterised by a focus on the

human figure, and she made portraits of many eminent sitters –

such as Sir Winston Churchill, Vivien Leigh and Isaac Bashevis

Singer – notable for their relaxed, somewhat candid composition.

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Laura Knight (1877 - 1970)

Laura Knight (maiden name Johnson) was born in Long Eaton, Derbyshire, the daughter of Charles and Charlotte Johnson. Her father died not long after her birth, and Laura Knight grew up in a family that struggled with financial problems.

In 1899 she was sent to France with the intention that she would eventually study art at a Parisian atelier. However, events would prevent this course of study.

Instead, after a short time in French schools, Laura Johnson returned to England. There, at the age of 13 she entered the Nottingham School of Art, one of the youngest students ever to join the school.

Whilst at school, she met one of the most promising students, Harold Knight, aged 17. Laura Johnson determined that the best method of learning was to copy Harold's technique. They soon became friends, and in 1903 Laura Johnson married Harold Knight (1874-1961).

In 1907 the Knights moved to the artists' colony in Newlyn, Cornwall, alongside Lamorna Birch, Alfred Munnings and Aleister Crowley, where she painted in an Impressionist style. The Beach (1908), widely admired both by other artists and the public, is an example of this style. Another interesting work is The Green Feather, which was painted in one day. In 1913 she made a painting that was a first for a woman artist, Self Portrait with Nude, showing Laura Knight with a nude model (fellow artist Ella Naper was the model).

After World War I, the Knights moved to London where Laura Knight met some of the most famous ballet dancers of the day, such as Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes with Lydia Lopokova and Enrico Cecchetti, and Anna Pavlova. Her most famous work dates from this period.

While she was a well-educated and by no means, racist woman, Laura Knight, using a term common at the time, did make what today would be considered a racist remark after she had seen an African-American for the first time. It came after a recent visit to Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore where she had accompanied her husband. "The babies of American darkies," she declared, "Are among the most beautiful things in the world. In fact, to the artist there is a whole world of beauty which ought to be explored in negro life in America." [New York Times, 3 November 1927, Page 23, Column 5.]

In 1928 the circus became her inspiration.

In 1929 that she was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire and in 1936 she became the first woman elected to the Royal Academy.

In the 1930s, she began to paint the world of horse racing and Gypsies.

After World War II, she was the official war artist at the Nuremberg Trials. The result was The Dock, Nuremberg (1946). She continued to paint even after her husband's death in 1961. She produced over 250 works in her lifetime as well as two autobiographies, Oil Paint and Grease Paint (1936) and The Magic of a Line (1965).

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Winifred Knights (1899-1947)

Winifred Knights was born in Streatham, London in 1899. She

studied at the Slade School of Fine Art (1915–17, 1918–20

and 1926–27) . In 1919 she jointly won the Slade Summer

Composition Competition with A Scene in a Village Street with

Mill-Hands Conversing. In 1920, she became the first woman to

win the Scholarship in Decorative Painting awarded by the British

School at Rome. She remained in Italy until December 1925,

marrying fellow Rome Scholar Thomas Monnington (1902–1976)

in April 1924. On her return to England, Knights received a

commission to paint an altarpiece for the Milner Memorial Chapel

in Canterbury. A major commission for the Earl of Crawford and

Balcarres, on which she had been working for five years, remained

unconcluded at her early death, aged 47.

Throughout her life, Winifred Knights produced work

through which she explored women’s autonomy. Presenting

herself as the central protagonist, and selecting models from her

inner circle, she rewrote and reinterpreted fairy tale and legend,

biblical narrative and pagan mythology. She was the subject of a

retrospective exhibition at Dulwich Picture Gallery in 2016.

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Henry Lamb (1883-1960)

 Henry Taylor Lamb, MC, RA (21 June 1883 – 8 October 1960) was an Australian-born British painter. A follower of Augustus John, he was a founder member of the Camden Town Group.

Born in Adelaide, Australia, he was the son of Sir Horace Lamb FRS. He was educated at Manchester Grammar School, Manchester University Medical School and Guy's Hospital in London, and studied painting at La Palette, Paris.

Lamb saw active service in the First World War in the Royal Army Medical Corps, and was awarded the Military Cross.

A World war II official artist, he is noted for his unusual portraits, as examplified by his well-known picture of an elongated Lytton Strachey. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1940 and was made a full Member in 1949. He was a Trustee of the National Portrait Gallery from 1942 and of the Tate Gallery 1944-51. His auction record was set at Christie's in London in June 2006 when his 1910 Breton Boy oil on panel fetched £60,000.

He married Lady Pansy Pakenham, daughter of the 5th Earl of Longford, in 1928, and they had a son and two daughters. Lamb died on 8 October 1960 at the Spiro Nursing Home, Salisbury, Wiltshire at the age of 77.

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Peter Lanyon (1918-1964)

(George) Peter Lanyon (8 February 1918 – 31 August 1964) was a Cornish painter of landscapes leaning heavily towards abstraction.
He also made constructions, pottery and collage.
Lanyon was born in St Ives, Cornwall, the only son of W H Lanyon, an amateur photographer and musician. He was educated at Clifton College. St Ives remained his base, and he received after-school painting lessons from Borlase Smart. In 1937 he met Adrian Stokes, who is thought to have introduced him to contemporary painting and sculpture and who advised him to go to the Euston Road School, where he studied for four months under Victor Pasmore. In 1936-37 he also attended Penzance School of Art. In 1939 he met established artists Ben Nicholson, Barbara Hepworth and Naum Gabo, who had moved to St Ives on the outbreak of war. Lanyon received private art tuition from Nicholson.
The character of his work changed completely and he became very involved with making constructions. Throughout the 1940s the influence of Nicholson and Gabo remained strongly visible in his work.
From 1940 to 1945 he served with the Royal Air Force in the Western Desert, Palestine and Italy. Also in 1946 he became an active member of the Crypt Group of Artists, St Ives. During the 1950s he became established as a leading figure in the St. Ives group of artists.
Lanyon took up gliding as a pastime and used the resulting experience extensively in his paintings. He died in Taunton, Somerset, as the result of injuries received in a gliding accident and is buried in St. Uny's Church, Lelant.

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François-Raoul Larche (1860 - 1912)

François-Raoul Larche (1860 Saint-André-de-Cubzac - 1912 Paris) was a French Art Nouveau sculptor whose work included several figures of Christ, but who may be better known for his numerous female figures, both nude and draped.

He was one of several artists inspired by the dancer Loie Fuller; one of his best-known statues depicts Fuller dancing with part of her drapery billowing above and behind her head like a flame.

Another well-known sculpture, Les Violettes, depicts a group of nude children with an older girl who may be their mother or older sister. Their bodies are entwined with flower stems and leaves and they are all wearing petal bonnets, suggesting that they are meant to represent the spirits of flowers.

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Edith Lawrence (1890-1973)

Landscape and portrait painter, colour linocut artist, designer of textiles and interior designer in partnership with Claude Flight. Although a member of the Colour Woodcut Society, she is better known for her linocuts that were frequently exhibited at the Redfern Gallery and Ward Galleries during the 1930’s. 
As a pupil of Claude Flight at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art, her prints are typical of the Vorticist manner in their representation of speed and movement. 
She studied at the Slade School of Art, 1910-14 and after two years in St. Ives, Cornwall she returned in 1916 to further her studies. 
She exhibited at the NEAC, RA, SWA, ROI, RSA and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. Shortly before her death a retrospective exhibition of her work was held at Hull University and posthumously her work with that of Claude Flight was exhibited by the Michael Parkin Gallery. Her work is in the collections of BM, V&A and GAC. 


Claude Flight and Edith Lawrence: Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Parkin Gallery, London, 1973. 

A Little About Geography by Claude Flight and Edith Lawrence. Published by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, London, 1938. 

A Little about Art, by Claude Flight and Edith Lawrence. Published by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, London, 1938. 

Christmas and other Feasts and Festivals : A picture commentary for grown-ups. Printed from linoleum blocks by C. Flight and Edith Lawrence. Published by G. Routledge & Sons, London, 1936.

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Alfred Kingsley Lawrence (1893-1975)

Painter of pictures and murals and draughtsman, born in Lewes, Sussex. He studied at King Edward VII School of Art in Newcastle upon Tyne under Richard Hatton, at Royal College of Art with William Rothenstein and then in Italy as a Prix de Rome winner, 1923. Elected RA in 1938. Lawrence was a fine figure painter and a RA stalwart for many years, his work having a strong underlying draughtsmanship. Also showed RP of which he was a member and widely abroad. Among Lawrence's notable murals are ones in Laing Art Gallery and Museum, Newcastle; Palace of Westminster; and Bank of England. Lived in London

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Gilbert Ledward (1888-1960)

Sculptor, born in Chelsea, London the son of a sculptor Richard Arthur Ledward. He was a student at the Chelsea Polytechnic, at the Academy in Karlsruhe, the Royal College of Art and the Royal Academy Schools 1907-13. The first artist to win a scholarship in sculpture to the British School at Rome, and a soldier in World War I, he was after the cessation of hostilities much sought after to execute monumental war memorials. However during his Rome stay the outbreak of war brought Ledward's travels to an end, but 1917 found him back in Italy, on the front, serving as a lieutenant with the Royal Garrison Artillery. He was called home in April 1918 and seconded to the Ministry of Information as an Official War Artist. In this capacity, he produced plaster reliefs for the Imperial War Museum which are typical of the dramatic compositions of soldiers in action surrounded by the accoutrements of battle that were developed in later memorial projects, notably at Harrogate in 1921 and Blackpool in 1923. Other major commissions in this vein include The Guards' Division Memorial at Horse Guards Parade, 1922-25 and he also designed sculpture for the Imperial War Graves Commission Memorial to the Missing at Ploegsteert, Belgium 1926-29. During the 1930’s Ledward turned from the traditional custom of modelling in clay to carving directly from stone.

While other artists pioneered the development of modern sculpture, ultimately towards the abstract, Ledward's work remained figurative. In 1934, he co-founded the firm Sculptured Memorials and Headstones in an attempt to promote carving by regional artists in native stone. He made architectural sculpture for many major buildings in the capital. He was Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art, 1926-29, Henry Moore being his studio assistant. Elected to the Royal Academy in 1937 he was also President of the RBS 1954-56 and a member of the Art Workers' Guild. His works are in the collections of the RA and the Tate Gallery. A memorial exhibition of his work was held at Stoke-on-Trent Art Gallery in 1961. His Sloane Square Fountain, unveiled in 1953 showed his deco-inflected classicism still flourishing. His last major work was the colossal stone relief, entitled Vision and Imagination, completed in 1961 after his death, for Goodenough House in Old Broad Street in the City of London. It has since been removed to St. George’s Hospital, Tooting. He was awarded an OBE in 1956 and a centenary tribute to Ledward was staged at the FAS in 1988.

Literate: The Sculpture of Gilbert Ledward by Catherine Moriarty. Published by Lund Humphries, London, 2003. ISBN 085331831X.

Gilbert Ledward, RA PRBS 1888-1960: drawings For Sculpture. An exhibition catalogue published by the Fine Art Society, London, 1988.

Sculptured Memorials and Headstones carved in British Stones, published in London, 1934.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk.

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Alfred Leete (1882-1933)

Alfred Leete is best known as the artist who drew the image of a pointing Lord Kitchener which was used on the famous First World War recruiting poster, “Your country needs you”. The drawing initially appeared on the cover of London Opinion a weekly magazine. Leete’s first published cartoon appeared in the Daily Graphic when he was 16. He worked for Punch from 1905 until his death in 1933

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Alphonse Legros (1837-1911)

Painter and etcher, was born at Dijon, France. He studied firstly at his local art school and was apprenticed to Maître Nicolardo a house decorator and painter. In 1851 Legros left for Paris to take another situation, but passing through Lyon he worked for six months as journeyman wall-painter under the decorator Beuchot, who was painting the chapel of Cardinal Bonald in the cathedral. Arriving in Paris he studied Cambon a theatrical scene painter and simultaneously attended the drawing-school of Lecoq de Boisbaudran. In 1855 Legros attended the evening classes at the École des Beaux-Arts.

Legros migrated to England in 1863 and in 1864 married Miss Frances Rosetta Hodgson. At first he lived by his etching and teaching. He then became teacher of etching at the South Kensington Schools, and in 1876 Slade Professor at University College, London. His work was exhibited at the Paris Salon, with the Society of Twelve and at the RA and RE. He became a naturalized Englishman in 1881, and remained at University College for seventeen years. He also made medals and examples of his oeuvre are in the collection of the BM, the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge and the Museum of Dijon.

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Clare Leighton (1898-1989)

Clare Leighton attended the Brighton School of Art (1915), the

Slade School of Fine Art (1921–23) and the Central School of Arts

and Crafts. Despite her childhood nickname ‘The Bystander’, she

became a hugely visible artist on both sides of the Atlantic, and her

vast oeuvre includes engravings, paintings, bookplates, illustrations

and stained glass. Her twelve plates for Wedgewood, New England

Industries, 1952, are amongst her best-known work.

She exhibited with the SWE in London (1923) and at the

1934 Venice Biennale – attaining full membership to the Royal

Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers in the same year. She also

made several tours of the United States, becoming a naturalised

citizen in 1945. By the time of her death, Leighton had authored

twelve books and made over 840 prints.

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Rene Lelong ()

Rene Lelong was an illustrator and painter French, born April 1, 1871 in Arrou (France) and  died in 1933 .
He won a bronze medal at the Salon of French Artists in 1895 and was a member from 1898. He made ​​posters and illustrated many books and texts.  He was part of 
the jury in 1925 for the Contest Grand Prize Gustave Doré, alongside Georges Auriol , Carlègle , Maxime Dethomas , Raymond Escholier , Abel Faivre , Renefer , Auguste Roubille , Serveau Clement and René Vincent . He was a professor at the Académie Julian in 1879 to 1891 .

He illustrated the following works: 
Mario Uchard , Uncle Barbassou illustration with B. Borrione, Paris, P. Ollendorff, 1897
Alfred Capus , Loser, drawings Rene Lelong, engraved on wood by Georges Lemoine , Paris, P. Ollendorff, 1900 [5]
Theodore Botrel , Songs in clogs, George Ondet 1902 [6]
Guy de Maupassant , Our heart, Collected Works illustrated by René Lelong, engraved on wood by G. Lemoine, Paris, Ollendorff, 1902
Guy de Maupassant , The Sisters Rondoli, Collected Works illustrated, woodcut G. Lemoine, Paris, P. Ollendorff, 1904 [7]
Émile Zola, The Dream, 43 illustrations, Paris, P.Lafitte 1910
René Boylesve , The lesson of love in a park, Paris, Romagna, 1923
Abbe Prevost History of Chevalier des Grieux and Manon Lescaut, Paris, Javal and Bourdeaux 1927
Colette , Tendrils of vines, 35 aquatints , Kra Publishing, 1930

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Stanley Lewis (1905 - 2009)

Stanley Lewis (1905-2009) was reluctant to sell his art during his life-time. He kept all his major works. He later gave some to museums. He turned down offers from galleries, preferring to work without constraints, choosing to earn a much needed regular income through teaching (over 10 years at Newport School of Art and 22 years as Principal of Carmarthen School of Art). Stanley’s art has period charm. It occupies a backwater (rather than the mainstream) of British Art - this is the unmapped territory that art historians will increasingly look at as accounts of 20th Century British Art are revised. His work is highly distinctive and he remained faithful throughout his life to a graphic and stylised manner developed early on in his career. Perhaps the most enduring aspect of his legacy is the remarkable cycle of paintings exhibited at the Royal Academy celebrating Welsh subjects: The Welsh Dress, The Welsh Mole Catcher, The Welsh Farmer, and The Welsh Dresser. There is arguably no other series of genre paintings in British Art which capture so evocatively Welsh identity. Stanley also strongly identified with the land: on the one hand his calling to art was a vocation; on the other his approach was disarmingly unpretentious: ‘I must admit instinct has kept me on the straight-and-narrow path to carry on working my art into what I am: I am a farmer’s son and I have never craved to be in any one else’s shoes.’ Stanley produced little in the way of major paintings during the last decades of the 20th century, though he did continue to draw, (often reworking earlier drawings), and increasingly put his energy into producing and publishing his book illustrations. In his 101st year, in 2006, Stanley published a last edition of drawings under the title: Adventures in Animal Town, using computer software (Photoshop) to add colour to the remarkable images which half a decade earlier, in black and white, had graced the pages of the South Wales Evening Post. (Fig. 2) Stanley first contacted Liss Fine Art (by email!), aged 101, wanting to know what had happened to his former mentors Thomas Monnington and A.K. Lawrence. Stanley’s career spanned a large part of the 20th century. Yet the fruit of his labour was never publicly exhibited. This is the first ever exhibition of his work. Stanley put his longevity down to cigars, whisky and Michelangelo. He took great pleasure in helping prepare the notes in this catalogue. Recalling events from between 50 and 90 years ago it is remarkable how accurate his memory proved to be. It is sad that Stanley is not alive to see this exhibition. Asked, age 103, if he was finally ready for his first ever show, or whether he would like a little more time to prepare, he inhaled gently on his cigar and, with a puff of smoke and a faint chuckle, said: ‘I think I am ready’. The day before he died he asked Jenni his daughter to type up his final wishes: ‘… And when my exhibition is up and running, open a good bottle of champagne and celebrate and think of me. No doubt I will be there in spirit to keep an eye on things.
Lewis was born in Cardiff. He attended Newport College of Art, 1923-6, and the Royal College of Art, 1926-30, teaching at Newport College in the 193os. After war service he became principal of Carmarthen School of Art for 22 years from 1946, then retired and with his wife founded the Pram and Toy Museum at Beckington, Somerset. He illustrated newspaper articles by his wife Min Lewis and her book Laugharne and Dylan Thomas, in 1967, and had one-man shows at various Laugharne Festivals. Showed for many years with Gwent Art Society, SWG and elsewhere and with Michael Ayrton and Enzo Plazzotta shared a three-man show at Bruton Gallery, Somerset. Newport Museum and Art Gallery holds his work. Lewis' show War Images there in 2003 was based on a large unfinished World War II painting and preparatory draw¬ings which the artist donated to the collection.   His first retrospective, organised by Liss Llewellyn Fine Art in 2010, took place at Cecil Higgins Art Gallery & Bedford Museum.

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Francis Littna (1903–1973)

Francis Littna was born in Prague in 1903 and was educated at the University of Prague. His studies included law, economics, painting and music. He graduated in both Czech and German language. In 1921-23 he studied at the music academy in Prague, but changing direction again, he qualified as a Doctor of Law in 1928, which profession he practised in Prague until 1939.

Just before the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1939, Littna escaped to England via Sweden. His knowledge and experience of law was utilized by the Czech government in exile, located in London for the war's duration.

Littna became a British subject after the war and embarked on further formal art training. He attended courses at Camberwell School of Art and subsequently enrolled at Goldsmiths College where his teachers included Graham Sutherland.

Littna had a career in teaching art that ran parallel to his career as an artist. He taught painting and art history at Morley College, University of London, from 1948-1953. Later he held teaching posts in France and the USA.

During the late 1950s and early 60s Littna divided his time between London and Paris. He studied in Paris under Leopold Survage, Francis Desnoyer and others, and knew Braque and Rouault. Jacques Villon and Oscar Kokoschka in particular became friends of his. In 1959 he had a major one-man exhibition at the Galerie Paul Cezanne, Paris. Other Paris exhibitions followed at the Galerie de l'Art Moderne (1961) and the Galerie Jacques Casanova (1965). He also exhibited widely elsewhere in France, as well as in Germany, Austria and New York.

Littna's London exhibitions were also significant. He showed with the Artists' International Association and participated in a major exhibition at the Kaplan Gallery in Duke Street, St James in 1960 (an `International Choice' group show that also included Van Gogh, Toulouse Lautrec, Epstein, Sickert, Moore and Nicholson.) He held a one-man exhibition at the Biggins Gallery, Old Bond Street in 1961.

In 1965 Littna and his wife Victoria Littna, (also an artist) moved to Kalamazoo, Michigan where he became an associate professor of art at Western Michigan University, teaching art history and philosophy in the Honors College. In 1967 he held a one-man exhibition at the Four Winds Gallery, Kalamazoo.

Littna is represented in a number of public collections in England and France including City Museum, Northampton; Victoria & Albert (Documentation); Musee Darney, Vosges; Musee d'Angouleme, Charente; and Musee La Rochelle. His work is in private collections in England, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Holland, Austria, U.S.A., Brazil and Australia.

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Laurence Stephen Lowry (1887-1976)

Print Painter, born in Manchester, Lancashire. He took private classes with the painter William Fitz before working as a clerk in a firm of chartered accountants in 1904. During the period 1905-15 Lowry studied at Manchester College of Art and Design under Adolphe Valette and in 1910 began to work as a rent collector, a career that was to occupy him for many years. Between 1915-20 he studied at Salford School of Art, and began to take an interest in city scenes. 

Lowry exhibited at the Manchester Society of Modern Painters in 1925 and first exhibited at the RA in 1932. He also showed at the Lefevre Gallery from 1939 where he subsequently exhibited regularly and at the NS, PS and many other important venues. He did not eschew his home town and also showed at the MAFA and his work was also reproduced in the Pictures for Schools series. A retrospective exhibition was held at the RA in 1976 after his demise. Until 1952 Lowry continued to work for the Pall Mall Property Company, and rose from the post of rent collector to that of chief cashier. He was greatly lauded in his lifetime, but never lost a certain dourness of character. 

Although wrongly labelled as a Naïve artist, his work is instantly recognisable and is in collections and museums around the world including Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Atkinson Art Gallery, Bolton Art Gallery, Bury Art Gallery, Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Huddersfield Art Gallery, Jerwood Gallery, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, Newport Art Gallery, New Walk Museum & Art Gallery, Manchester City Art Gallery, MIMA, Rochdale Art Gallery, Rugby Museum and Art Gallery, Rye Art Gallery, Stockport Art Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent Art Gallery, Sunderland Museum and Art Gallery, Swindon Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, York Art Gallery, University of Warwick Art Collection and the Usher Art Gallery, Lincoln.

Literature: A Cotswold Book by Harold William Timperley, illustrated by L. S Lowry. Published by Jonathan Cape, London, 1931. The Discovery of L. S. Lowry. A critical and biographical essay by Maurice Stewart Collis. Published by Alex Reid & Lefevre, London, 1951. Royal Academy of Arts (Great Britain) L.S. Lowry RA, 1887-1976 : Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Royal Academy, 4 September to 14 November, 1976. Published by the RA, London, 1976. ISBN 0900946288.

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John Luke (1906-1975)

John Luke was born in Belfast at 4 Lewis Street. He attended the Hillman Street National School and in 1920 went to work at the York Street Flax Spinning Company. He went on soon after to become a riveter at the Workman, Clark shipyard and whilst working there he enrolled in evening classes at the Belfast College of Art. He excelled at the college under the tutelage of Seamus Stoupe and Newton Penpraze. His contemporaries included Romeo Toogood, Harry Cooke Knox, George MacCann, and Colin Middleton. 

In 1927 he won the coveted Dunville Scholarship which enabled him to attend the Slade School of Art in London, where he studied painting and sculpture under the celebrated Henry Tonks, who greatly influenced his development as a draughtsman.  
Luke remained at the Slade School until 1930, in which year he won the Robert Ross Scholarship. 
On leaving the Slade he stayed in London, intent on establishing himself in the art world. For a time he shared a flat with fellow-Ulsterman F.E. McWilliam (1909–1992), and enrolled as a part-time student of Walter Bayes at the Westminster School of Art to study wood-engraving. 
He began to exhibit his work and in October 1930 showed two paintings, The Entombment and Carnival, in an exhibition of contemporary art held at Leger Galleries. The latter composition, depicting a group of masked merry-makers, was singled out by the influential critic, P.G. Konody of the Daily Mail (3 October 1930), as 'one of the most attractive features of the exhibition'. But the economic climate was deteriorating and a year later, at the end of 1933, he was driven back to Belfast by the recession. 

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Robert Lyon (1894 - 1978)

Artist, mural painter and teacher. Born in Liverpool, he studied art at the Royal College of Art and the British School at Rome, 1924. He became lecturer in fine art and master of painting at King's College, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1932. For eight years from 1934 Lyon was tutor to the Ashington Group of spare-time Northumberland miner artists, one of the most remarkable of such groups to emerge in the inter-war years. From 1942-6o Lyon was principal of Edinburgh College of Art. He exhibited RA, RBA, RP and in the provinces. Also painted murals for Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, and King's College Hospital dental department. Lived at Rushlake Green, Sussex.

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Charles Mahoney (1903-1968)

In his memoir Since 50, Men & Memories 1922-1938 (New York,1940, p. 236) the first two names that appear on William Rothenstein list of top Royal College of Art students were Henry Moore and Charles Mahoney - the list continues with the names of luminaries such as Eric Ravilious, Edward Bawden, Barnett Freedman Edward Le Bas, and Evelyn Dunbar. The process of reassuring Mahoney's place in 20th century British Art has had several important milestones including the 1975 Ashmolean exhibition, the Liss Fine Art/Fine Art Society touring show (2000) and Mahoney's predominant feature in Tate Britain's The Art of the Garden, (2005) - but the process of reassessment still has a long way to go.

Painter, muralist, draughtsman and teacher. Born Cyril Mahoney in London - his fellow-student Barnett Freedman re-christened him Charlie at the Royal College of Art, which he attended 1922-6 after a period at Beckenham School of Art under Percy Jowett. Early on, Mahoney established a reputation as a conscientious teacher. He was at the Royal College 1928-53, from 1948-53 as a painting tutor, and was noted there for his concern for academic discipline. His portrait is included in Rodrigo Moynihan's celebrated Teaching Staff of the Painting School at the Royal College of Art, 1949-50. From 1954 to 1963 he taught at the Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting and from 1961 to 1968 at the Royal Academy Schools. He painted murals at Morley College 1928-30 with his colleagues Eric Ravillious and Edward Bawden. Unfortunately these murals were destroyed during World War II. The work led to further murals: at Brockley School, Kent, with Evelyn Dunbar; and at Campion Hall Lady Chapel, Oxford. His oil paintings are frequently of a religious nature. He was a skilled botanist, and many of his drawings depict his garden at Wrotham, Kent. He exhibited at NEAC and the RA, being made an RA elect in 1968. He is represented in the Tate Gallery and other public collections. The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, held a memorial exhibition in 1975. Exhibitions were held in 2000 at the Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston, Royal Museum and Art Gallery, Canterbury, and the Fine Art Society plc in association with Liss Fine Art.

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Dorothy Mahoney (1902-1984)

(previously DOROTHY BISHOP), written by the artist's daughter.

Sept 3; Born Dorothy Louise Bishop in Wednesbury, Staffordshire.;
1902;Eldest child of William and Louise Booth Bishop.

1908-18; Attended St Bartholomew’s Girls’ School, Wednesbury.
Latterly became pupil-assistant.

1918-24; West Bromwich School of Art.

1920; Awarded local scholarship.

1924; Awarded a Staffordshire County Scholarship to attend the Royal College of Art, South Kensington, London. Entered School of Design
with Book Illustration as principal subject.

1926-8       Took Lettering and Illumination as principal subject under
                   Edward Johnston. Became student-assistant to Edward Johnston.
                  Subsidiary subjects: wood engraving, pottery, bookbinding, embroidery.

1929         Appointed Deputy Assistant to Edward Johnston at
                 The Royal College of Art;
                 later given charge of classes in his absences.
                 Gave lectures, demonstrations. Undertook  responsibilities involving both
                 staff and students.

1927-8       Instructor in London County Council classes for women, Brixton and Halford 
                Road; various Arts and Crafts.

1928           Became Tutor in Woolwich Polytechnic School of Art under  Herbert Buckley
               and Louis Prince.  Heber Matthews was Tutor in Pottery and became a friend.

1932         Made two large decorative panels from panels of embroidered work by girls in                her class at Woolwich Technical School; exhibited these at the Victoria and
               Albert Museum and in Stockholm.

1934         Recommended by Professsor Hubert Worthington to execute a series of 
               lettered and illuminated panels on vellum constitiuting the Memorial to the
               15th, 16th, 19th and 20th Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers (c. 2000 names)
               in Sacred Trinity Church, Salford.

1936          Wrote ‘Index’ on vellum for Manchester Cathedral.

1936         Appointed as a result of a competition held by Society of Scribes and                                 Illuminators to execute a series of lettered panels for the Royal Society of                         British Architects.   
1937         Lettered and illuminated a vellum panel War Memorial for All Saints Church,                Hocking.

1938-9      Wrote 2 sets of articles on ‘Broad Pen Lettering’ for Arts and Crafts                                     Education (magazine).

1929-39     Spent a total of  almost 2 years travelling in Europe during summer holidays,                 mainly in France, Germany, Austria, Spain and Italy, visiting art galleries and     
                Visited studios of artists and craftsmen (Worpswede).
                Visited the bookbinding workshop and school of Prof. Otto Dorfner of                          Weimar.

1938         Given 6 months’ leave of absence by London County Council for intensive                     study in dress design at the Reiman School, Westminster.

1939-53     (Now official!) Tutor in charge of Calligraphy at Royal College of Art after                             retirement of Edward Johnston.

1940         Evacuated to Ambleside, Westmoreland, with Royal College of Art (Salutation                          Hotel).

1941         Married the painter and muralist Charles Mahoney in Ambleside.

1941         Made studies of wild flowers from Ambleside.

March 21  Birth of a daughter, Elizabeth, in Wolverhampton.

1945         Moved to Oak Cottage, Wrotham, Kent with her husband and daughter.

1947         Decorative map of Cirencester for the Fleece Hotel – vellum panel.

1948         Book of Remembrance for Brathay Church, Ambleside  (Decorative                                   frontispiece of church).

1949         Lettered and illuminated a presentation to Professor Sir Ian Heilbron,  DSO,                      FRC, at Imperial College
               (book form).

1951         Festival of Britain – cover for leaflet.

1951         Cheltenham College Honours Book  (1841-1950).

1951         French Carol ‘Quelle est cette odeur agreable’ written on vellum for Lord                              Cholmondeley  (Now at Victoria and Albert Museum).
1952         Lettered a Roll of Honour for Institute of Chartered Accontants  War                               Memorial.

January   Initiation of Benefactors’ Book for Whitworth Art Gallery
1952          (originally conceived as panels)

1952         Lettered and illuminated a book presented to her Majesty Queen Elizabeth by                  Shrewsbury School.

1953         Calligraphy teaching at Royal College of Art discontinued by Robin Darwin.

May          Victoria and Albert Museum purchases 2 works by DM.

1953         Books completed for Manchester  Cathedral Memorial Chapel.

1953         First  of  4 Panels of  Provosts for  King’s College Chapel.
(or later)  

1953         Commission for 2 volumes for Roll of Honour for Fiji

1957         Decorative map of  Bayliss Jones & Bayliss Ltd of Wolverhampton

1961         Book for Philip Hofer ‘Some English Garden Flowers’.  Lettered text
                 opposite full-page plant illustration.  Houghton Library, Harvard, USA.

1961         St Clement Danes, Strand.  RAF Book of Remembrance for World War II –
                 inscribed 13,500 names beginning with ‘C’ or ‘D’.

1964         Excerpts from Cobbett’s writings for Marilyn Davis.

1965         Decorative map on vellum of St Mary’s College, Cheltenham.

1968         St Felix School, Southwold; Memorial book, map frontispiece.

1970         Vellum book lettered and illuminated by DM and bound by Sydney Cockerell.
                 Post World War II Roll of Honour for Royal Engineers  (St Paul’s Cathedral)

1971         Panel presented to Heather Child by Society of Scribes and Illuminators.
                 (Wordsworth poem with Lakeland flowers).

1981        The Craft of Calligraphy published by Pelham Books Ltd.

1982         Poem by Dylan Thomas for Jeanne Smith – vellum ?panel.

1983         Forced to stop work on Whitworth Art Gallery Benefactor’s book for health                     reasons.

Jan          Decorative Alphabet for Michael Taylor based on uncials.

May         Died after a major stroke.

NOTE     DM  also exhibited with the SSI and Society of Designer                                                             Craftsmen.
After leaving the Royal College of Art she taught calligraphy at the Central School of Arts and Crafts and Ravensthorpe School of Art.  After ‘retirement’ at age 65 she taught  2 evening classes a week at the Stanhope Institute, Queen’s Square, London until she was in her late 70s.

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Guy Malet (1900-1979)

Guy Malet was born in Southsea, Hampshire. He attended the Royal Military College in Sandhurst, before studying at the London School of Art and later wood engraving at the Grosvenor School of Art under Iain MacNab.
He worked for a time in Sark in the Channel Islands, and in Ditchling, Sussex. His engravings tended to be conventional in subject with a Cubist-like handling of form and space.

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Horace Mann Livens (1862-1936)

Painter and etcher of interiors, landscapes, townscapes, flowers and poultry. Born 16 December 1862 in Croydon, Surrey, son of a colonial broker. He began studying under Walter Wallis at Croydon School of Art, while working in his father's office in the City. He worked under Verlat at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp, circa 1885, where he met and became a friend of Van Gogh. Inviting Livens to Paris the following year, Van Gogh wrote: 'Since I am here in Paris I have very often thought of yourself and work. You will remember that I liked your colour, your ideas on art and literature and I add, most of all your personality . I would very much like to know what you are doing and whether you ever think of going to Paris. If ever you did come here . I will share my lodgings and studio with you so long as I have any.. I felt sure at the time that you are a thorough colourist and since I saw the impressionists I assure you that neither your colour nor mine as it is developing itself, is exactly the same as their theories.' Livens accepted the invitation to Paris and spent time studying French painting, and was especially influenced by Whistler and Japanese prints. He exhibited at the RA from 1890-9, NEAC from 1896-1904, and at the Grosvenor Gallery and abroad; he was Foundation Associate of the IS. His first one-man exhibition was at the Goupil Gallery, 1911. In 1916 he illustrated E. V. Lucas's London Revisited . Livens exhibited until 1929, afterwhich ill health prevented him form working - he died at Harrow on 5 October 1936. His work is held in the Tate and the Government Art Collection

After Livens' death in 1936 two events occurred which threatened to destroy the work on which his early reputation had been built: during World War II a number of his paintings, in store in London, disappeared in the bombing, and in 1957 a fire at his widow's home in Harrow destroyed a further group of his work. The Times obituary stated that Livens "once enjoyed a singular reputation" - but, save for a few admirers, he has long been forgotten

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Ellis Martin (1881-1977)

Ellis Martin was an accomplished commercial artist who, before the First World War, produced posters and advertising designs for firms such as Selfridges and W.H. Smith. When WWI broke out he went to France with the Royal Engineers and the Tank Corps, as an artist sketching the landscapes over which the army and its heavy vehicles would have to move. When the war ended, Martin was invited to join the Ordnance Survey which was struggling to capture the burgeoning market due to the proliferation of cheap pirated versions of OS originals. Martin’s first map cover designs appeared in 1919 and within a year the OS was reporting the highest map sales in its history. Martin continued to work for the OS until the outbreak of the Second World War, and in that time he helped make Ordnance Survey a household name; his cover designs show a bygone way of life and are much collected today.

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Arnold Mason (1885-1963)

Landscape and portrait painter, born at Birkenhead, Cheshire. He studied at the Royal College of Art and the Slade, and also in Paris and Rome. He helped Sir William Richmond with decorations at the Old Bailey, London, 1906-8. He served in the Artists' Rifles, 1915-1918. He exhibited at the RA from 1919, being elected RA in 1951. He also showed at NEAC, RP, Leicester Galleries, Goupil Gallery and ROI. Examples of his work are in the collections of the Tate Gallery, Manchester City Art Gallery and Wakefield City Art Gallery.

Mason earned his living mostly by painting portraits, much in the style of Augustus John, with whom he shared a studio. He was engaged to fellow Slade artist Winifred Knights and produced a number of remarkable portraits of her.

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Fortunino Matania (1881-1963)

Fortunino Matania was an Italian artist noted for his realistic portrayal of World War I trench warfare and of a wide range of historical subjects.

Born in Naples, the son of artist Eduoardo Matania, Fortunino Matania studied at his father's studio, designing a soap advertisement at the age of 9 and exhibiting his first work at Naples Academy at 11. By the age of 14 he was helping his father produce illustrations for books and magazines. His talent was recognised by the editor of the Italian periodical L'Illustrazione Italiania and Matania produced weekly illustrations for the magazine between 1895 and 1902.

At the age of 20, Matania began working in Paris for Illustration Francaise and, in 1902, was invited to London to cover the Coronation of Edward VII for The Graphic. Matania would subsequently cover every major event – marriage, christening, funeral and Coronation – of British royalty up to the coronation of Queen Elizabeth in 1953.

In 1904, Matania joined the staff of The Sphere where some of his most famous work was to appear, including his illustrations of the sinking of the Titanic in 1912. Around 1906 to 1910 he painted the life in the lobby of the Hotel Excelsior in Rome.

The Last General Absolution of the Munsters at Rue du Bois by Matania depicting the regiment on the eve of the Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915
At the outbreak of the First World War, Matania became a war artist and was acclaimed for his graphic and realistic images of trench warfare. His painting for the Blue Cross entitled Goodbye, Old Man, showing a British soldier saying farewell to his dying horse, is a fine example of his emotive work. His painting of the Green Howards including Henry Tandey is a central part of a famous story.

But it was after the war, when he switched to scenes of ancient high life for the British woman's magazine, Britannia and Eve, that Matania found his real career. He filled his London studio with reproductions of Roman furniture, pored over history books for suitably lively subjects. Then, with the help of models and statues, he began to paint such subjects as Samson & Delilah, the bacchanalian roisters of ancient Rome, and even early American Indian maidens—all with the same careful respect for accuracy and detail he had used in his news assignments.

Generally he managed to include one or two voluptuous nudes in each picture. "The public demanded it," says Matania. "If there was no nude, then the editor or I would get a shower of letters from readers asking politely why not." He was a standard in Britannia and Eve for 19 years.

Matania exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, in 1917 he was elected a member of the latter. From 1908 and his work appearing in most of the principal magazines in Britain and America, including Illustrated London News, London Magazine, Nash's, Printer's Pie and others. When Britannia and Eve was launched in 1929, Matania became one of its first contributors. For 19 years, he wrote and illustrated historical stories for the magazine. His talents made him a popular illustrator for advertising, posters and catalogues, working for Ovaltine, Burberry's (the sporting outfitters) and many others. Matania was also recommented to Hollywood director Cecil B. DeMille and produced a number of paintings of Rome and Egypt from which authentic designs could be made for the movie The Ten Commandments.

Towards the end of his life, Matania illustrated features for the educational weekly Look and Learn and was working on the series A Pageant of Kings at the time of his death.

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Ugo Matania (1888-1979)

Ugo Matania was born in Naples in 1888. He received a degree in Advertising Diagram and Design in 1911. He found employment in London from 1913 to 1924 with” The Sphere” and “London Magazine.” By 1948, he was back in Italy working for the Corriere della Sera, the publisher of Il Romanzo per Tutti

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Louis Octave Mattei (1877)

Louis Octave Joseph Mattéi [commonly known as Louis Octave Mattéi] was born in Vern-d'Anjou, Maine-et-Loire, France on 20 November 1877. He moved to Paris where he was a pupil of the Georges Tonnelier (1858-1937). 

Mattéi subsequently worked as a sculptor and medal engraver and exhibited at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français in Paris from 1904 to 1914. He died in 1918.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Julia Beatrice Matthews (-1948)

Julia B. Mathews, R.I (Mrs Ivimey), was a self-taught genre painter who exhibited at leading London galleries for 1893, chiefly at the R.A, R.I, R.B.A, R.H.A, and the Paris Salon.  She lived at Newquay in Cornwall. She died in 1948.

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James McBey (1883 - 1959)

James McBey's parents were Scottish peasants. Abandoned by his father, he was raised by his mother and her family in abject poverty, in the harsh, bleak countryside of Buchan, close to the north sea coast line. At the age of fifteen he gained employment with a bank in Aberdeen and from then on supported himself, his mother, and grandmother until his mother’s suicide in 1906. With no remaining family ties, James McBey now embarked upon a career as a professional artist – a career which was to propel him far from his humble origins to great financial success and international fame.

Self-taught as an etcher, James McBey is widely regarded as the leading figure of the British Etching Revival. His work dominated British etching during the early part of the 20th century and the popularity of his prints was without parallel. A single impression of his etching Dawn, The Camel Patrol Setting Out, realised the highest price ever attained for a living etcher’s work in this country when it sold for £445 at auction in 1928. In 1931 James McBey married the American heiress Marguerite Loeb. James Mcbey is often cited as being the most commercially successful Scottish artist between the two World Wars.

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Ambrose McEvoy (1878 - 1927)

Born in Wiltshire, the son of an Irish-American mercenary settled in England - a friend of Whistler. Both encouraged Ambrose’s ambition to be an artist. Aged 15 he entered the Slade School of Art, under the tuition of Fred Brown, where he was befriended by Augustus John (they briefly shared a studio) and embarked in 1898 on a stormy affair with Gwen John who was devastated when he threw her up to be engaged in 1900 to another painter, Mary Spencer Edwards.
Married in 1902, the couple moved in 1906 to 107 Grosvenor Road, Pimlico where they lived for the rest of their lives.

Ambrose McEvoy began his career painting serene interior settings. However, after 1915 he began producing portraits and eventually became extremely successful. Most of his portraits were down of high-class women in a sketchy style of watercolor painting. He was inspired by the work of Gainsborough and some of his paintings emulate his influence’s romantic style.

Among his continental excursions, in 1909 he went to Dieppe with Sickert, whose etching classes he had attended. Subsequently McEvoy was in much demand for his portraits of fashionable women, including Lady Diana Cooper while continuing to execute landscapes and interiors.

His work is held in several national collections including the British Museum, the Tate, National Portrait Gallery and Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum and at Ottowa and Johannesburg.

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John McKenzie (1897 - 1972)

The remarkable work of John McKenzie has only recently come to light.
Despite exhibiting his slates at the Royal Scottish Academy Summer
Exhibition, the Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts, and The Arbroath
Art Society, (and in two solo exhibitions at the Arbroath Public Library),
McKenzie sold no more than a handful of sculptures during his lifetime.

Initially McKenzie worked in wood, but disappointed with the results, he turned to roof slates and other materials found to hand. Mckenzie accentuated the depth of his shallow designs by polishing them with linseed oil mixed with slate dust. The works have retained their original presentation _ the wall plaques with a narrow oak moulding and the free standing reliefs set onto angled stands with bronze coloured resin set around the asymmetrical edges.

He produced no more than three to four reliefs a year, which amounted to less than one hundred and fifty over his entire career. By day a charge-hand mess-man on HMS Condor (and later a railwayman), the reclusive McKenzie indulged his passion for carving by night and at the weekends. Inspired by Antiquity and his own system of recurrent motifs, he found it entirely natural to add into his compostions figures in contemporary dress.
A rich symbolism imbues his work, complemented by lyrical titles such as ‘Lightsome Interlude’, ‘Fruitful Tree’ or ‘Moon Shot’. When McKenzie died, in 1972, his estate was left to his housekeeper. A type written inventory lists 112 works of art. The twenty-seven works selected for this catalogue include some of McKenzie’s finest designs. Paul Liss, July 2012

Essay : Peyton Skipwith

It is rare for a creative artist to work in the privacy of his garden shed, in a challenging medium, and almost entirely for his own pleasure, but such a one was the slate-carver, John McKenzie. His day job was working as a steward in the Petty Officers’ Mess aboard H.M.S. Condor, the Fleet Air Arm Training School at Arbroath, Angus, on the east coast of Scotland. It has been said that sculptors can be divided into two categories - whittlers and modellers.
McKenzie definitely falls into the former, as he was clearly never happier than with a knife or some other cutting or engraving tool in his hand; rejecting wood as too soft, perhaps too feminine, he sought for something more challenging and settled on Welsh slate, a hard and obdurate material. The small body of work he produced, probably not more than a hundred and fifty pieces in total, form a unique record of the dreams as well as the everyday genteel world of this working-class Phidias from Glasgow who, after his father’s death, moved to Arbroath with his mother, living with her for the remainder of her life.

His reliefs are, in many ways, like three-dimensional drawings, and it is not surprising to read in that rare interview he gave to The Arbroath Herald that he kept on ‘drawing, and redrawing, till what I’ve produced simply asks to be carved.’ These low-cut slate reliefs have all the modulation and shading of an obsessive and perfectionist draughtsman, the sort who draws and redraws until the paper is lacerated.
There is also an affinity between the two materials - graphite and slate. McKenzie’s work is totally unpretentious, but it reveals a cultivated familiarity with the carvings of ancient Babylon and Mesopotamia, as well as classical mythology, suggesting that as a boy he had haunted Kelvingrove Art Gallery - and may have continued to do so - as well the public libraries of Glasgow and Arbroath.

His father may have been a railwayman and his mother in domestic service, as the records tell us, but they would also have attended the kirk or chapel and probably read the works of Ruskin and Morris, and possibly of Carlyle too. Such sources are an inherent part of his natural vocabulary, a heritage with which he was both familiar and comfortable, and which he exploited in his small plaques, not as an antiquarian, but rather as an observant, though detached, onlooker.There is something puritanical in his approach, even when treating the female nude, which links his vision of everyday life to that of the Quaker tempera painter, Joseph Southall. The mediums of both slate-carving and tempera are rooted in antiquity, demanding, equally, a disciplined technique and eschewal of the hasty or ill-considered.
There is also, of course, an affinity with some of Eric Gill’s relief carvings; McKenzie never has the overcharged sense of Gill, but many of his reliefs share qualities with the Stations of the Cross in Westminster Cathedral - considered by some to have been Gill’s finest achievement - and the Leeds University War Memorial, particularly the low depth of field, the simple, clear outlines and the stasis. That sense of stillness even in motion - not to be confused with stiltedness - the sense that the scene, whether contemporary or quasi-mythological, is frozen in time. The use of oil colour too, such as Gill used in his 1914 carving Boxers, provides another link between the two men.
A list of the hundred and twelve carvings that were still in his possession at the time of his death exists, but forty years on we will never know what books he had on his shelves, what postcards, photographs and cuttings from the local paper, what references he used. John McKenzie may have worked in solitude but it is clear that he did not work in isolation.

To read the full text, download the catalogue here.

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Robert Owen Medley (1905-1994)

Painter, printmaker, theatre designer, teacher and writer, born in London, where he lived for much of his life. Studied at Byam Shaw School, 1923-24, briefly at Royal Academy Schools in 1924, then at Slade School of Fine Art, 1924-26, under Tonks and Steer. There he met Roger Fry and Duncan Grant and the Bloomsbury set. He spent two years in Paris, 1926-28. From 1929-34 he assisted Duncan Grant and Vanessa Bell. He showed with LG from 1929, becoming a member in 1937, and helped to establish the AIA the year before. He had his first solo show at London Artists' Association, 1932. In the same year he became associated with Rupert Doone, director of Group Theatre, and designed the sets for plays by W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood and T. S. Eliot. By the mid 1930s he was moving away from the ideals of the Bloomsbury set, having met and become friends with Henry Moore, Graham Sutherland, John Piper and Paul Nash. In 1936 Medley took part in a joint exhibition at Agnews with John Piper, Francis Bacon and Ivon Hitchens. During World War II Medley was an Official War Artist, and was also involved in camouflage work in Middle East. He taught at Chelsea School of Art, 1932-39 and 1946-50, and taught stage design and painting at the Slade, 1950-58. He was head of the fine art department at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1958-65, and was chairman of the faculty of painting at the British School in Rome, 1967-77. In 1980 he published a limited edition of screenprints for Milton's Samson Agonistes; he considered this amongst his best work. During his last years returned to figurative painting; Medley described his abstract work which had preceded this as 'metaphors for actual visual experience'. There have been two major retrospective exhibitions: at the Whitechapel Gallery, in 1963, and at the Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, in 1984. Numerous public collections have purchased Medley's work, including the Tate, British Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum, Imperial War Museum, Arts Council, Contemporary Art Society, and Government Art Collection. His autobiography, Drawn from the Life, was published by Faber and Faber in 1983.

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Mortimer L. Menpes (1855-1938)

Mortimer Luddington Menpes (22 February 1855 – 1 April 1938), was an Australian-born artist, author, printmaker and illustrator. Menpes was born in Port Adelaide, South Australia, the second son of property developer James Menpes, who with his wife, Ann, had settled in Australia in 1839. Educated at Adelaide Educational Institution, he attended classes at the Adelaide School of Design, and did some excellent work as a photo-colourist, but his formal art training began at the School of Art in London in 1878, after his family had moved back to England in 1875. Edward Poynter was a fellow student at the school. Menpes first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1880, and, over the following 20 years, 35 of his paintings and etchings were shown at the Academy. Menpes set off on a sketching tour of Brittany in 1880, during which he met James McNeill Whistler. He became Whistler's pupil, and at one stage shared a flat with him at Cheyne Walk on the Chelsea Embankment in London. He was taught etching by Whistler, whose influence, together with that of Japanese design, is evident in his later work. Menpes became a major figure in the etching revival, producing more than seven hundred different etchings and drypoints, which he usually printed himself. As early as 1880, a selection of ten of his drypoint portraits, donated to the British Museum by Charles A. Howell, brought him critical acclaim. A visit to Japan in 1887 led to his first one-man exhibition at Dowdeswell's Gallery[4] in London. Menpes moved into a property at 25 Cadogan Gardens, Sloane Square, designed for him by A. H. Mackmurdo in 1888 and decorated it in the Japanese style. Whistler and Menpes quarreled in 1888 over the interior design of the house, which Whistler felt was a brazen copying of his own ideas. The house was sold in 1900, and Menpes moved to Kent. In 1900, after the outbreak of the Boer War, Menpes was sent to South Africa as a war artist for the weekly illustrated magazine Black and White. After the end of the war in 1902 he travelled widely, visiting Burma, Egypt, France, India, Italy, Japan, Kashmir, Mexico, Morocco, and Spain. Many of his illustrations were published in travel books by A & C Black. His book on the Delhi Durbar was an illustrated record of the commemoration in Delhi of the coronation of King Edward VII. For the last 30 years of his life, Menpes retired to Iris Court, Pangbourne from where he managed his Purley-on-Thames business, "Menpes Fruit Farms". He built forty large greenhouses in which to grow carnations and eight cottages to accommodate the farm workers. He died in Pangbourne in 1938. Menpes became a member of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers (RE) in 1881, Royal Society of British Artists (RBA) in 1885, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours (RI) in 1897 and Royal Institute of Oil Painters (ROI) in 1899. In 1875, Menpes married fellow Australian Rosa Mary Grosse (d. 23 Aug 1936) in London. They had a son, Mortimer James (b. 1879) and two daughters, Rose Maud Goodwin and Dorothy Whistler.[8] Menpes painted in both oil and watercolour. He developed a special form of colour etching, used to illustrate his books, and founded the Menpes Press of London and Watford. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Menpes travelled Europe, making copies of paintings by the old masters which he used as a basis for a series of prints published in 1905 and 1909. In 1911, Menpes donated 38 of the copies in oil to the Australian Government; these works have subsequently become part of the Pictures Collection at the National Library of Australia. The following books were illustrated by Menpes Menpes, Dorothy. Japan: a record in colour (A & C Black, 1901). Menpes, Dorothy. The Durbar (London: A & C Black, 1903) Menpes, Dorothy. World's Children (London: A & C Black, 1903). Menpes, Dorothy. Venice (A & C Black, 1904). Loti, Pierre. Madame Prune (A & C Black, 1905). Menpes, Dorothy. Brittany (A & C Black, 1905). Steel, Flora Annie. India (A & C Black, 1905). Mitton, G. E. The Thames (A & C Black, 1906). Blake, Sir H. A. China (A & C Black, 1909) Menpes, Dorothy. Paris (A & C Black, 1909). Finnemore, John. India (A & C Black, 1910). Mitton, G. E. The people of India (A & C Black, 1910). Blathwayt, R. Through life and round the world, being the story of my life (E.P. Dutton, 1917). Finnemore, John. Home life in India (A & C Black, 1917) Home, Gordon. France (A & C Black, 1918). Written and illustrated by Menpes War impressions, being a record in colour; (A & C Black, 1901). Whistler as I knew him (A & C Black, 1904) Rembrandt (A & C Black, 1905) Henry Irving (A & C Black, 1906). Gainsborough (A & C Black, 1909). Lord Kitchener (A & C Black, 1915). Lord Roberts (A & C Black, 1915).

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Allan Milner (1910-1984)

Milner was an Abstract and Surrealist painter,  born in Castleford, Yorkshire. He attended the local Grammar School, where his Art teacher also taught Henry Moore. He went to Leeds College of Art and then the Royal College of Art. He exhibited in 1932 at the Mayor Gallery, having a portrait bought by the artist Edward Wadsworth. In the Second World War he served in the Royal Navy. He exhibited in mixed exhibitions at the Redfern Gallery and Gimpel Fils and had solo shows including E.L.T.Mesens’ London Gallery in 1949 and Woodstock in 1967. Salford Art Gallery bought an oil, Abstraction, in 1956. Milner settled in Ramsey, Isle of Mann where he was the founder member and became vice-president of the Mannin Art Group where he was a prolific exhibitor. The Manx Museum, in Douglas, holds an abstract water colour and a Manx landscape by Milner. The artist was described by one friend as a stout bohemian fellow, competent with brush and corkscrew

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Muriel Minter (1897-1983)

Artist and teacher, born in Alverstoke, Hampshire. During World War I she lived in Malta, where her father was a naval pharmacist. She trained at Rochester School of Art, where she later taught, and the Royal College of Art from 1921–3. At the Royal College Minter met the artist Gerald Cooper, whom she later married. Gerry and Mint, as they were known, were part of a brilliant group at the College, then under the direction of William Rothenstein, their contemporaries including Raymond Coxon, his wife Edna Ginesi, Barbara Hepworth, Henry Moore, Vivian Pitchforth and Charles Tunnicliffe. Minter’s early Rochester style was illustrative, her later manner looser, with subjects including fairground and circus scenes. Most of her commissioned work was for stained glass windows – many of which can be seen in churches in Kent and Suffolk, notably at Bures, near Sudbury. Her work is in the collection of the Geffrye Museum. She died in Wimbledon, southwest London.

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John Minton (1917 - 1957)

Painter, illustrator and teacher, born near Cambridge. Studied art at St John's Wood Art Schools, 1935-8, under Patrick Millard and Kenneth Martin. During the following year he stayed in Paris, where French Neo-Romantic painting made a strong impression. Was a conscientious objector during World War II. Designer for John Gielgud's production of Macbeth, 1941. Shared a studio with Robert Colquhoun and Robert MacBryde, 1943-6, and with Keith Vaughan, 1946-52, which reinforced his association with the English Neo-Romantic movement. From 1943-6 Minton taught at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1946-8, and at Royal College of Art, 1948-57. He was a popular, charismatic teacher and personality, who in later years continued to be a cult figure. Minton's work has an assured linear quality, seen in his illustrations to Alain-Fournier's The Wanderer and a number of other books. He also painted on a large scale with a distinctive palette, work stemming from travels  in Corsica, Spain, the West Indies and Morocco in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Minton ehibited at the RA, LG, RBA and Lefevre Gallery in 1945. Lived in London and committed suicide. Arts Council memorial exhibition, London and touring, 1958-9, with retrospectives at Reading Museum & Art Gallery, 1974, Oriel 31, Newtown, 1993, and Royal College of Art, 1994, and tour.

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Gerald Edward Moira (1867-1959)

Painter, mural decorator and teacher, born in London of Portuguese origin. He studied at Royal Academy Schools, 1887–89, winning several prizes, having been earlier tutored and encouraged by his father, Eduardo Lobo da Moira (1817–1887), a miniature painter who had served in the Portuguese diplomatic service. 
Moira failed to win the Royal Academy gold medal only by the casting vote of its president, Sir Frederick Leighton. On leaving the Schools Moira immediately set up studio in London and received a number of important portrait commissions. 
Gerald Moira showed at the RA from 1891, IS from 1899, was member of NPS and RWA, and held senior positions in ROI and RWS. He went on to become professor of mural and decorative painting at the Royal College of Art, 1900–22, then principal of Edinburgh College of Art, 1924–32. 
In addition to teaching he carried out a formidable number of large commissions, including decorations for the old Trocadero Restaurant, in Shaftesbury Avenue; ceiling for the boardroom of Lloyd’s Register; a frieze for the Passmore Edwards Free Library, in Shoreditch; work at the Central Criminal Court; as well as work in private houses, church decoration and many easel pictures. 

His compositions were confidently designed, tidy in execution and rich in colour. Examples of his work are in the collections of the Tate, the Victoria & Albert Museum, and Glasgow Art Gallery. He died in Northwood, Middlesex.

Selected Literature Harold Watkins, The Art of Gerald Moira, London, 1922.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Sir Thomas Monnington (1902-1976)

Painter, especially of murals. Born in London, he studied at the Slade School in 1918-23 and was Rome Scholar in 1923-26. He married fellow Rome Scholar Winifred Knights in 1924. Among his public works are a decoration for St Stephen's Hall, Westminster, 1928, and the new Council House in Bristol, 1956. Monnington taught drawing at the Royal Academy Schools, 1931-39, and in 1949 joined the staff of the Slade, whose strong linear tradition marked his own work. Monnington is represented in a number of public galleries, including the Tate, British Museum and Imperial War Museum. He was elected RA in 1938, became its President in 1966 and was knighted in 1967. There was a memorial exhibition at the RA in 1977. Another traveled from the British School at Rome to the Royal Albert Memorial Museum in Exeter and the Fine Art Society in 1997. From the 1940s Monnington lived in Groombridge, Kent; the local landscape inspired much of his post-war work. Monnington was one of the outstanding draughtsmen of his generation. He had a considerable influence as a teacher (Euan Uglow was among his pupils), and was one of the most effective of the twentieth-century presidents of the RA, turning around the Academy's ailing fortunes. Remarkably he was the first president of the Academy to produce abstract paintings and indeed made no distinction between abstract and figurative art: "Surely what matters is not whether a work is abstract or representative, but whether it has merit. If those who visit exhibitions would come without preconceptions, would apply to art the elementary standards they apply in other spheres, they might glimpse new horizons. They might ask themselves: is this work distinguished or is it commonplace? Fresh and original or uninspired, derivative and dull? Is it modest or pretentious?" (Interview in the Christian Science Monitor, 29.5.67).

Selected Literature: Judy Egerton, Sir Thomas Monnington, Royal Academy of Arts, 1977 Paul Liss, Sir Thomas Monnington, British School at Rome/Fine Art Society plc, 1997

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Victor Hume Moody (1896-1990)

"Victor Moody’s distinctive voice has yet to find a large, enthusiastic and appreciative public. He is not alone. He is in good company with other British artists from the period, whose work is strikingly recognizable and yet at the same time almost permanently out of vogue: Robert Weir Allen, Harry Morley, William Strang, Charles Sims, Charles Shannon, Ambrose McEvoy, Stanley Lewis, Albert Victor Wood.
All displayed remarkable technical skill - grounded in a profound and thorough training in draughtsmanship, combined with acutely observed narratives. They are infused with humour and idiosyncrasy. While the skill might be beyond dispute, the subject matter and composition can make the work inaccessible to a modern day audience.
There is a sense of melodrama, a distortion of beauty, a heightening of colour which unsettles. Most viewers are drawn to conclude, sometimes reluctantly, more often readily, that the work produced by such artists does not merit serious consideration. But what today is seen, at best, as an enchanted backwater, might well be understood by future generations to represent a more mainstream current of the art of its day.
The inherent quality of their work and the originality of their vision begs a reassessment of their individual and collective place in twentieth century British Art. All of the works in this catalogue have come from the Estate of Catherine Moody and represent the most important body of Victor Moody’s oeuvre to have ever come on the market.

We are especially grateful to Stephen Whittle for the introductory essay to this catalogue. As the culmination of two decades of research it provides an excellent context for Victor Moody’s work".
Paul Liss

Essay by Stephen Whittle:
Victor Hume Moody created timeless images of an Arcadian idyll at a time when most artists had turned their backs on the classical tradition. The centuries old heritage of Western art was too inspiring and too valuable for him to simply abandon. Over a working life of nearly 70 years he tirelessly researched and worked to revive traditional painting techniques. At the same time he created a unique fusion of classical figure composition and the pastoral English landscape. Very little survives of Victor Moody’s thoughts on art and he published nothing to explain the evolution of his distinctive and idiosyncratic style of painting.

His daughter Catherine Moody, who took over from him as Head of Malvern School of Art, felt that he had expressed “...all that he wished to convey through his brush and not with the supplement of verbal statement.” We do know that Moody’s approach to art originated and was largely formed at Battersea Polytechnic of Arts and Crafts during and immediately after the Great War. Enrolling in 1913, Moody studied for a lengthy seven years.
In a rare interview 1 he recalled life drawing classes under the direction of the artist Henry Cogle, who instilled in him a taste for imaginative figure compositions. Moody also became a good friend of the artist Anna Airy, the wife of another tutor Geoffrey Buckingham Pocock. Airy painted portraits in the grand manner but it was the elaborate arrangements that she made in her studio for figure compositions that most impressed him.
At Battersea there was a strong focus on technique, self-reliance and learning “good and useful skills” 2. Groups of fine art students as well as those in the ‘trade classes’ were taken each week to study in the Victoria & Albert Museum and the National Gallery. The foundations of Moody’s style were laid down in these early years; life drawing, study from the antique cast, a thorough grounding in perspective followed by classes in monochrome under-painting, teaching him to create a convincing illusion of solid form.
Moody could hardly have failed to be aware of the changing face of British art in the early years of the twentieth century but his growing familiarity with the great works of Western art instilled in him a strong conviction that the modernist avant-garde held little interest for him. He was instead fascinated by the animated portrait style of Van Dyck, making a copy of the National Gallery’s ‘Cornelis van der Geest’, as well studying the works of Reynolds and Raeburn very closely. ‘The Flapper Dress, Portrait of Miss Willoughby’ (Cat. 3) is one of Moody’s most charming early portraits and must have been made shortly before he married the sitter in 1919.

May Olive Willoughby was a fellow student at Battersea Polytechnic. She helped Victor Moody to design the college’s stage productions and would support him in what Catherine Moody described as his “missionary impetus” to communicate a love of art through painting and teaching. Despite picking up a number of portrait commissions in the early 1920s, Moody could not see a place for himself in the London art world. Quiet and self effacing, he had little taste for the growing confrontation between the academic old order and the emerging modernist mainstream.
He decided to get away from the noise and bustle of the city, left his house in Clapham and bought a smallholding in Walliswood, Surrey. Moody moved to Little Meadows in December 1922 with his wife and his younger brother Arthur where they lived on a small private income from his father who had been a successful brewer in Lambeth. Catherine later described this period of rural retirement as “...a William Morris-like Earthly Paradise.” Victor Moody continued portrait painting and gave private tuition to the children of local landowners.
This time of retreat was very important to Moody who had always held a deep attachment to the English countryside stretching back to his early childhood. Many years later he would paint ‘Milking Time’ (Cat. 4) entirely from memory, an evocation of family visits to rural Wiltshire at the turn of the century. Moody established a good reputation locally and he was persuaded by a deputation of local artists to think about renewing a full-time career as an artist.

At the end of 1926 he returned to London with his family and enrolled at the Royal College of Art. The experience wasn’t entirely satisfactory however. As we can see from the self-portraits painted in the late 1920s (Cat. 17-19), Moody wore extremely powerful spectacles to combat his short-sightedness and he struggled to see the model in the life drawing classes from the regulation distance imposed by his tutors. Consequently many of the paintings and drawing from this time were made at home and were based on studies of his family, notably the drawings for ‘The Annunciation’ and ‘Crossing the Red Sea’ (Cat. 35-38 and Cat. 13).

The great advantage of studying at the RCA for Moody was the opportunity it afforded him to renew his study of Renaissance and later paintings in the national collections, particularly the work of the Baroque artist Stanzioni and the Mannerist portraitist Agnomo di Cosimo, better known as Bronzino. The geometric compositions and simplified forms of Georges de La Tour, then only known to Moody through reproductions, were also a key early influence. If much of his study was self-directed, Moody did benefit greatly from the support of the College Principal William Rothenstein. As well encouraging Moody to research the history of classical composition, Rothenstein offered him the opportunity to assist with his mural commission at St. Stephen’s Hall in the Palace of Westminster, a 4.4 metre wide painting of ‘Sir Thomas Roe at the Moghul Court’.
It was not until Moody left the RCA in 1929 that he began to develop that very distinctive combination of elements which characterises his most important body of work. Settling in Stroud, he began teaching at two schools during the day and at the School of Art during the evening. He also began work on the first of his major classical compositions ‘Perseus and the Nymphs’ (Cat. 12), in which he drew heavily on his study of Greek vase painting and Egyptian antiquities in the British Museum. Like ‘The Pleading Chryses’, Moody’s first Royal Academy exhibit in 1930, ‘Perseus and the Nymphs’ is a dramatic and sensual re-imagining of classical myth.
The landscape elements are pared down and heavily stylized, adding to the sense of dynamic tension, of motion arrested at a critical and decisive moment. Colour is heightened by Moody’s use of a gesso panel, prepared using Cennino Cennini’s early 15th century instruction manual ‘Il libro dell’arte’. Shortly after settling in Stroud, Moody struck up a close friendship with Charles March Gere R.A., a well established artist and illustrator who famously designed the frontispiece for the Kelmscott Press edition of William Morris’s ‘News From Nowhere’. Gere and Rothenstein welcomed Moody into the Cheltenham Group of Artists in 1934.
As well as confirming Moody’s passionate belief in the importance of the arts & crafts ethos, Gere’s atmospheric Italianate landscape style also had a marked effect on the subject-matter and mood of Moody’s paintings. A number of key works from the 1930s combine an idealised Cotswold landscape with arrangements of draped figures, notably ‘Crossing the Brook’, bought by the Harris Art Gallery in Preston from the Royal Academy in 1934, ‘The End of Summer’, bought from the R.A by Lord Fairhaven in 1935 and ‘Youth is Nimble’ (Cat. 8), shown at both the Royal Academy and the Paris Salon.
Rather than focusing on a dramatic narrative turning point, these works are set in a deeply personal, imagined idyllic world and communicate calm and poise, rhythmically arranged or interlocking figures harmonising with a responsive landscape backdrop. No single influence ever dominated in Moody’s work and the artist returned to classical narrative painting in major exhibition pieces such as ‘The Vengeance of Diana’ and ‘The Judgment of Paris’ (Cat. 10 and Cat. 14).
Moody went to extraordinary lengths to develop appropriate landscape settings that would heighten the drama of these compositions. ‘The Vengeance of Diana’ features an entirely imaginary landscape setting inspired by Charles Darwin’s description in ‘The Voyage of the Beagle’ of the beech woods at the foot of the glaciers of Tierra del Fuego.

In 1935 Moody had taken up the post of Head of Malvern School of Art, giving him the opportunity to create his own centre of excellence for arts and crafts in emulation of Charles Gere’s work at the Birmingham School of Art in the 1890s. Moody remained as Head until 1962, introducing classes for silversmithing, book binding and letterpress printing as well as traditional painting techniques. ‘The Bathers’ (Cat. 7), shown at the Paris Salon in 1937, was a true arts & crafts production. The textiles in the painting were designed and printed by Moody’s students and for many years after they adorned the lay figure in his studio (Cat. 24). He supervised the production of the poker-work frame and made numerous figure and nature studies, recording in his diary how he was resolved “...to paint my new picture giving close attention to nature”.

Moody produced much of his best work in the 1930s and ’40s, alternating subjects from the Greek myths with pastoral figure compositions at the R.A. annual exhibitions as well as exhibiting at the Royal Society of British Artists and the New English Art Club.
Towards the end of the ’30s his career was gathering momentum and in 1939 he was given a one person exhibition at the Goupil Gallery which featured most of the important compositions as well as a group portrait commissioned for the Malvern Literary Festival. Individual sitters included George Bernard Shaw, J.B. Priestley and Ernest Thesiger.

In 1940 Moody’s painting simply titled ‘Nude’, also known as ‘The Bellini Nude’ (Cat. 5), was initially hung on the line at the R.A. but was later re-hung in another part of the building when the gallery suffered bomb damage. At this time ‘Youth is Nimble’ was missing somewhere in France having been sent to the Paris Salon for the 1939 exhibition, only to be returned after the war.
The approaching war also had a more direct effect on his work, prompting Moody to paint a small number of unusually topical subjects. ‘The End Of Summer’ and ‘Europa and the Powers’, both bought by Lord Fairhaven from the Royal Academy, and ‘The Return of the Hunting Goddess’ (Cat. 9) all make veiled reference to the approaching conflict and the eventual restoration of peace. ‘The Vengeance of Diana’ was Moody’s last exhibit at the R.A. in 1956 and was shown again at the Paris Salon in 1958. The painting had been substantially complete in 1947 and although Moody continued to paint classical compositions well into the 1980s the later works invariably took years, if not decades, to complete.

After the war most of his exhibited works were commissioned or family portraits, a number of which were shown at the Royal Society of Portrait Painters. Since Victor Moody died his work has been widely seen and his reputation has steadily risen. The Harris Museum in Preston held a retrospective exhibition, ‘The Last Classicist’, in 1992 and more recently his work featured in the 2010 exhibition ‘Counterpoint - Modern Realism 1910-1950’ held at the Fine Art Society. The dispersal of works from the Estate of the artist’s daughter, which has made this present catalogue possible, represents a further important moment in the rehabiliation of Victor Moody’s reputation. It is hoped that his work will, as a result, continue to become more widely seen and better understood. Stephen Whittle July 2012

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Catherine Olive Moody (1920-2009)

Catherine was the daughter of the artist Victor Hume Moody. She studied under him at Malvern School of Art, at Royal College of Art with Gilbert Spencer and at Birmingham College of Art under Bernard Fleetwood-Walker. She taught at Manchester College of Art, then was head of Malvern School of Art, 1962-80. She was a designer for Dent Allcroft and wrote "Silhouette of Malvern",1953, and "Painter's Workshop", 1982. Catherine Moody was especially drawn to working in pastel producing interiors, compositions and portraits. She was a member of Pastel Society and president of Malvern Art Club. She showed at PS and RP. Worcester City Art Gallery and Malvern Festival Theatre hold her work. She lived in Malvern, Worcestershire.

The following information is from her obituary in the monthly magazine of the Malvern Priory, many thanks to Stephen Whittle and the author J.E.C. Peters.

"Catherine Moody was a prominent Malvern resident; she was a respected artist, teacher of painting, poet and writer. She lived in Malvern for most of her life. Her father, an artist and portrait painter of note, was Head of the Malvern School of Art from 1935.
Catherine Moody trained initially under her father, later at the Royal College of Art; she succeeded her father as Head of the Malvern School of Art on his retirement in 1962. She continued to paint and to research aspects of painting and of local history until almost the end of her life, with the aid of various helpers, in spite of growing limitations of health and eyesight.
She had a very lively and enquiring mind. She held salons and symposia at her home on aspects of art and philosophy; a late one was on green energy, and, given the streams on the Malvern Hills, hydro-electricity was not forgotten. She was an encourager of talent, this continuing long after her official retirement in 1980.
She had a great interest in people and an amazing memory, was generous and most hospitable. She was a member of the Pastel Society, Life President of the Malvern Art Club, member of the Malvern Writers’ Circle, and founded the Malvern Architectural Society, initially partly to research the work of Elgar’s friend, Troyte Griffith. She wrote “The Silhouette of Malvern” in 1953 to explain the importance and significance of Malvern’s Victorian architecture, and to campaign for its preservation, in which she was in the forefront of architectural conservation. The book was illustrated with her drawings, including one of her painting of the drawing room at Eastnor Castle, which she was very proud to have had the opportunity to do.
She was also interested in the geology of the Malvern Hills, and in how they were formed. She wrote a hymn for the millennium, which was performed at the Priory to music by David Cooper. This, and her choice of hymns for her funeral, showed her faith. Her funeral was attended by, amongst others, former pupils, helpers in her art work, members of the Art Club, as well as friends, of which she had made many. The main tribute was by Charles Morgan."

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John Moody (1906-1993)

After training at the Royal Academy Schools and working from a studio offered to him by Eric Ravilious (1903 - 1942) and Edward Bawden (1903 - 1989), by the 1930's, Moody was exhibiting at a variety of London venues and teaching at Wimbledon School of Art; he also became a founder member of the New Kingston Group of painters.  Fascinated by the Theatre he was later well known as an opera producer, commissioning stage sets from John Piper and Robert Medley. 

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Henry Spencer Moore (1898-1986)

Sculptor born in Castleford, Yorkshire, the son of a coal mining engineer. Moore served in the Civil Service Rifles in World War I and after studied at Leeds School of Art, 1919-21 and Royal College of Art and for a short time at Leon Underwood's Brook Green School. About this Moore began visiting the British Museum and became interested in non-European cultures. He began direct carving and helped to sustain this discipline instigated earlier by Jacob Epstein.
In 1928 he held his first solo exhibition at the Warren Gallery, London and in 1930 Moore became a member of the Seven and Five Society. In 1933 he helped Paul Nash form the avant-garde group, Unit One and then lived in a Hampstead studio, next door to Barbara Hepworth and Ben Nicholson. He was a participant in the seminal 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition and although he experimented with abstract and biomorphic art during the mid-1930's, his abiding concern was always with the human figure.
In 1930 Moore, with Jacob Epstein and John Skeaping was invited to represent British sculpture at the XVIII Venice Biennale. During World War II he reached a wider audience with his 'Shelter' drawings, and in 1943 executed a Madonna and Child for St. Matthew's Church, Northampton. After the war in 1948, he won the International Prize for sculpture at the Venice Biennale. From then on he was an artist of international stature who executed a great many public commissions including a Reclining Figure for the UNESCO headquarters in Paris.

In 1951 he was awarded the Order of Merit and two years later was made a Companion of Honour. Now world-famous he held numerous exhibitions at home and abroad, including two retrospectives at the Tate Gallery, 1951 and 1968. 
He exhibited in the UK with the Artists' International Association, National Society of Painters, Sculptors & Printmakers, Hanover Gallery, Grosvenor Gallery, Pallant House Gallery, Barbican Gallery, Royal Academy of Arts and countless major British and worldwide museums and galleries. Examples of his work are held in the collections of Kettle's Yard. Atkinson Art Gallery, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Pastel Society, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Whitworth Art Gallery, Hepworth Wakefield, Swindon Art Gallery, Huddersfield Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, Leeds City Art Gallery, Portsmouth Art Gallery Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, University of Warwick Art Collection, Towner Art Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent Art Gallery, Sheffield Art Gallery, Bournemouth & Poole College Collection and the Laing Art Gallery.
Moore was a member of the British Independent Society. exhibited and was involved with Prints for Schools and the Curwen Press. A portrait by Raymond Coxon of Moore is in the Manchester City Art Gallery. Coxon a life-long friend was best man at Moore's wedding.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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William E C Morgan (b. 1903)

William Evan Charles Morgan was born in London, England on 19 October 1903 and studied at Camberwell School of Art in London (1920-22), and at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College London (1922-24). In 1924 he was awarded the Prix de Rome Scholarship enabling him to continue his studies in Italy. He subsequently worked primarily as an etcher and engraver.

In 1927 engravings he submitted to the International Exhibition of Etchings at the Art Institute of Chicago were awarded the Art Institute of Chicago's Logan Medal and its first-purchase prize, on the strength of which the Chicago Society of Etchers granted him active membership.

In 1932 Morgan and his family took up residence on the estate of one of his patrons at Ardtornich, Morven in Argyll, Scotland, where he painted and did some teaching. He returned to England in 1938 and began teaching at Harrow School of Art. During World War Two he served as as a camouflage officer. He was later employed by the British Rural Industries Bureau. 

Between 1928 and 1936 he exhibited at Beaux Arts Gallery, Connell Gallery, Fine Art Society and the Royal Academy in London; and at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. He appeared to have exhibited little after that. This may have been because of problems with his eyesight. In 1968 he retired and moved to Switzerland where he died in 1979.

Examples of Morgan's work are in the permanent collections of the British Museum in London; the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford; the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery in Washington, D.C.; the Lauinger Library at Georgetown University; and the British Council

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance

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Henry Morley (1870 -1937)

Henry Morley was born in Nottingham, England on 29 December 1869 and studied at Nottingham School of Art and at the Academie Julian in Paris. 

He exhibited at Goupil Gallery and the International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers in London; Nottingham Museum and Art Gallery; Manchester City Art Gallery; the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool; the Royal Scottish Academy and Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Water Colours in Edinburgh; and at the Paris Salon. Henry Morley lived for many years in Stirling, Scotland where he died on 19 July 1937.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for his assistance.

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Harry Morley (1881-1943)

Painter of figures and landscapes in tempera, oils and watercolours; etcher and illustrator. He studied architecture at the RCA, winning a travel scholarship to Italy where he decided to take up painting. In 1908 he attended the Academie Julian, Paris, and then settled in London. He returned to Italy in 1911 and 1912, producing pictures for Methuen and Co. to illustrate E.V. Lucas' Florence and Venice, and again every Spring between 1925 and 1929, during which period he produced illustrations for Edward Hutton's Cities of Sicily and Rome, (also Methuen and Co.) He exhibited mainly at the RA, RWS, RE, RBA and at the Beaux Arts Gallery. He was elected RBA in 1924, RE and RWS in 1931, ARA and RP in 1936 and VPRWS 1937-41. His work is represented in public collections including the Tate. He taught at St Martin's School of Art and in 1940 was an Official War Artist. His most characteristic works were painted in tempera and inspired by the intense colour and spacial clarity of the Italian primitives. His least successful compositions can appear wooden and dated but he was equally capable of striking and lively designs, especially when he included elements of contemporary dress. His watercolours are rapid and direct in contrast to his carefully finished studio works.

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Cedric Morris (1889–1982)

British painter and teacher, born at Sketty, Glamorgan, the son of Sir George Lockwood Morris, to whose baronetcy he succeeded in 1947. He took up art seriously shortly before the First World War; he attended various academies in Paris but was essentially self-taught. During the war, his delicate health prevented him from enlisting in the army, but he was a good horseman and helped Munnings in training horses that were to be sent to the Front. Text Source: The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (Oxford University Press)

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William Morris (1844-1912)

Morris studied in Manchester under the flower and still-life painter, William Muckley. From 1869 he exhibited in London including over thirty landscapes at the Royal Academy.
He travelled in Spain and Italy painting in both oil and watercolour. In the 1870's, he settled for a while in Capri and in Granada.

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May Morris (1862 - 1938)

May Morris was born in 25 March 1862 at Red House, Bexleyheath, and was named Mary as she was born on the Feast of the Annunciation. May learned to embroider from her mother and her aunt Bessie Burden, who had been taught by William Morris. In 1881, she enrolled at the National Art Training School, the precursor of the Royal College of Art, to study embroidery. In 1885, aged 23, she became the director of the embroidery department at her father's enterprise Morris & Co..

In 1886, May fell in love with Henry Halliday Sparling (1860-1924), the secretary of the Socialist League. Despite her mother's concerns about her future son-on-law, they married 14 June 1890 at Fulham Register Office. The marriage broke down in 1894 over her affair with a former lover, the playwright George Bernard Shaw. The Sparlings were divorced in 1898 and May resumed her maiden name.

She edited her father's Collected Works in 24 volumes for Longmans, Green and Company, published from 1910 to 1915, and also commissioned two houses, as had her mother Jane, to be built in the style that he loved after his death, and which are still standing in the village of Kelmscott in the Cotswolds in England.

May Morris died at Kelmscott Manor 17 October 1938

May Morris was an influential embroideress and designer, although her contributions are often overshadowed by those of her father, a towering figure in the Arts and Crafts movement. Morris himself is credited with the resurrection of free-form embroidery in the style which would be termed art needlework. Art needlework emphasized freehand stitching and delicate shading in silk thread, and was thought to encourage self-expression in the needleworker; this contrasted sharply with the brightly coloured Berlin wool work needlepoint and its "paint by numbers" aesthetic which had gripped much of home embroidery in the mid-nineteenth century.

May Morris was active in the Royal School of Art Needlework (now Royal School of Needlework), founded as a charity in 1872 under the patronage of Princess Helena to maintain and develop the art of needlework through structured apprenticeships.

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Frank Moss Bennet (1874-1953)

Bennet specialised in genre paintings of historical subjects. He was born in Liverpool and studied at Clifton College, Bristol, then at the Slade School of Fine Art, St John's Wood Art School and Royal Academy Schools, where he won a gold medal and traveling scholarship. Although his forte was the historical scene, both real and imaginary, he was an exceptionally fine portrait painter. He was a prolific exhibitor, showing at the major galleries of his era, including Dudley Gallery, the RA, RI and Paris Salon. His work was reproduced in print by Charles Hauff, L. Wolff & Co., Mardon Son & Hall and the Medici Society. He served on the committee of the Surrey Art Circle from 1902 and exhibited regularly with them. An example of his work is in the National Portrait Gallery.

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Ralph Mott ()

Ralph Mott is a pseudonym for the British graphics agency Ralph & Mott who employed various artists - hence the wide variety of styles.

Ralph & Mott was a commercial art studio in London active in Britain during the 1930s. They designed posters and publicity graphics for the the Great Western Railway, London, Midland & Scottish Railway, the Ministry of Labour and the Railway Country Lorry Services. They also designed the cover of the 16 November 1934 'Woman's Broadcasting' number of 'The Radio Times'. The chief designer and manager of Ralph & Mott between 1930-39 was Reginald (Reg) Lander. The address of Ralph & Mott in 1937 is given as 46 Gillingham Street, London, SW1. The studio often signed their work 'Ralph Mott', which has subsequently caused confusion as it has been assumed that Ralph Mott was a person.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for his assistance.

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Rodrigo Moynihan (1910-1990)

Moynihan was born in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, in 1910. His Anglo-Spanish family moved to London in 1918 and then to Wisconsin. A winter in Rome 1927–1928 inspired him to devote himself to art, and in 1928 he started studying at the Slade School of Fine Art in London. In the 1930s he gained a reputation as a pioneer of abstract painting in England, but became attracted by social realism and became associated from 1937 with the Euston Road School. He served in the British Army 1940–1943, first in the Royal Artillery and then in camouflage. He was appointed an official British war artist following injury. He was appointed ARA in 1944. After the war, he was professor of painting at the Royal College of Art 1948–1957, and was elected RA in 1954. At this period, he was in demand for official portraits, and executed commissions of amongst others Princess Elizabeth (1946) and Prime Minister Clement Attlee (1947). He changed direction from 1957, resigning from the Royal College of Art and the Royal Academy and returning to abstraction, working outside England in Europe and North America. From 1971 onwards he was inspired to return to figurative painting in the form of large-scale studio still-lives, unordered, unarranged and apparently random. This return to figuration also drew him to move back towards portraiture – with portraits of friends leading to renewed commissions by the end of the 1970s. Notable portraits of this period include Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (1983–1985, National Portrait Gallery, London) and Dame Peggy Ashcroft (1984, National Portrait Gallery).

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Olive Mudie-Cooke (1890-1925)

Olive Mudie-Cooke studied at St John’s Wood Art School,

Goldsmith’s College, and in Venice before travelling to France

in 1916 as a Voluntary Aid Detachment driver. Whilst in France,

she produced numerous drawings and watercolours of the events

she witnessed.

Seeking to promote the somewhat underrepresented impact

of women on the war effort, the Women’s Work Sub-Committee

purchased several of Mudie-Cooke’s paintings for the Imperial War

Museum in 1919.

In 1920, she was commissioned by the British Red Cross

to return to the Western Front as an official war artist, and she

created remarkable depictions of the human side of conflict, such

as British medics treating French peasants wounded by shells left on

the Somme battlefield.

She exhibited at the Cambridge University Architectural Society

in 1921 and travelled widely in Europe and Africa in the following

years; returning in 1925 to France, where she took her life.

See all works by the artist Olive Mudie-Cooke >

Claude Muncaster (1903-1974)

Marine and landscape painter in oils and watercolour, particularly of topographical subjects; also lecturer and writer. Born 4 July 1903 at West Chiltington, Sussex, son of Oliver Hall, R.A.; first exhibited as Grahame Hall but, from 1923, as Claude Muncaster, changing his name by deed-poll 1945. Exhibited at the R.A. from 1921. First one-man show at the Fine Art Society 1926. A.R.W.S. 1931, R.W.S. 1936; S.M.A. 1939, P.S.M.A. 1958; R.B.A. 1944; R.O.I. 1948. Served in the R.N.V.R. 1940–4, advising on camouflage. Commissioned to do a series of watercolours of royal residences 1946–7. Publications include Rolling Round the Horn 1933 and Landscape and Marine Painting 1958.

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Paul Nash (1889-1946)

Painter, printmaker, photographer and writer. Born in London, but brought up in Buckinghamshire, he studied at Chelsea Polytechnic, 1906-07, at Bolt Court, Fleet Street, 1908-10 and at the Slade School, 1910-11. He saw action during World War I and was appointed an Official War Artist with the Artists' Rifles. His perspective on landscape altered radically after this and he produced an outstanding record of the war-torn landscape he had witnessed in France. After World War I Nash like his brother had work reproduced in Art & Letters and The Apple magazine and showed with the little-known Arts League of Service. But in 1923 he suffered a breakdown and recovered at Dymchurch, Kent, where he painted and drew the now-famous sea and its wall. By 1929, he had acquired an interested in photography, both as an art form and as a means for painting. To some extent he was influenced by Surrealism in the mid-1930’s and exhibited in the major Surrealist exhibitions and was also a founder member of the short-lived but influential Unit One in 1933 and as such an acolyte of the French movement Abstraction-Création. Nash was president of the Society of Industrial Artists, 1932–34, on the committee of the first International Surrealist Exhibition held at the New Burlington Galleries, London in 1936 and held exhibitions at the Redfern Gallery and Leicester Galleries, and showed at the Venice Biennale in 1938.

During World War II he was again appointed an Official War Artist, 1940 and he was involved in the Recording Britain project producing work in a Neo-Romantic style. In a prolific career of exhibiting, his first solo show was held at the Carfax Gallery in 1912. The next few years saw Nash work with Roger Fry at Omega Workshops and he become a member of the Friday Club and LG, NEAC, PS, SWE, LAA and later the AIA. He also exhibited his World War I works at the Goupil Gallery in 1917. His teaching career included time at the Ruskin School of Drawing, Oxford under the leadership of his friend Albert Rutherston, 1920-23, and Royal College of Art, 1924-25 and again 1938-40. The inter-war years saw Nash working on many book illustrations include the coveted Urne Burial and The Garden of Cyrus. Nash's work reached a wider audience in the 1950's when some of the drawings were printed by the Curwen Press.

An exhibition of Paul Nash's paintings, watercolours and graphic works was staged at York City Art Gallery, which toured to Blond Fine Art, London and the Minories, Colchester. The Tate Gallery, AAG, IWM, the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Bolton Art Gallery, Brighton Art Gallery, Carlisle Art Gallery, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, the Hepworth Wakefield, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, RAF Museum, Hendon, Rugby Museum and Art Gallery, Rye Art Gallery, Swindon Art Gallery, Ulster Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester and major museums and art galleries around the world hold his work. His brother was the artist John Nash.

With thanks to artbiog.co.uk

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Thomas Saunders Nash (1891-1968)

Painter of figure compositions, religious subjects, landscapes and portraits in oils, often on strawboard. He studied at the Slade School, 1909-12, where he met Stanley Spencer and arguably became influenced by him. In 1912-13 he attended the Government Art Classes in Reading, living at Pangbourne. He exhibited at the RA, NEAC, Goupil Gallery and at the Redfern Gallery. His work was purchased by astute collectors such as Sir Michael Sadler and Thomas Balston. In 1979-80, there was a posthumous retrospective exhibition at Reading Art Gallery, Nash having spent periods in or near the Berkshire town. His work is in the collections of the Ashmolean Museum, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery,Brighton and Hove Museums and Art Galleries, BM, Harrogate Art Gallery, Laing Art Gallery,Manchester City Art Gallery, Reading Art Gallery, Russell-Cotes Art Gallery, Slade School and theWhitworth Art Gallery, Manchester.

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John Nash (1893-1977)

Painter, mainly of landscape, in oil and watercolours, wood engraver and illustrator. Born in London, the brother of the painter Paul Nash, he worked initially as a local journalist. Encouraged by Paul, he turned to art, remaining self-taught. He exhibited with his brother at the Dorien Leigh galleries, 1913, and had his first one-man show at the Goupil Gallery, 1921. By that time Nash was established as a member of the Friday Club, LG, and Cumberland Market Group. In 1914 he started to paint in oil and this, combined with his experience with the Artists' Rifles, led to some fine pictures when he was made an Official War Artist in 1918. Oppy Wood, Evening, and Over the Top: The 1st Artists' Rifles at Marcoing, both in the Imperial War Museum, are amongst the most memorable war images. Nash was also an Official War Artist during World War II, when he was attached to the Admiralty. Between the wars Nash established himself as an extremely fine painter of the English landscape using a style that was less dramatic than his brother Paul's, but nevertheless winning the support and patronage of, amongst others, John Rothenstein. In 1937 he painted a mural for the Paris Exhibition. Nash taught at Ruskin School, Oxford, 1922-27, and for two long periods before and after World War II, at the Royal College of Art. Demobilised in 1944, he lived in a country cottage, Bottengoms Farmhouse, in Wormingford, near Colchester, where he developed his expertise as a plantsman and painted the East Anglian countryside. The Tate among many public galleries holds his work. In 1951 he was elected RA, where a major show of his work was held in 1967.

Selected literature John Rothenstein, John Nash, Macdonald & Co., 1983.

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Philip Naviasky (1894-1936)

Portrait and landscape painter, born and lived in Leeds, of Polish extraction. Studied at Leeds School of Art. Was then admitted as a student of painting at Royal Academy Schools at 18, said to have been the youngest ever. He also gained a Royal Exhibition award from Board of Education for three years at Royal College of Art. Naviasky was a fluent artist who worked widely in Yorkshire as well as in Spain, the south of France, Morocco and elsewhere. Among his portraits were Lord Nufield the industrialist, the politicians Ramsay Macdonald and Philip Snowden and many Dales characters. Showed at RA, RP, RSA and had a series of solo shows. In late-1960s had to stop painting because of failing sight. Galleries in Leeds, Newcastle, Preston and Stoke-on-Trent hold in work.

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Norman Neasom (1915-2010)

Born in Worcestershire Neasom studied at Brimingham College of Art, 1931-5, notably in watercolour with Bernard Fleetwood-Walker. He went on to teach art for 34 years. He was a memeber of RBSA, RWS , and Stratford-Upon-Avon Art Society. Neasom wrote that his aim was "only to express my feelings about a subject". He did a lot of on-the-spot drawing and could "... not work from photographs". The Vet, Oddingly; Crowle Old Barn; Little Comberton Church; Meon Hill at Dawn were among his main pictures. He wrote a number of illustrated articles for Leisure Painter. He lived in Redditch, Worcestershire.

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Christopher R.W. Nevinson (1889-1946)

We are grateful to Dr. Jonathan Black for the following chronology

(May 2014).


Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson: Chronology:


13 August 1889: born John Street (now Keats Grove), Hampstead to Henry Woodd Nevinson (1856-1941) and Margaret Nevinson née Jones (1858-1932).


1901: Nevinson family moved to 4 Downside Crescent, Belsize Park, London. This remained Nevinson’s home until 1919.


September 1903-December 1907: educated Uppingham Public School, Rutland.


February 1907: visited exhibition of etchings in London by Muirhead Bone and James Abbott McNeil Whistler.


1908: art student at St. John’s Wood School of Art, Elm Tree Road, London.


1909-1912: art student at the Slade School of Art, University College, Gower Street, London.


May 1909: visited exhibition of etchings in London by Francis Dodd.


May 1911: visited Professor Michael Sadler to see his collection of German Expressionist woodcuts.


1911-1912: received instruction in lithography from Ernest Jackson, London County Council School, Southampton Row, London.


April 1913: first meeting with a Futurist artist – Gino Severini.


October 1913: exhibited Futurist paintings at the ‘Post-Impressionists and Futurists’ exhibition, Doré Galleries, New Bond Street, London.


November 1913: founder member of the London Group.


June 1914: publication in London of the English Futurist Manifesto (with F.T. Marinetti) ‘Vital English Art.’


November 1914-January 1915: service as an ambulance driver and medical orderly with the Friends Ambulance Unit in France and Belgium.


June 1915-January 1916: service as a private in the Royal Army Medical Corps at the Third London General Hospital (Territorial), Wandsworth.


June 1915: exhibited as an ‘Independent’ in the Vorticist Exhibition, Doré Galleries, London.


November 1915: married Kathleen Mary Knowlman at Hampstead Town Hall.


Summer 1916: made first prints (drypoints).


26 September-4 November 1916: first solo exhibition held at the Leicester Galleries, Leicester Square, London (included 12 prints – all drypoints).


January 1917: first lithographs exhibited at Senefelder Club, Leicester Galleries, London.


June 1917: contributed six lithographs on theme of ‘Making Aircraft’ to Britain’s Efforts and Ideals lithographic series commissioned by the Department of Information.


July-August 1917: one month in France and Belgium as an official war artist for the Department of Information.


January-February 1918: made first woodcuts.


1 March-5 April 1918: exhibition of his official war art held at the Leicester Galleries, London (included 19 prints: 11 lithographs; 6 drypoints and 2 woodcuts).


Summer 1918: made first mezzotints.


January 1919: renounced adherence to Futurism.


29 April-17 May 1919: exhibition of 46 prints at the Frederick J. Keppel Galleries, 4 East 39th Street, New York (21 lithographs; 20 drypoints; 3 mezzotints and 2 woodcuts).


May 1919: first visit to New York.


June 1919: death of only son Anthony Christopher Wynne Nevinson in London.


June 1919: moved to Flat 1, 295 Euston Road, London.


October 1919: solo exhibition at the Leicester Galleries, London (included 10 prints: 4 mezzotints; 3 lithographs; 2 drypoints and 1 woodcut).


July-August 1920: solo exhibition at the Manchester City Art Gallery (included 26 prints: 15 lithographs; 8 drypoints and 3 mezzotints).


October-November 1920: Nevinson and wife visited New York.


8 November-4 December 1920: solo exhibition ‘The Old World and The New’ at the Bourgeois Galleries, Fifth Avenue and 53rd Street, New York (included 31prints: 18 lithographs; 11 drypoints and 2 mezzotints).


April 1921: 10 New York prints exhibited at Friday Club, London.


July 1921: 12 New York prints exhibited at the Keppel Galleries, New York.


August 1921: moved to Number One, Steele’s Studios, Haverstock Hill, London.


February 1922: made first etchings and aquatints.


February 1923: solo exhibition of 47 drypoints and etchings at the Leicester Galleries, London.


April 1924: 20 of his prints displayed inside the British Pavilion at the 19th Venice Biennale.


January 1926: exhibited 40  drypoints and etchings with Walter Sickert in exhibition ‘Two British Etchers’ at the Albert Roulier Galleries, South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, USA.


October 1926: solo exhibition of prints at the Kraushaar Galleries, Fifth Avenue, New York.


January 1927: solo exhibition of prints at Alex Reid and Lefevre Gallery, Glasgow.


January 1927: elected a member of the Savage Club, London.


25 April-21 May 1927: solo exhibition of 56 prints  at Alex Reid and Lefevre Gallery, Cork Street, London (26 drypoints; 22 etchings; 4 etchings with aquatint and 4 mezzotints).


July-August 1927: solo exhibition of prints at the Ruskin Galleries, Birmingham.


May 1929: elected a member of the New English Art Club, London.


January 1930: elected Vice-Chairman of the National Society.


October 1930: solo exhibition at the Leicester Galleries, London (included 38 prints: 16 etchings; 11 drypoints; 9 lithographs and 2 mezzotints  – this would be his last major public display of prints).


April 1931: joint exhibition with sculptor Barney Seale at J. Leger & Son Gallery, Fifth Avenue, New York.


November 1931: 6 of his prints included in the British Art Exhibition, Tokyo, Japan.


1932-1933: prolonged period of serious illness; nearly died in summer of 1932.


February 1932: elected a member of the Royal Society of British Artists.


May 1932: publication of a volume of Modern Masters of Etching: C.R.W. Nevinson by Malcom Salaman.


June 1932: death of Margaret Nevinson.


October 1934: published Exodus AD: A Warning to Civilians with Princess Princess Troubetzkoy (Muriel Beddam).


November 1937: published autobiography Paint and Prejudice.


May 1938: appointed a Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur by the French Government.


April 1939: elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, London (proposed by etchers Francis Dodd and Henry Rushbury).


September 1940: volunteered to work as medical orderly and stretcher bearer at the Royal Free Hospital, Hampstead.


November 1940: suffered a mild stroke while tending wounded at the Royal Free Hospital.


1941-1942: unofficial war artist attached to RAF Bomber Command.


November 1941: death of Henry Nevinson.


October 1942: suffered second more serious stroke, lost use of right hand and lost sight in right eye.


7 October 1946: died at home, no 1 Steele’s Studios, Chalk Farm.


May-June 1947: C.R.W. Nevinson Memorial Exhibition held at the Leicester Galleries, London.


10 September-30 October 1988: C.R.W. Nevinson: A Retrospective Exhibition, Kettle’s Yard Gallery, University of Cambridge.


28 October 1999-30 January 2000: Retrospective Exhibition C.R.W. Nevinson: The Twentieth Century, Imperial War Museum, London.


25 September-25 October 2014: Retrospective Exhibition of his prints C.R.W. Nevinson: A Printmaker in War and Peace, Osborne Samuel Gallery, London.


We are grateful to Dr. Jonathan Black for the above chronology

(May 2014). 

See all works by the artist Christopher R.W. Nevinson >

Anne Newland (1913-1997)

Painter in oil and teacher, born in Wiltshire. She studied at Byam Shaw School, 1936-8, under Ernest Jackson, in 1938 gaining an Edwin Abbey Major Scholarship. 
During World War II she was involved in camouflage, then taught in Scotland. Signed her work, which was mainly large, decorative canvases. 

Anne Newland was influenced especially by the work of Andrea Mantegna. Showed at RA, RSA and elsewhere. 
Newland lived in London.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Ben Nicholson (1894-1982)

Painter and relief-maker, born Benjamin Lauder Nicholson at Denham, Buckinghamshire the son of artist William Nicholson. He studied at the Slade School, 1910-11 and travelled extensively during the period 1912-18. In 1920 he married Winifred Dacre and held his first solo exhibition in 1922 at the Adelphi Gallery in London. 
During the 1920’s Nicholson made regular visits to Paris becoming more influenced by the abstract art he saw there. With Barbara Hepworth, whom he later married, he joined Abstraction-Creation, exhibited at the 7 & 5 Society and was a member of Unit One. In 1937 he co-edited 'Circle', a compendium of constructivist art. During the period 1939-58, he lived at Carbis Bay and while there showed with the Penwith Society of Arts. During his stay in Cornwall, he was also associated with the St. Ives School and artists such as Terry Frost, Barbara Hepworth, Roger Hilton, the Martin's, William Scott, Robert Adams and Adrian Heath in the Constructionism movement. 

In his earlier days Ben Nicholson was a prolific exhibitor showing at the Lefevre Gallery, Grafton Galleries, Redfern Gallery, Marjorie Parr Gallery, NEAC, ISSPG, Arthur Tooth & Sons, Grosvenor Gallery, Leicester Galleries, the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool and latterly at the Crane Kalman Gallery and represented his country at the Venice Biennale on no fewer than six occasions.

Following his divorce from Hepworth, he married his 3rd wife the photographer Felicitas Vogler and lived in Switzerland. He was the father of triplets with Hepworth, Sarah, Simon and Rachel Nicholson born in 1934 the latter two of whom also became accomplished artists.
By this time Ben Nicholson had already fathered artist Kate Nicholson with his first wife Winifred. Nicholson was a founder member of the Crypt Group with his wife but resigned in 1949 two years after its formation.
His work is in all major art collections around the world including Bolton Art Gallery, Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Falmouth Art Gallery, Fitzwilliam Museum, GAC, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Hepworth Wakefield, Hull University Art Collection, Kettle's Yard, Laing Art Gallery, Leeds University Collection, MIMA, MoMA, New York, Pallant House Gallery, Pier Arts Centre, Swindon Art Gallery, Tate Gallery and the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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William Nicholson (1872 - 1949)

Sir William Nicholson (1872—1949) was an English painter, also known for his work as an illustrator and author of children's books. He was the son of William Newzam Nicholson, an industrialist and Conservative MP of Newark, and Annie Elizabeth, the daughter of Joseph Prior and Elizabeth (nee Mallam) of Woodstock, Oxon. He was a student at Hubert von Herkomer's art school. Nicholson's partnership with James Pryde, his brother-in-law, was conspicuous for striking graphical work and woodcuts—they were known as the Beggarstaff Brothers, and their poster work was significant historically. He married Mabel Pryde (1871-1918), also an artist, in 1893. After 1900 he concentrated on painting, encouraged by Whistler. He was knighted in 1936. Ben Nicholson and Nancy Nicholson were his children; as was the architect Christopher 'Kit' Nicholson. He was involved in illustrating early volumes from Robert Graves, with Nancy, who was Graves' first wife. He wrote and illustrated characteristic children's books: The Velveteen Rabbit (1922) by Margery Williams and his own Clever Bill (1926) and The Pirate Twins (1929) for Faber & Faber. He also designed stained glass, notably a memorial window at St Andrew's Church, Mells.

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Job Nixon (1891-1938)

Public Collections include British Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, Tate, RE, Bolton, Bradford, Huddersfield, Leeds, Manchester - Whitworth, Oldham, Oxford (Ashmolean) and Dunedin.

Born in Stoke-on-Trent, Nixon studied at the Slade and at South Kensington and, in 1915, was successful at the RA whilst still a student. He painted in oil and watercolour, principally landscape and topographical scenes, but he is best known for his etchings, drypoints and line engravings, which he started producing from 1913. He was elected ARE in 1923 and, that year, he won the first competition for the newly endowed scholarship of engraving at the British School in Rome. It was while in Italy that he produced An Italian Festa, the huge plate that first brought him to the public's attention. However, the satirical, almost grotesque, nature of this etching was not his only style and English genre subjects form the majority of his work. Nevertheless, his appointment as assistant to Malcolm Osborne in the Engraving School at the Royal College of Art, South Kensington "came as a shock to the old-fashioned collector and connoisseur but the soundness of his technique and his mastery of etching processes, as well as the salutary influence he exercised in diverting his pupils from too slavish a pursuit of the landscape tradition, more than justifed his appointment."

Nixon started to exhibit watercolours with the RWS in 1928 and, over the next decade, exhibited with the Society some 93 times, becoming an associate member in 1934. His watercolours do betray his primary calling, with line drawing prominent, and the subjects often the same, but he was complimented on his virile use of line and lively and generous love of colour. Two Falmouth scenes shown in 1929 indicate that he had paid a visit to Cornwall. One of the most stalwart supporters of the RWS at that time was Lamorna Birch and it was Birch, apparently, that persuaded Nixon to move to Cornwall in 1931 where he initially settled in Lamorna, working from Riverside Studio. In his first exhibition with the Newlyn Society of Artists, his large oil of a Romany encampment, entitled Gypsies, was awarded the position of honour and attracted considerable attention, due to its daring colour selection, unconventional composition and "modern" drawing style. In 1934, he moved to St Ives, where he briefly ran a School of Painting in Back Road West. The local paper commented, "With his large black hat and his beard, he fulfilled the conventional idea of what an artist should look like"and he does seem to have lived a bohemian existence in St Ives in a caravan. However, the offer of a teaching post at the Slade drew him back to London in 1935. Sadly, he died in 1938, aged only 47.

(Abridged extract from David Tovey, Creating A Splash : The St Ives Society of Artists (1927-1952), Wilson Books, 2004) 

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Roy Nockolds (1911-1979)

Self-taught aviation and motor racing artist and etcher born in London. Nockolds was attracted to motor sport on his first visit to Brooklands in 1924. He contributed to Motor Sport, Autocar and Motor, and excelled in capturing the atmosphere and technical aspects of motor racing. He applied the same skill to aviation art - his authoritative picture of the Battle of Britain, commissioned for Royal Air Force Fighter Command, is a tour de force. During World War II Nockolds served in the Air Force, developed a revolutionary camouflage for the Mosquitoes and was an Official War Artist. Immediately after the war he produced a remarkable series of near-abstract paintings for Armstrong Siddeley celebrating the effects of the new generation of jet engines. He was a chairman of the Guild of Aviation Artists, 1975, and of The Brooklands Society, 1976. Nockolds oeuvre was diverse; he produced excellent drypoints, published by Autocar; a series of abstracts of science and technology for Mullard; sporting prints for Frost & Reed; and commissioned portraits of gun dogs. He showed at RA, RP, Guildhall Art Gallery and elsewhere, and there was a memorial exhibition at Qantas Gallery In 1980. He lived near Farnham, Surrey.

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Alfred John Nunney (1897-1966)

Nunney produced posters used to promote the war effort during the Second World War and, around 1947, a number of posters describing various aspects of education around the British Colonial Empire. He was represented by both W. Partridge and Rogers & Co. Contributed to Swift Annual and Bible Story.

His first commercial work is recorded as early as 1923 around which time he was living at Lincoln's Inn, Holborn. In the mid-1930s he was living in New Maldon.  His exact dates of birth and death are at this point unknown.  He might have been the A. J. Nunney living in Ewell in the 1970s. He might be Albert John Nunney (1898-1990) who died in Cheltenham, Glos., aged 91. 

We are grateful to Steve at Bear Alley for assistance.

Commercial artist and poster designer born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire in 1897. Nothing is known about his early life, but it is known that his first commercial work is recorded as early as 1923 around which time he was living at Lincoln's Inn, Holborn. In the mid-1930's he was living in New Maldon, Surrey. About this time he produced work for Johnnie Walker whisky in 1927. Nunney also designed posters used to promote the war effort during World War II and, around 1947, a number of posters describing various aspects of education around the British Colonial Empire. He was represented by both W. Partridge and Rogers & Co and contributed illustrations to Swift Annual and Bible Story. One of his posters was used to illustrate the cover of Commercial Art, May 1924. Nunney, of 2 Sion Hill, Ramsgate, died 15 June 1966, leaving his estate of £7,000 to his widow.


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Henry C. O Donnell (1900-1992)

Henry was the son of Dr. J O'Donnell of Cashel, Co. Tipperary. He attended the Catholic University School in Dublin and after this his art education started and lasted about eight years. He began in the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art under Sean Keating P.R.HA., he then moved to London where he studied at St. John's wood School and then at Westminster Art School under Walter Bayes R.B.A.,R.W.S. For the next fifty two years he exhibited his work at the various exhibitions such as The Municipal Art Gallery and Museum Belfast & Plymouth, The Grafton Gallery London, The Egan Salon Dublin, Royal Academy London, Royal Hibernian Academy London and according to O'Donnell's note The Hacker Gallery in New York these are to name but a few.

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William Orpen (1878–1931)

Sir William Newenham Montague Orpen, Irish-born British portrait painter. He studied art at the Metropolitan School and at the Slade School in London where, at the time, great emphasis was put on the study of old masters.
Born in Stillorgan, County Dublin, William Newenham Montague Orpen was a fine draughtsman and a popular painter of the well-to-do in the period leading up to World War I. He was also involved in the Celtic revival in his native Ireland and he took part in the attempt there to find a visual counterpart to the birth of new national literary language (McConkey 2005). Although his studio was in London, he spent time in Ireland painting, he was a friend of Hugh Lane and influenced the Irish realist painters, like Sean Keating, who were beginning their careers at that time.

Like Sir John Lavery, William Orpen was made an official war painter of the First World War and in 1917 he travelled to the Western Front. He produced drawings and paintings of privates, dead soldiers and German prisoners of war along with official portraits of generals and politicians. Most of these works, 138 in all, are in the collection of the Imperial War Museum in London.

He was deeply affected by the suffering he witnessed in the war and his To the Unknown British Soldier Killed in France first exhibited in 1923 showed a flag draped coffin flanked by a pair of ghostly and wretched soldiers clothed only in tattered blankets. Although widely admired by the public, this picture was attacked by the press and Orpen painted out the soldiers before the painting was accepted by the Imperial War Museum in 1927.
According to Bruce Arnold, writing in Irish Art a Concise History: ". . . while at times his portraits are rather shallow, he was capable of excellent and sympathetic work, particularly in family and group portraits."

The same author notes Orpen's interest in self-portraits and his self-portraits are often searching and dramatic. In his The Dead Ptarmigan -a self-portrait in the National Gallery of Ireland he scowls from the frame while holding a dead ptarmigan at head height. In a review of an Orpen exhibition at the Imperial War Museum in London, Kenneth McConkey (2005) attributes this shallowness of Orpen's portraits to an emotional exhaustion, a result of what he witnessed as a painter of war; he writes of Orpen's post war activity:
"Now the portraits were done with mechanical efficiency, and without pause for reflection, save when he scrutinised himself and found a face he could no longer understand. his face... grimaces, it squints, it scowls; in the 1920s it papers over the inner turmoil left by the long pathetic queues of gas-blinded tommies. Sir William Orpen died, aged 53, in 1931 in London.

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Malcom Osborne (1880-1963)

Etcher and engraver. Born at Frome, Somerset, he studied art in Bristol before attending the Royal College of Art under Frank Short and W R Lethaby. Elected RA in 1926. Osborne was an influential teacher who was head of the engraving school at the Royal College of Art for many years. Exhibited widely, including RA, Fine Art Society, Leicester Galleries, RE, RSA and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. Lived in London..

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Arthur Outlaw (1912-21)

Arthur Outlaw attended the Slade School of Art between 1912 and 1914, and again in 1919 and 1920, after active service in World War I. The University Collage, London, has two prize paintings by him in their collection: Male Figure Standing, 1914, oil on canvas (Figure Painting, second prize [equal], 1914), and Portrait of an Old Bearded Man, 1920 (Head Painting, second prize [equal], 1920). In 1922 Outlaw married and emigrated to Australia, after which little information appears about his career. His wife, Annie, is known to have become honorary secretary of the New South Wales Society of Arts and Crafts, and in 1941 she established Annan Fabrics, which received many prestigious commissions and exhibited internationally. In 1955 the business was forced into liquidation and the Outlaws returned to London.

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Peter Pallot (1910-2012)

Pallott was born circa 1910.  He died 4th December 2012.  During WW2 he served ascommander of an MMS Class minesweeper, and, although not an official war artist, recorded many of his activities in watercolour. After the war he taught at an art college in Guildford, where he lived, probably Guildford School of Art.

We would welcome further information about Peter Pallott.

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Abel Pann (1883-1963)

Abel Pann was a European Jewish painter who settled in the Talpiot neighborhood of Jerusalem in the early twentieth century and taught at the Bezalel Academy of Art under Boris Schatz.  

Pann studied the fundamentals of drawing for three months with the painter Yehuda Pen of Vitebsk, who also taught Marc Chagall. In his youth, he traveled in Russia and Poland, earning a living mainly as an apprentice in sign workshops. In 1898 he went south to Odessa, where he was accepted into the Academy of Fine Arts. In 1903, he was in Kishinev, where he documented the Kishinev pogrom with drawings; an effort that is thought to have contributed to his self-definition as an artist who chronicles Jewish history. Still in 1903, he moved to Paris, where he rented rooms in La Ruche, a Parisian building (which still exists) where Modigliani, Chagall, Chaim Soutine and other Jewish artists also lived. Pann studied at the French Academy under William-Adolphe Bouguereau. He earned his living primarily by drawing pictures for the popular illustrated newspapers of the era.  

In 1912, Boris Schatz, founder and director of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design visited Pann in Paris and invited him to come work in Jerusalem. In 1913, after traveling in Southern Europe and Egypt, Pann arrived in Jerusalem, where he had decided to settle for life. Pann went to see Schatz and it was decided that he would head the painting department at the Bezalel Academy for several months while Schatz embarked on an extensive overseas fund-raising trip. According to Haaretz art critic Smadar Sheffi, a work form this period with the simple title "Jerusalem" shows a cluster of buildings at sunset "with a sky in blazing orange." The painting is "more expressive and abstract that is typical of his work," and Sheffi speculates that "the encounter with the city" of Jerusalem was a "strong emotional experience" for the artist.  

Pann returned to Europe to arrange his affairs before moving permanently to the British Mandate of Palestine, but was caught on the continent by World War I. Pann's wartime paintings would prove to be among "the most important" of his career. He made many posters to support the French war effort. He also made a series of fifty drawings showing the extreme suffering of Jewish communities caught in the fighting between Germany, Poland and Russia. Art critic Smadar Sheffi regards them as "the most important part of his oeuvre." These "shocking" drawings put modern viewers in mind of depictions of the Holocaust. Pann's drawings were intended as journalistic documentation of the fighting and were successfully exhibited in the United States during the War. According to Pann's autobiography, the Russians, who were allied with the French, refused to allow a wartime exhibition of the drawings in France. According to The New York Times, the drawings were published in Paris during the war, but the government intervened to block their distribution on the grounds that they "reflected damagingly upon an ally" (Russia).  

Upon his return to Jerusalem in 1920, Pann took up a teaching position at the Bezalel Academy and wrote that he was about to embark on his life-work, the painting and drawing of scenes from the Hebrew Bible. He returned briefly to Vienna, where he met and married Esther Nussbaum and purchased a lithographic press, which the couple brought home to Jerusalem. Pann began work on a series of lithographs intended to be published in an enormous illustrated Bible, and although that series was never completed, he is widely admired for the series of pastels inspired by Bible stories that he began in the 1940s. The iconography of these works is linked to the 19th century orientalism. 
He was part of a movement of contemporary Jewish artists interested in Biblical scenes, including Ephraim Moses Lilien, and Ze'ev Raban. All three were influenced by Art Nouveau and by the Symbolist movement. This influence can be seen in "You shall not surely die," a colored lithograph in which the serpent is represented as a bare-chested woman. The lithograph is reminiscent of the style of Aubrey Beardsley. In 1924, Pann resigned from his teaching position to devote himself full-time to lithography. 

The lithographs met with considerable success on international tours. Pann told The New York Times that he found most illustrated Bibles boring, accusing the many artists who had illustrated Bibles before him of tending "to produce an impression that the Bible itself is a tiresome volume."[6] He said that he wished to present the Bible's characters as "possessing the passions of human beings... with their virtues and vices, loves and hatreds." Especially in his pastels, Pann envisioned Rachel, Rebekah, and other Biblical women as child-brides and imagined the teen-aged Jewish girls from Yemen whom he used as models along with young Bedouin girls, regarding both Yemenites and Bedouins as authentic oriental types. He posed them in elaborate traditional wedding and festival clothing and jewelry. In the twenties, the period when Pann was painting them, Yemenite and Bedouin girls did marry at the age of puberty. He often captured not only their youth and beauty, but the anxiety of a young girl about to marry a man she might hardly know. Other pastels capture the elderly matriarch Sarah looking "absolutely alive" and the care-worn facts of Jerusalem's Yemenite Jewish laborers, posed as Biblical patriarchs.  

Pann's work reveals an intimate familiarity with the work of Rembrandt, James Tissot, and other European painters of biblical scenes. Among his most original approaches was a pastel of Potiphar's wife. This familiar theme had for hundreds of years and in the hands of innumerable artists conventionally depicted a mature beauty seducing an innocent youth, Joseph. According to art critic Meir Ronnen, Pann's interpretation, a late period pastel dating from the 1950s, depicts Potiphar's wife as a spoilt child, an extremely young and very bored girl who is "possibly just one of the lesser playthings of a gubernatorial harem." She turns her bored gaze on the young Israelite. Ronen considers her to be "the most brilliant of all Pann's creations."  

For many years, Pann was considered an important artist in Israel, and had even greater success among Jewish art consumers abroad, but he "outlived his artistic times," fading in importance beside the new, modernist painters. 

Although many of his paintings are in museum collections, private collectors can sometimes find them at galleries such as the Mayanot Gallery. In 1990 art curator and Israeli art historian, Shlomit Steinberg submitted an MA thesis at the History of Art department of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, titled: "The Image of the Biblical Woman as Femme Fatale in Abel Pann's Works".  

Abel Pann Paints the Bible, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Curator: Yigal Zalmona. (2003) "Abel Pann - The painter of The Bible, Catalogue by Shlomit Steinberg and Felix Salten, The Jewish Museum, Vienn (2001). Abel Pann, Mayanot Gallery, Jerusalem. (1987) Paintings, Drawings, and Lithograph by Abel Pann," Art Institute of Chicago, (1920)

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Eduardo Luigi Paolozzi (1924-2005)

Sculptor, printmaker and collagist, born Leith, Scotland to Italian parents. Paolozzi studied at Edinburgh College of Art, 1942 and at the Slade School during its evacuation to Oxford, 1943-47. In 1947 he went to live in Paris, where he met Giacometti, among others, and was considerably influenced by Dada and Surrealism and he soon developed the approach of a collagist in two and three dimensions. By 1949 he had returned to London having held his first solo exhibition the previous year at the Mayor Gallery and in 1952 founded, with others, the Independent Group. At its first meeting at the ICA, Paolozzi projected numerous images of advertisements, comic strips, industrial machinery, etc., in random order and with no verbal commentary. This was a 'lecture' which was arguably to become a landmark in the history of British Pop Art. He also took part in the 1956 exhibition, 'This is Tomorrow' at the Whitechapel Art Gallery. His sculpture of the 1950’s combined mechanical, biological, and totemic features. In the 1960’s he worked mostly in aluminium, sometimes brightly painted, chromed or polished. He also produced collage-based prints, including the series 'As Is When', based on the life and work of Ludwig Wittgenstein.

He was given retrospective exhibition during his lifetime and these included the Venice Biennale, 1960, Tate Gallery, 1971 followed by another at the National Galerie, West Berlin in 1975. He was also given a Print Retrospective at the V&A in 1977. In 1979 Paolozzi was commissioned to decorate Tottenham Court Road Underground Station with brightly coloured mosaics which were eventually installed between 1983-85. Previous important commissions included the bronze doors he made for the Hunterian Art Gallery in Glasgow in 1976. In 1984 he was given yet another retrospective at Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, which travelled to Germany, France and Ireland. Paolozzi taught at RCA, 1968-89, and was Professor of Sculpture at the Academy of Fine Art in Munich for nine years. He was a member of the Artist's League of Great Britain and was made a CBE in 1968, an Associate of the RA in 1972 and a full member in 1979. In 1986 he was appointed Her Majesty's Sculptor in Ordinary for Scotland and he was knighted two years later. His last great commission is arguably his statue of Isaac Newton located in the Piazza at the British Library, London. As a group exhibitor his work was shown at the Grosvenor Gallery, London alongside his many peers including Frink, Hepworth and Moore.

Examples of his work are in major museums around the world including the Tate Gallery, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art,City Arts Centre, Edinburgh, Dundee Art Gallery, the Fleming Collection, Glasgow Art Gallery, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, Bolton Art Gallery, Collins Gallery, Strathclyde University, Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, Rugby Museum and Art Gallery, Stirling University Art Collection, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, University of Warwick Art Collection and Manchester City Art Gallery. More recently his work has been seen in group exhibitions at KHG, Marlborough, Wiltshire.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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James Stuart Park (1862-1933)

Painter, born in Kidderminster, Worcestershire of Scottish parents, brought up in Ayrshire. He attended Glasgow School of Art, his parents having returned to Scotland soon after his birth. Park furthered his studies in Paris with Lefebvre, Cormon and Boulanger. He was a colleague of the Glasgow Boys, sharing a studio with David Gauld and James Kay. He exhibited at the RSA and GI, RSW, Connell & Sons and in England at the RA, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, MAFA and Baillie Gallery. 

Park specialised in painting arrangements of flowers, usually agains a dark background.
He was largely noted for his flower studies, in particular roses. He also painted a limited series of head and shoulder studies of young girls, surrounded by flowers.

Examples of his work are to be found in the collection of the Dick Institute and Lillie Art Gallery, Milngavie and Dundee City Art Galleries and Museums. 
He is referred to as Stuart Park.

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Victor Pasmore (1908-1998)

Painter, printmaker and relief-maker, born in Chelsham, Surrey. Owing to the death of his father he went straight into employment on leaving school as a clerk in the head office of the London County Council. He painted in his spare time and studied the Impressionists, and Cotman and Turner, among others, in the national collections. In 1932 Pasmore was elected into the London Artists' Association and 1934 into the London Group. In that same year, Pasmore showed in the Objective Abstraction exhibition at the Zwemmer Gallery attracting the attention of Kenneth Clark whose financial assistance allowed him to become a full-time painter. Experimentation with Post-Impressionism gave way to the quiet realism associated with the Euston Road School which he helped found in 1937. During the 1930's he also exhibited with the short-lived Twenties Group at the Lucy Wertheim Gallery and also at the similarly short-lived Storran Gallery. In 1942 he moved to Chiswick Mall where he painted river scenes partly inspired by Turner and Whistler. His post-war garden, river and park scenes are less romantic and reveal his search for an underlying geometry. He was both exhibitor and a judge at the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition.

In 1948 while teaching at Camberwell School of Arts & Crafts, Pasmore experimented with pure abstract work, first with collage, then paint and finally abandoned painting temporarily to work solely with reliefs. He became a major figure in the 1950’s and was the leader of the English Constructionists. He occupied various teaching posts part-time and the Anglo-French Art Centre and also at Camberwell, Central School of Arts & Crafts and, finally, King's College, Durham, where he became an exponent of Basic Form. In 1966 Pasmore purchased a house and studio in Malta. During the 1960’s he returned to painting, still in a non-figurative style but used forms that evoke associations with nature. For many years Pasmore showed with Marlborough Fine Art in London. He was married to artist Wendy Pasmore and examples of his work are in art galleries, museum and collections across the world. These include the Tate Gallery, the British Council, Bury Art Gallery, Leeds University Collection,Towner Art Gallery, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, Ulster Museum, Museum of Modern Art, New York, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux, Royal Academy of Arts, London, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, Connecticut and the MIMA.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Viola Paterson (1899 - 1981)

Painter, draughtsman and printmaker, born in Helensburgh, near Glasgow. Viola was a member of the distinguished Paterson family of artists and she was equally talented as a Colourist in oil, in watercolour and as a lithographer and engraver. As a teenager at a finishing school in London, around 1917-18, she studied with Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Fine Art, from 1919-23 attending the Glasgow School of Art under Maurice Greiffenhagen. In 1924-5 she studied in Paris at L'Academie de la Grand Chaumiere with Lucien Simon Besnard and then with Andre Lhote and thereafter continued to paint in Paris, although she also travelled widely in Europe. At the outbreak of World War II she moved to the south of France, but returned to Britain in 1941. During the war she worked for several years for the Admiralty in Oxford, after the war living in Chelsea, returning to Helensburgh in 1955. the family home, The Long Croft, had been designed by her architect father, and it embodied the last 100 years of Scottish art. A woman of private means and great vitality, Viola Paterson was a keen gardener and expert cook as well as being a prolific artist. She exhibited RA, RSA, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, SSA, Society of Artist Printmakers, Belgrqve and Parkin Galleries. A retrospective was held at The Round House, Havering-atte-Bower, 1983.

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Henry Payne (1868 - 1940)

Born at King's Heath, Birmingham, Henry Albert Payne studied at the Birmingham School of Art under E R Taylor. He was among the students who painted murals in the Town Hall (his panel exhibited 1890), and joined the staff in 1889. 
His main interest was in stained glass. Having taught the subject in the 1890, he himself underwent a course of instruction from Christopher WhaII in 1901, and by 1904, though still teaching, he was running a busy independent stained-glass prac¬tice. 
Meanwhile he was involved in a number of decorative schemes with the Bromsgrove Guild, and in 1902 was commissioned to decorate the chapel at Madresfield Court, a task which occupied him for twenty years and is one of the great achievements of the Arts and Crafts movement. It also led to his painting a mural in the Palace of Westminster. 

In 1901 Henry Payne had married Edith Gere, sister of Charles and Margaret and herself a talented artist, and in 1909 they settled at St Loe's House, Amberley, in Gloucestershire, thus consolidating the colonisation of the Cotswolds by Birmingham artists begun when the Geres had moved to Painswick a few years earlier. 
Payne continued to pro¬duce stained glass and founded the `St Loe's Guild', while also painting portraits and landscapes. 

He exhibited at the RA (1899- 1935), with the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, and elsewhere, and was a member of the Society of Painters in Tempera. 

Henry Payne died at Amberley 4 July 1940.

We are grateful to Chris Mees, Professor Stephen Wildman​, Caroline Swash​ and George Breeze for assistance.

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Mervyn Peake (1911 - 1968)

Author, poet, artist, illustrator and teacher, born in Kuling, China. He was the husband of the artist Maeve Gilmore and father of painter Fabian Peake. he was educated at Tientsin Grammar School, Eltham College and Royal Academy Schools, where he won the Hacker Prize, 1931. After two years in an artists' colony Peake taught life drawing at Westminster School of Art where he met Gilmore, marrying her in 1937. During Army service in World War II had a nervous breakdown, then was for two years attached to the Minisrty of Information. Was appointed a war artist, then in 1946 returned to live on the tiny Channel Island of Sark for three happy years. Taught at Central School of Art, but eventually had to give this up, as he had Parkinson's disease. Published Titus Groan, 1946, Gormenghast, 1950, and Titus Alone, 1959, all set in a fantasy world. He illustrated Lewis Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark, 1941, the Alice books, 1946-54, and Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, 1943, his own books including The Craft of the Lead Pencil, 1946. Peake's work was widely exhibited, including RA; in 1991 there was a joint show of his and Gilmore's work at Littlehampton Museum; in 2000, Chris Beetles Ltd exhibited pictures, including production drawings from the new BBC2 production of Gormenghast, in 2001 work from the family archive, including artwork from Alice in Wonderland, Through the Looking Glass and Peake's own Captain Slaughterboard Drops Anchor, 1939, and Letters from a Lost Uncle, 1948, reflecting Peake's love of the bizarre. Died at Burcot, Berkshire, and like his wife was buried at Burpham, Sussex. A Mervyn Peake Society was formed in 1975.

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Charles Pears (1873–1958)

Marine painter and lithographer, born at Pontefract, Yorkshire. Pears worked initially as a black-and-white artist for magazines from the late 189os, serving as a theatrical caricaturist for Pick-Me-Up. During World War I he was an Official War Artist for the Admiralty, a position he repeated during World War Il, and he gradually established a reputation as a sound marine painter with a strong sense of design. He was founder and first president of the RSMA and his work found its way into the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, and the Imperial War Museum. However, as a versatile draughtsman he also did many posters and illustrated Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 1922, and the works of Charles Dickens. He wrote a number of books, such as From the Thames to the Seine, 1910, and South Coast Cruising from the Thames to Penzance, 1931. Exhibited widely, including RA, ROI and Fine Art Society. Lived at St Mawes, Cornwall.

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Fred Pegram (1870-1937)

Fred (Frederick) Pegram, the son of Alfred Pegram, a cabinet maker, was born in Somers Town  on 19th December 1870. At the age of fifteen he studied at the Westminster School of Art . Fellow students included Henry Tonks, Aubrey Beardsley  and Maurice Greiffenhagen . He joined the staff of the The Pall Mall Gazette and in 1894 began contributing to Punch Magazine.

Books illustrated by Pegram include Poor Jack  (1897), At the Rising of the Moon  (1898), London's World Fair  (1898), The Orange Girl  (1899) and Martin Chuzzlewick  (1900). He also produced cartoons for The Idler, Illustrated London News, The Tatler , and The Daily Chronicle.

During the First World War Pegram served as a Special Constable at Buckingham Palace. He also produced a large number of cartoons for various magazines during the war. According to Mark Bryant  Pegram used a "Brandaner 515 nib and also painted, drew portraits in pencil, watercolour, chalk and pastel, and etched."

Pegram designed advertisements for Mackintosh's Toffee, Player's Cigarettes, Ronuk Polish, Selfridges, etc., and created the famous Kodak Girl. R.G.G. Price , the author of A History of Punch (1957) has argued: "Even if his jokes and his milieu became increasingly stereotyped, his draughtsmanship as late as the early Thirties was still capable of giving a thrill of pleasure."

Fred Pegram, died of lung cancer on 23rd August 1937.

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Muriel Pemberton (1909-1993)

Muriel Pemberton, painter and teacher: born Tunstall, Stoke on Trent 8 September 1909; married 1941 John Hadley Rowe (died 1975); died Hastings, East Sussex 30 July 1993.

MURIEL PEMBERTON invented art-school training in fashion in Britain and, in doing so, affected attitudes to fashion design throughout Europe. Before she became involved in the field, fashion training had existed almost exclusively within the strictures of the couturier system. She brought the freedom of a painter to the discipline of designing and making clothes, and throughout her career she pursued in tandem her two great talents for painting and design.

In 1925, at the age of 15, Muriel entered the local school of art at Burslem, in the Potteries, as its youngest student. While many contemporaries, including two of her sisters, trained as designers and decorators of ceramics, she was determined to become a proper artist and, in 1928, succeeded in gaining a scholarship and a major award to the School of Painting at the Royal College of Art. And yet, while the conditions and purposes of a provincial school of art had made her idealise the art of painting, a breakdown of the divisions between the four schools of the Royal College encouraged her to develop the more interdisciplinary approach which prepared her for her working life.

During the first summer vacation, a chance encounter helped Muriel Pemberton to realise that her aptitude for fashion would help her to maintain herself as an artist. While out walking in Stoke, a woman inquired as to where she had bought the dress that she was wearing, a dress that she had actually designed and made herself. On her return to the Royal College, she discussed the idea of a diploma in fashion with Ernest Tristram, the Professor of Design, and he allowed her to take such a course should she be able to develop it for herself. She did so by assembling three elements: she drew beautifully designed dresses in rich fabrics at Reville and Rossiter, Court Dressmaker to Queen Mary; she studied cutting at the Katinka School (paid for with lessons in design); and she read a number of books on the history of costume as recommended to her by James Laver.

As a result of her inspiration and initiative, Pemberton was awarded the first Diploma in Fashion by the Royal College of Art in 1931, and immediately began to teach fashion drawing two days a week at St Martin's School of Art. Almost solely through her own efforts, this part- time position was expanded into the important role of head of the first Faculty of Fashion and Design in Britain.

She then taught in the knowledge that the majority of her students were developing along her own path, from painting to design, and therefore had previously gained little practical experience of workshop and salon. She responded to their various needs and abilities by encouraging them to cultivate her own experimental attitude. For instance, she encouraged them to produce free and fluent lines by looking continually at the model rather than their paper, and sometimes banished pencils, offering instead the thick and colourful media of oil pastel and paint mixed with soap powder.

Many of the students who passed through St Martin's School of Art have paid tribute to Pemberton's liberating influence, which contrasted with the more conventional teaching of other members of staff. If it did not always prepare them for the politics and economics of the rag trade, it gave them an ideal to which to aspire, and those who were as determined as Pemberton herself, such as Katherine Hamnett and Bruce Oldfield, both altered the face of British fashion and helped to make London a centre of fashion design as well as of tailoring.

Pemberton's qualities as a painter, as distinct from those as a teacher, were revealed to many of her students only in retrospect, at an exhibition held this year at Chris Beetles Gallery to coincide with the publication of her biography written by John Russell Taylor. And yet teaching and painting were very much two aspects of a single aesthetic. The way in which Pemberton thought about clothes is manifest in the water-colours that she exhibited at the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colour and the Royal Academy. Portraits were considered as extensions of her work as a fashion artist on News Chronicle (1945- 52) and Vogue (1952-56), while floral still life, inspired by the passion for gardens of her husband, John Hadley Rowe (Head of Graphics at St Martin's School of Art), was treated in terms of pattern and layering, and open to reworking (as if updated for the new season) well after the signature had been added. Even when fashion has evolved beyond present perceptions, her vital, colourful paintings will stand testament to her approach to life.

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John Piper (1903-1992)

Painter, notably of architecture and landscape, designer of stained glass and for the theatre, and writer, born in Epsom, Surrey. His first wife was the artist Eileen Holding, his second the writer Myfanwy Evans, and his son the artist Edward Piper. Form 1921-6 studied law and worked in his father’s solicitor’s office before studying at Richmond and Kingston Schools of Art and Royal College of Art, 1926-9.

In mid-1930s after a visit to Paris concentrated on abstract painting, but then reverted to representational work. First solo show, of collages and drawings, at London Gallery, 1938. Member of LG in 1033 and 7 & 5 Society, 1934-5. Piper was a prolific writer, working for The Athenaeum, New Statesman, Nation and Architectural Review, publishing his first guide book in 1938. With his wife he produced the influential Axis – a Quarterly Review of Contemporary “Abstract” Painting and Sculpture, 1935-7. From 1940 for about 20 years had one-man shows with Leicester Galleries. His ballet designs included The Quest, 1943 and Job, 1948, as well as operas for Benjamin Britten. Piper was an Official War Artist in World War II. In 1942, he published his best-selling monograph English Romantic Artists. Was on several occasions a trustee of Tate Gallery, member of the Arts Council panel and a member of Royal Fine Art Commission. Stained glass window designs included Coventry Cathedral and Christchurch College Chapel, Oxford. Made Companion of Honour, 1972. Retrospectives were held at Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1979, and Tate Gallery, 1983. Goldmark Gallery, Uppingham gave Piper centenary shows in 2002 and 2003 and Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, one in 2003, the year that Dulwich Picture Gallery staged John Piper in the 1930s and Sherborne House, Dorset, its exhibition John Piper: A Versatile Artist. The Tate, Arts Council and many provincial galleries hold his work. Died at Fawley Bottom, Oxfordshire.


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Ludovic-Rodolphe (RODO) Pissarro (1878-1952)

Ludovic-Rodolphe Pissarro was born in Paris on the 21st November 1878 and was Camille Pissarro’s fourth son. He soon became known as Rodo and usually signed his work Ludovic-Rodo. 

The impact of Camille’s art and teaching on Rodo was obviously considerable, and his artistic production encompassed a wide range of media, including oil painting, tempera, watercolour, gouache, wood engraving, drawing and lithography. He also exhibited regularly at the Salon des Indépendents over a forty year period.
In 1894, at the age of sixteen, Rodo published his first wood engravings in the anarchist journal, Le Pere Peinard, and when Camille left France for the safety of Belgium during the anarchist upheavals of that year Rodo joined him there.
Rodo moved into his first studio in Montmartre with his brother Georges in 1898 and found the night-life of Paris, and the habitués of the cafes, theatres, circuses and cabarets of the area, compelling subjects for his work. With his younger brother Paulémile he met artists such as Kees Van Dongen, Maurice de Vlaminck and Raoul Dufy, and in 1905 he participated in the first Fauve exhibition at the Salon des Indépendents.
At the outbreak of war in 1914 Rodo moved to England, and over the next few years he lived mainly in and around West London. He worked closely with his brother Lucien to establish, in 1915, the Monarro Group which was formed with the aim of exhibiting work by contemporary artists inspired by Impressionism. Many of the works produced by Rodo while he was in England were of major London landmarks. After 1924, when Rodo had already returned to France, he divided his time between Paris and Les Andelys in Normandy.

Despite his rich artistic heritage and his achievements as an artist, Rodo is perhaps best remembered for his contribution to art history. For twenty years he researched and compiled a catalogue of his father’s paintings – a project that was finally published in two volumes in 1939 and which is still considered to be the definitive reference book on Camille’s work. Rodo told Lucien that the compilation of this catalogue was a fascinating task, revealing as it did “the work of the artist, its highs and lows, its progress as a whole through acquired experience”.

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John Edgar Platt (1886-1967)

Wood engraver and painter, born at Leek, Staffordshire. He studied at the Royal College of Art, 1905-08, and went on to become principal of both Leicester College of Art and Blackheath School of Art. He won a gold medal at the International Print Makers' Exhibition, 1922. He exhibited at the RA, NEAC, RE and with the British Council. During World War II he was an Official War Artist. His work is held by the British Museum, Imperial War Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum and the Tate. He wrote for a number of publications including The Studio and The Artist and produced several books on the art of the colour woodcut.

He worked equally successfully in oil, watercolour and wood engraving, usually confining himself to a small scale; he often worked en plein air, a method he successfully employed to respond directly to his subject. His panels are frequently annotated with notes about the weather and light conditions.

Selected Literature: Hilary Chapman, The Colour Woodcuts of John Edgar Platt, 1999.

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Mary Potter (1900-1981)

Mary Potter (née Marian (Mary) Anderson Attenborough)

attended Beckenham School of Art (1916–18) and the Slade

School of Fine Art (1918–21), where she won first prize for

portrait painting. Briefly a member of the Seven and Five Society

she also exhibited with the NEAC and the LG.

In 1927, she married the writer and radio producer Stephen

Potter. They lived in Chiswick: many of her paintings from this

period evolve around views from her studio window. After moving

briefly to Manchester at the start of WWII, they rented Berwick

Hall, Essex, until peace returned.

In Essex and later in Aldeburgh, Suffolk, Potter focused more

on atmosphere and light, and her work became increasingly abstract.

She held numerous solo shows throughout her career,

including at the Bloomsbury Gallery (1932), the Redfern Gallery,

Arthur Tooth & Sons, Leicester Galleries, and – following a major

retrospective at Whitechapel Art Gallery (1964) – the New Art

Centre. Her final solo exhibition was at the Serpentine Gallery


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Frank Potter (1885-1958)

Painter born in Stoke Newington, London the son of a printer and publisher. Frank Potter as he was known studied at the Académie Julien in Paris but nothing is as yet known of any British art education. Potter exhibited at the Alpine Gallery in 1924 alongside Horace Brodzky; Adrian Daintrey and he also showed at the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, London Salon, New English Art Club, Royal Academy, Royal Cambrian Academy, Royal Society of British Artists, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, Royal Institute of Oil Painters, Royal Scottish Academy and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. A member of the Chelsea Arts Club, Potter is represented by a still-life painting in the collection of Rotherham Museums and Galleries. There is a minor discrepancy over the year of his birth. His World War I service record shows his birth as 1887 yet census of that period and other authorities give it as 1885. His last RA exhibit was in 1949 A Walter F. Potter died in London in December 1958 but as yet I have not been able to verify that this is one and the same person.

We are grateful to www.artbiogs.co.uk for the above information.

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John Powell (1911-2003)

Artist in oil, watercolour and pastel, and teacher, born in Nottingham. After six years apprenticed as a lithographic artist Powell left industry and studied at Nottingham College of Art, 1932-5, then Royal College of Art, 1935-9, under Gilbert Spencer. He taught at Sutton and Cheam School of Art, then at Manchester Regional College of Art, as head of foundation studies; Nottingham as head of fine art; then Portsmouth College of Art as principal. Powell took part in numerous mixed and group exhibitions, including RA, Victoria & Albert Museum, Whitechapel Art Gallery, National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, Archer Gallery and elsewhere. Had solo shows at New Ashgate Gallery, Farnham, in 1981, and Bosham Walk Art Gallery, Bosham, 1990. Bristol Education Authority holds his picture Harbour, Tenby, and Manchester Education Authority Fair at Twilight and Child at Breakfast. Lived in Fishbourne, Sussex.

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Eleanor Chilton Price (1901-1985)

Graphic designer and etcher born in Bath, who studied at Bath School of Art and Bristol School of Art. She subsequently worked as a commercial artist and produced posters, showcards, drawings for Bristol Zoo Aquarium and Christmas cards. Price exhibited at Bath Society of Artists and the Royal Society of Arts, London. Her death was recorded in South Glamorgan.

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Ernest Procter (1886 - 1935)

Painter of decorations, allegorical figure compositions and landscapes. Born 22 May 1886 at Tynemouth, Northumberland. Studied at Newlyn with Stanhope Forbes and at the Atelier Colarossi, Paris. Married the painter Dod Shaw 1912, exhibiting watercolours with her at the Fine Art Society 1913; they also exhibited at the Leicester Galleries. Exhibited with the International Society from 1916, member 1925, and at the R.A. from 1921, A.R.A. 1932; member of the N.E.A.C. 1929. With his wife, assisted by Burmese, Indian and Chinese craftsmen, decorated the Kokine Palace, Rangoon, Burma, for the Honourable Lim Ching Tsong 1920. Helped to decorate the Church of St Hilary, Marazion, Cornwall, and the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Penzance. Experimented with glazed and illuminated decorations which he called ‘diaphenicons’ and exhibited at the Leicester Galleries 1931. Lived mainly at Newlyn, Cornwall. Director of Studies in Design and Craft at the Glasgow School of Art 1934–5. Died 21 October 1935 at North Shields. Memorial exhibitions at the Leicester Galleries and the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, 1936.

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Gerald Spencer Pryse (1882-1956)

Gerald Spencer Pryse (1882–1956) was a Welsh artist and lithographer. Born at Ashton, he studied in London and Paris, and first won success at the Venice International Exhibition in 1907. In the same year, he joined the Fabian Society, and helped to found The Neolith, a periodical of literature and the fine arts; the journal was printed in lithography. He was a regular exhibitor at the Senefelder Club, and contributed works to Punch, the Strand Magazine, and The Graphic. First World War During the Great War, Pryse produced a considerable body of lithographic work, some of it in color under the title Autumn Campaign (1914). This was based in his time in France and Belgium at the beginning of the war when he drove around in a Mercedes carrying lithographic stones in the back. He served as a dispatch rider for the Belgian government and was present at the Siege of Antwerp. The artist wrote a memoir of this time entitled Four Days: an account of a journey in France made between 28 and 31 August 1914, published by John Lane in 1932. Pryse also saw some of the Battle of the Marne and the Aisne but was back in Belgium to record the fall of Ostend and the subsequent retirement along the River Yser. Pryse also worked with the Indian Army in France and several of his lithographs depict scenes of Indian troops. Later, he served as a captain in the Queen Victoria's Rifles, King's Royal Rifle Corps, and was mentioned in dispatches. His main action was in the Third Battle of Ypres where he won the Military Cross, the 1914 Star, the Order of the Crown of Belgium, the Croix de Guerre. By the end of 1916, Pryse had made an application to become a war artist, and towards the end of the war, was granted permission to sketch at the front and he was able to record the conditions of trench warfare in numerous water-color drawings, but many of these were lost in the German offensive of 1918. The remaining drawings were exhibited later in London and were described as having "a freshness and authenticity that were not always apparent in the works of the official war artists. Unfortunately, many of these were destroyed by enemy action during the second World War He later the regiment at the end of the war but returned in 1921 when the battalion was on Wormwood Scrubbs for three months during a coal strike. During the war, he also designed a number of posters including several published by Frank Pick for the Underground Electric Railway in London, as well as for the Labour Party, The British Red Cross, and for the Empire Marketing Board. One of his most famous posters, entitled The Only Road for an Englishman shows a regiment of British soldiers marching through a ruined town. Post-War He worked in Hammersmith from 1914–1925, but in 1925 traveled to Morocco and observed some of the fighting there against the French. He returned to the country and lived there for some years after 1950. Pryse was commissioned in 1924 to create a series of lithographs for the British Empire Exhibition illustrating the extent and variety of life with the British Empire. In 1932, he married Murial Anstace Theodore, the daughter of the Rev. Laurence Farrall, and had three daughters. He died at Cranford House, Stourton, Worcestershire on 28 November 1956 aged 74. He had married Muriel Anstace Theodora, daughter of the Rev. Laurence Farrall, in 1932, and they had three daughters, one of whom, Tessa Spencer Pryse, a landscape artist, became an art student against her father's wishes.

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Robert Randoll (1864-1946)

Randoll was an  illustrator who published views of  London - the Guildhall Art Gallery has many of the originals

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Leonard Raven Hill (1867-1942)

Painter and illustrator born in Bath. He trained at Lambeth School of Art and then in Paris, exhibiting at the Salon in 1887 and at the RA two years later. In 1890 he was appointed art editor of Pick-Me-Up, working with Phil May, and of Punch from 1895 to 1935. He exhibited pictures at the Fine Art Society, Grosvenor Gallery, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Walker Art Gallery Liverpool, Leicester Gallery, NEAC, RA, RBA, Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours, ROI, and RSA.

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Eric Ravilious (1903-1942)

Born in London he studied at the Eastbourne School of Art and at The Royal College of Art under Paul Nash, where Edward Bawden became a close friend. Initially a muralist (none of which has survived), he became widely known for his luminous watercolours, woodcuts, lithographs – notably his High Street Shops executed by the Curwen Press, (published by Country Life in 1938 in a book with a text by JM Richards, husband of Peggy Angus), ceramics for Wedgewood and graphics for London Transport, as well as glass and furniture design. Much inspired by the South Downs in East Sussex, he was a frequent visitor to Furlongs, the cottage of the artist Peggy Angus. In 1930 he married fellow artist ‘Tirzah’ Garwood, they then moved to rural Essex, at first sharing a house with the Bawdens. An official World War II artist and with a commission with the Royal Marines, he died while with an RAF air sea rescue mission to Iceland. His works are in the collections of numerous British museums and art galleries, the largest holding is at the Towner Gallery, Eastbourne.

Selected Literature: Alan Powers, Eric Ravillious: Imagined Realities, Imperial War Museum, London, 2003.

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Rachel Reckitt (1908 - 1995)

Artist in mild steel, wood, stone, paint and wood engraving, born in St Albans, Hertfordshire. She studied at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art in late 1930s under lain Macnab, and in 1970-5 at the Roadwater Smithy, Somerset, with Harry and Jim Horrobin. After training Reckitt worked from home in west Somerset at Rodhuish, Minehead. Carried out commissions for pub signs; wood-engraved book illustrations and single prints; and did sculpture in five Somerset churches and for private commission. She was an honorary member of the Somerset Guild of Craftsmen and SWE and a member of British Artist Blacksmiths' Association. Other group shows included Wertheim Gallery and LG. Had solo exhibitions at Duncan Campbell Contemporary Art and Bridgwater Arts Centre. A retrospective publication, Rachel Reckitt: where everything that meets the eye... appeared in zoos, Hal Bishop's survey of her work, supported by Somerset County Museums Service and the Golsoncott Foundation, accompanying shows in Taunton, Glastonbury and Exeter. Public collections in Salford and Bridgwater hold examples, as do Withycombe, Old Cleeve and Leighland.

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Victor Reinganum (1907-1995)

Victor Reinganum (1907-1995) was an artist and illustrator, probably best known for his illustrations on book dustjackets, including the first editions of Muriel Spark's The Ballad of Peckham Rye (1960) and The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961).

He was born in London on 13 September 1907 and died on 24 January 1995, aged 87.

During 1925-1928 he studied at Heatherley School of Fine Art and the Académie Julian, Paris, also taking private lessons with Léger. In 1928 he joined Elstree Studios and was an art director there until 1929 when he became a freelance illustrator. He was a prolific contributor to Radio Times.

The book Surrealism in England - 1936 and After (1986) says of him:
"VICTOR REINGANUM is Surrealist on the outside or not at all - Born London 1907 - Never a member of any Surrealist group, his work shared a certain terrain with Tunnard, a poetic abstraction on the frontiers of figuration often using biomorphic forms. Originally more known for his illustrations, latterly he has had other works included in retrospective Surrealist shows."

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Geoffrey Hamilton Rhoades (1898-1980)

Painter in oil, watercolour, pen and ink and sepia, and teacher. Born in London, Rhoades studied painting at Clapham Art School 1915-7, then after World War I service in the Mercantile Marine attended the Slade School of Fine Art under Henry Tonks 1919-23. His landsapes, figure studies and flower paintings reflect his love of natural history and interest in the classical world. When Rhoades left the Slade Tonks said: "You've something I haven't - imagination," and Rhoades' inner life did nourish his work throughout his career. His pictures are unmistakeably English in their understatedness. In the mid-1920s Rhoades completed murals and other work for the owners of Stoke Rochford House, in Lincolnshire. He then held a series of teaching posts, notably at the Ruskin School of Drawing, Oxford, 1953-72. He exhibited at the NEAC, RI and Goupil Gallery and had one-man shows at Maltzahn Gallery, Ashmolean Museum, Mall Galleries and Sally Hunter Fine Art, 1987. The Tate Gallery, Ashmolean Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum and provincial galleries hold his work. Lived at Cuddington, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire.

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Brian Rice (1936 -)

Brian Rice's career covers a period of remarkable dedication and innovation as an accomplished painter and printmaker. He was born in 1936 in Yeovil, Somerset and studied at Yeovil School of Art from 1952-56 and then Goldsmiths College, London from 1958-59 (A.C.T. London University 1959). Rice lived and worked in London from 1962-78, where he marked the formative years in his career, strengthening both the conviction of his abstract work and his reputation. During the 1960s, he produced luminous, hard edged abstract paintings and prints, which achieved national and international publicity and acclaim, and quickly found their way into worldwide collections. In 1978, Rice bought a 50-acre farm in West Dorset, where he immersed himself in farming and his only contact with the art world was teaching at Brighton Polytechnic (1972-91). However, he continued to work slowly, developing a visual language that was part of a dialogue with the past, inspired by marks made by prehistoric man and the archaeology of the Dorset landscape. He taught at many universities including Brighton College of Art (1966-72), Croydon College of Art (1971-72); Royal College of Art (1974), St Martin's School of Art (1975) and the Slade School of Fine Art (1977). In 1995, Rice had his first solo exhibition for 16 years, a point which marked Rice's renewed commitment to life as an artist. His work has been shown internationally and is held in over 60 public and corporate collections worldwide, including the Tate Gallery, the V&A Museum, the Geffrye Museum and the British Council to name a few. Prizes include Arnolfini Gallery Open Painting Exhibition 1963, Westward Television Open Exhibition 1971, Millfield Open 2003, and the Evolver Prize 2007. The essence of Rice's work remains in the area of colour and simple forms, with his instinctual insight represented in each line, plane and colour in which the viewer is invited into a dialogue with the work.

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Ceri Richards (1903-1971)

Richards was born in 1903 in the village of Dunvant, In 1921, at the age of 18, he enrolled full-time at the Swansea College of Art, then under the direction of William Grant Murray. During his time at the College he spent less time in painting than in drawing from classical casts and studying industrial design and graphics. The strongest impact on him during these years appears to have been the week's summer school in 1923, which he spent under the direction of Hugh Blaker at Gregynog Hall, the country house of Gwendoline and Margaret Davies, where he first saw the canvases of Renoir, Van Gogh, Monet, Cézanne, Corot and Daumier, the sculpture of Rodin and sheets of old-master and modern drawings. The experience confirmed him in his vocation; and in the same year he applied for, and won, a scholarship to study in London at the Royal College of Art. Richards entered the Royal College of Art in 1924. Afterwards Richards spent most of his life in London, apart from a period teaching art in Cardiff. In 1929 he married Frances Clayton, a fellow artist. His work gradually moved towards surrealism after exposure to the work of Picasso and Kandinsky. He was also a talented musician, and music is a theme for much of his artwork. From 1959 onwards, he made prints for the Curwen Press. One of the high points of his career was the Venice Biennale of 1962, where he was a prizewinner. Richards died in London on 9 November 1971. Many of his works are in the Tate Britain collection. The Glynn Vivian Art Gallery in Swansea also holds a collection (where Richards' first solo exhibition took place in 1930). Good examples of his work are also to be found in the gallery of the National Museum Cardiff and the Pallant House Gallery, Chichester. He designed stained glass windows for Derby Cathedral (1964-5), and for the Blessed Sacrament Chapel of Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral (1965)

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Bridget Riley (1931)

Painter born in Norwood, London. After her childhood in Cornwall and Lincolnshire and an education at Cheltenham Ladies' College she attended Goldsmiths' College, 1949-1952, and later at the Royal College of Art, 1952-55, where her peers included Peter Blake and Frank Auerbach. Her early work was figurative but about 1960 Riley began to develop her Op Art style comprising black and white geometric patterns that investigate the vitality of vision often culminating in a disorientating effect on the eye. Her first solo exhibition at Gallery One, London, was held in 1962, was followed by a second in 1963, for which Anton Ehrenzweig wrote the catalogue foreword. He also prepared a major critical essay on her art for Art International which helped secure her reputation. Riley worked entirely with black and white introducing colour only in 1966. Riley taught children for two years before joining the Loughborough School of Art, where she initiated a basic design course in 1959. She then taught at Hornsey School of Art and from 1962-64 at Croydon School of Art. She also worked for the J. Walter Thompson Group advertising agency from 1960, but gave up teaching and advertising agency work in 1964. In 1968 she won the International Prize for Painting, the first woman to do so, at the 34th Venice Biennale and in the same year, with Peter Sedgeley, helped set up SPACE, a scheme for organising artists' studios which came into operation in 1969. Group exhibition venues for Riley include Arnolfini Gallery, Howard Roberts Gallery, Spacex Gallery, Exeter, Whitechapel Art Gallery, New Art Centre, Roche Court, MoMa, New York, Tate Gallery and the Hayward Gallery, London.

In an extensive world-wide career Riley has exhibited in the Museum of Modern Art in New York the show that originally drew international attention to her work. She has held several major retrospective exhibitions including two at the Hayward Gallery, one at the Serpentine Gallery and one at the Tate Gallery, London. In 2009 the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool mounted a major retrospective of Bridget Riley's drawings and painting entitled 'Flashback' covering every period of her career from 1960.

Represented by the London dealer Karsten Schubert, Riley has work in all major galleries in the UK and across five continents. These include the Bournemouth & Poole College Collection, Tate Gallery, GoMA, Leeds City Art Gallery, Rugby Museum and Art Gallery, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, the Ulster Museum, Leicestershire County Council, MoMa, New York, Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio, Harvard University Art Museum, Museum of Contemporary Art, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, Los Angeles, MIMA, New Hall College, Cambridge, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Australia, University of Warwick Art Collection, V&A, London, Sheffield Art Gallery and the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester. One of her many other activities is as a committee member of the National Art-Collections Fund an organisation which has helped save nearly one million works of art for Great Britain. Riley has been made a Companion of Honour and awarded a CBE for her services to art.

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Henry Arthur Riley (1895-1966)

Henry Arthur Riley was a painter, born in Chelsea, London, Harry Riley as he was commonly known, first studied art at the Hammersmith School of Art and was employed in Fleet Street as a junior artist while continuing to attend evening classes at nearby Bolt Court, 1910-15 studying under Walter Bayes. Following active service in World War I Riley continued his studies at St. Martin's School of Art. He exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy, Royal Society of British Artists and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters. 

Henry Arthur Riley was a great cartoon illustrator and his work was reproduced on numerous occasions in the Reynolds News, London Opinion, Blighty, Humorist and the Sunday Chronicle, as well as Punch and other influential newspapers and magazines of the 1930’s. He also was commissioned by British Rail for supplying travel posters. Elected RI in 1940 Riley was also a member of the Savage Club and the London Sketch Club.

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William Roberts (1895 - 1980)

Son of an Irish carpenter and his wife, Roberts was born in Hackney, London. In 1909 he took up an apprenticeship with the advertising firm of Sir Joseph Causton Ltd, intending to become a poster designer, and he attended evening classes at St Martin's School of Art in London. He won a London County Council scholarship to the Slade School of Art in 1910. His contemporaries included a number of brilliant young students, among them Dora Carrington, Mark Gertler, Paul Nash, Christopher Nevinson, Stanley Spencer and David Bomberg.

Roberts was intrigued by Post-impressionism and Cubism, an interest fueled by his friendships at the Slade (in particular with Bomberg) as well as by his travels in France and Italy after leaving the Slade in 1913.
Later in 1913 he joined Roger Fry's Omega Workshops for three mornings a week, and the ten shillings a time that Omega paid enabled him to create challenging Cubist-style paintings such as The Return of Ulysses (now owned by Castle Museum and Art Gallery, Nottingham).

After leaving Omega he was taken up by Wyndham Lewis, who was forming a British alternative to Futurism. Ezra Pound had suggested the name Vorticism, and Roberts's work was featured in both editions of the Vorticist literary magazine BLAST. Roberts himself, however, later preferred the description 'Cubist' for his work of this period.

In 1916 Roberts enlisted in the Royal Artillery as a gunner, serving on the Western Front. Having been told that artists were being chosen to do war paintings for the Canadian War Records Office, he applied, and in 1918 was 'loaned' to the Canadians for six months as an official war artist. He was subsequently also commissioned by the British Ministry of Information, for whom he painted A Shell Dump, France (1918–19; Imperial War Museum, London). His experiences at the front – touched upon in his memoir '4.5 Howitzer Gunner' – shifted the direction of his work, and significant pieces from his wartime output, such as the powerful Canadian commission The First German Gas Attack at Ypres (1918), dramatically depict the horror of war and are possibly the most acerbic produced by any of the British artists employed under the government’s schemes. Indeed they are bitter enough to rival the social realism of the German artists Otto Dix and George Grosz, and are possibly in a class of their own for their portrayal of the arduous – and occasionally deadly – life in the firing lines.

In 1915 he had met Sarah Kramer (1900–92), sister of fellow Slade student Jacob Kramer. Sarah appeared constantly in his work thereafter. They married in 1922, and had one son, John David Roberts (1919–95), who, after studying physics at University College London, became a poet and guitar scholar.

After the war, Roberts's subject matter turned to the documentation of urban life and portraiture – portrait subjects included T. E. Lawrence (1922; Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) and John Maynard Keynes and his wife, Lydia Lopokova (1932; National Portrait Gallery, London) – as well as some scenes from 'Greek Mythology and Christian Mythology', as he put it.
In 1922–6 he was commissioned to produce illustrations and decorations for Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom. In 1923 he held his first one-man exhibition, at the Chenil Gallery in Chelsea, London, and two years later he was appointed visiting lecturer at the Central School of Art, a post he held until 1960.

When the Second World War broke out, in September 1939, Roberts was too old for combat service. He applied for work as a war artist, but fell out with the War Artists’ Advisory Committee over transport arrangements, and completed only a few portrait drawings of people involved with the war effort and some studies of life on the home front, including Munitions Factory (1940) and The Control Room, Civil Defence Headquarters (1942) – both now in Salford Art Gallery. He spent the war years in Oxford, where he painted some rural scenes, traveling to London for his teaching work.

In 1946 he and Sarah returned to London and took a room at 14 St Mark’s Crescent, a house in multiple occupancy backing on to the Regent’s Canal, near Primrose Hill. When other tenants moved out they took over additional rooms, and eventually with financial help from a friend they were able to buy the whole house, which would remain their home for the rest of their lives and whose neighbourhood would provide Roberts with subject matter.

In 1948 he showed work at the Royal Academy summer exhibition for the first time – a self-portrait and a portrait of Sarah in a headscarf as The Gypsy (he had made a number of pictures of gypsies during his Oxford years) – and he would show work there in every subsequent year until his death.

In 1956 the Tate Gallery held an exhibition entitled Wyndham Lewis and Vorticism, with 150 works by Lewis and a small selection by other artists to give 'an indication of the effect of his immediate impact upon his contemporaries'. Roberts was offended that the catalogue ‘would lead the uninitiated to suppose that the artists designated as "Other Vorticists" are in some way subservient to Lewis', and published a series of 'Vortex Pamphlets' in which he railed against the exhibition, the catalogue, the press coverage and the account of his own career contained in Modern English Painters by the Tate's director, Sir John Rothenstein, which appeared at about the same time. Targets of earlier visual satires had included Walter Sickert and Roger Fry. To publicise his own work he also published Some Early Abstract and Cubist Work 1913–1920 (London, 1957), the first of a series of collections of reproductions of his paintings, with somewhat polemical prefaces.

Roberts was often described as reclusive, and he was very wary about interviewers – especially after an Observer journalist who visited him produced an article that Roberts felt was concerned more with his rather spartan lifestyle than with his work. 'What kind of art critic is this, who sets out to criticise my pictures, but criticizes my gas stove and kitchen table instead?' he asked. One admirer of his work has told how she saw him getting on to a number 74 bus and 'Fascinated to gain a sighting of the octogenarian recluse, she followed him to the top deck. Aided by "the chutzpah of youthful inexperience", she respectfully asked him if she were addressing Mr William Roberts. After what felt like an interminable pause, and with his gaze defiantly averted, he replied: "I really do not know."

In 1961 Roberts received an award from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation 'in recognition of his artistic achievement and his outstanding service to British painting'. In that same year he began painting The Vorticists at the Restaurant de la Tour Eiffel, Spring 1915 (completed 1962; now in the Tate Gallery), a nostalgic recollection of a boisterous Vorticist gathering in 1915. A major retrospective of his work, organised by the Arts Council of Great Britain, opened at the Tate Gallery in 1965, and a smaller version was also shown in Newcastle and Manchester. Roberts was elected a full member of the Royal Academy in 1966 (he had been an associate member since 1958), and he continued to depict large-scale urban scenes in his paintings until his death in 1980.

After his son had died intestate, The Guardian revealed that the Treasury Solicitor had control of a large number of works by Roberts, which it refused to lend to an exhibition at the Hatton Gallery in Newcastle upon Tyne. Since then it has been announced that 117 of these works have been allocated to the Tate Gallery in lieu of inheritance tax, and the Tate will also house the remainder.

Roberts's account of his early years (written in 1977) appeared posthumously, in 1982, and in 2004 William Roberts: An English Cubist by Andrew Gibbon Williams (Lund Humphries), the standard monograph on this painter, was published.

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Graham Walford Robertson (1866-1948)

Painter and illustrator, born in London and educated at Eton. Robertson studied under the Victorian painter, Albert Moore having previously attended the South Kensington Schools. During the 1890’s he enjoyed some success as a theatre and stage designer, and also wrote fairy stories, children's verse and plays. He painted portraits of Ellen Terry and Sarah Bernhardt and in 1891 elected a member of NEAC, 1896 the RBA, 1910 the ROI and 1912 the RP. Always referred to as Graham Robertson he sometimes signed his work W. Graham Robertson. Robertson moved in important artistic circles and was friendly James Whistler, Burne-Jones Singer Sargent and others. He was also an avid collector of both Pre-Raphaelite paintings and of the work of William Blake.

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Elsie (Dorothea) Robertson (- 1959)

Elsie Robertson was actually called Dorothea, although known as Elsie by her family. She studied at the Royal Academy. Died in 1959.

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Frederick Cayley Robinson (1862-1927)

Frederick Cayley Robinson (18 August 1862 � 4 January 1927) was an English painter, decorator and illustrator. He is perhaps best known for his series of paintings for the Middlesex Hospital entitled Acts of Mercy commissioned around 1915 and completed in 1920. 

Born in Brentford, Cayley Robinson was the son of a stockbroker and studied at St John's Wood Academy, the Royal Academy Schools and at the Acad�mie Julian in Paris from 1890 to 1892. He was a member of the Society of Painters in Tempera, the New English Art Club and the Royal Watercolour Society.

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W. Heath Robinson (1872-1944)

William Heath Robinson (31 May 1872 – 13 September 1944) was an English cartoonist and illustrator best known for drawings of ridiculously complicated machines for achieving simple objectives.

In the UK, the term "Heath Robinson" entered the language during the 1914–1918 First World War as a description of any unnecessarily complex and implausible contrivance, much as "Rube Goldberg machines" came to be used in the U.S. from the 1930s onwards as a term for similar efforts. "Heath Robinson contraption" is perhaps more often used in relation to temporary fixes using ingenuity and whatever is to hand, often string and tape, or unlikely cannibalisations. Its continuing popularity was undoubtedly linked to Second World War Britain's shortages and the need to "make do and mend".

William Heath Robinson was born into a family of artists in an area of London known as Stroud Green, Finsbury Park, north London. His father and brothers (Thomas Heath Robinson and Charles Robinson) all worked as illustrators.

His early career involved illustrating books – among others: Hans Christian Andersen's Danish Fairy Tales and Legends (1897), The Arabian Nights (1899), Tales from Shakespeare (1902), Gargantua and Pantagruel (1904),[1] Twelfth Night (1908), Andersen's Fairy Tales (1913), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1914), Charles Kingsley's The Water-Babies (1915) and Walter de la Mare's Peacock Pie (1916).

In the course of his work Heath Robinson also wrote and illustrated three children's books, The Adventures of Uncle Lubin (1902), Bill the Minder (1912) and Peter Quip in Search of a Friend (1922). Uncle Lubin is regarded as the start of his career in the depiction of unlikely machines. During the First World War he drew large numbers of cartoons, depicting ever-more-unlikely secret weapons being used by the combatants.

He also produced a steady stream of humorous drawings for magazines and advertisements. In 1934 he published a collection of his favourites as Absurdities, such as:

"The Wart Chair. A simple apparatus for removing a wart from the top of the head"
"Resuscitating stale railway scones for redistribution at the station buffets"
"The multimovement tabby silencer", which automatically threw water at serenading cats.
Most of his cartoons have since been reprinted many times in multiple collections.

The machines he drew were frequently powered by steam boilers or kettles, heated by candles or a spirit lamp and usually kept running by balding, bespectacled men in overalls. There would be complex pulley arrangements, threaded by lengths of knotted string. Robinson's cartoons were so popular that in Britain the term "Heath Robinson" is used to refer to an improbable, rickety machine barely kept going by incessant tinkering. (The corresponding term in the U.S. is Rube Goldberg, after an American cartoonist with an equal devotion to odd machinery. Similar "inventions" have been drawn by cartoonists in many countries, with the Danish Storm Petersen being on par with Robinson and Goldberg.)

One of his most famous series of illustrations was that which accompanied the Professor Branestawm books by Norman Hunter. The stories told of the eponymous professor who was brilliant, eccentric and forgetful and provided a perfect backdrop for Robinson's drawings.

One of the automatic analysis machines built for Bletchley Park during the Second World War to assist in the decryption of German message traffic was named "Heath Robinson" in his honour. It was a direct predecessor to the Colossus, the world's first programmable digital electronic computer.

He died in September 1944 during the Second World War.

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Edward Rogers (1911-1995)

Rogers was born in Wisbech, Lincolnshire, and was educated in Ely, Cambridgeshire. He began painting in 1937, having received no formal training. Until 1948 he produced mainly portraits and landscapes, then turned to coloured geometric abstract pictures and cut-metal sculptures. Rogers served in the Royal Air Force, 1940-45, and traveled extensively in Europe, India and Egypt. He held solo exhibitions at Drian Galleries, 1966, and Vincintoria Art Gallery, Brighton, 1968. BBC Southern Television made a film on his work, which is held by the Warsaw National Museum, Poland. Belgrave Gallery and Abbott and Holder latterly exhibited Rogers' work.

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Sunderland Rollison (1872-1950)

Sunderland Rollinson was born in Knaresborough in 1872, although his family moved to Scarborough shortly afterwards. He studied at Scarborough School of Art and at the Royal College of Art in London. He lived and taught in Edinburgh from 1904 to 1908, and in 1910 moved to Cottingham, East Yorkshire, where he took a teaching job at Hull College of Art. He taught at Hull for 28 years until his retirement in 1937. He lived for many years at 3 Market Green, Cottingham, which provided the scene for a number of his paintings. He also had a studio at 12 Princess Street, Scarborough.

In 1922 he married one of his students, Eleanor Malam, an accomplished artist and miniaturist in her own right.
Throughout his life he continued to paint the Humber estuary, the Yorkshire Wolds, Teesdale and Midlothian. His lavish plein-air technique owed much to the continental nineteenth-century tradition, which remained a staple part of reactionary painting in Britain in the first half of the twentieth century. He was also a skilled print-maker. He exhibited at the RA, the Paris Salon, the RSA and RBA. A retrospective exhibition of his work was held in the Borlase Gallery, Blewbury, in 1976. He was awarded the National Medal for Success in Art by the Science and Art Department in 1896 and 1897.

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Noel Rooke (1881 - 1953)

Printmaker, illustrator, painter and teacher, born and lived in London, son of the painter Thomas Matthews Rooke. After education partly in Chartres, France, Rooke studied at Slade School of Fine Art under Fred Brown, Philip Wilson Steer and Henry Tonks, 1899-1903, then at the Central School of Arts and Crafts with Edward Johnston and W R Lethaby. This set him up well to hold the position of head of book production at the Central, 1930-46. In addition, Rooke was president of the Double Crown Club, chairman of the NS and was a founder-member of SWE. Exhibited RE, NS, NEAC and abroad. He was a noted engraver on wood. whose work appeared in the Print Collectors' Quarterly. being held by the British Museum.

Rooke;Noel; ( 1872 - 1953 )

Noel Rooke was born in Bedford Park, London, where he lived all his life. His father was the watercolourist Thomas Matthews Rooke, who had acted as studio assistant to Edward Burne-Jones. In 1899, aged 18, he was employed by William Lethaby in the school holidays to make drawings of the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey. From then until 1903 he attended part-time art classes at the Slade School, and in 1904 joined R. J. Beedham's classes at the LCC School of Photoengraving and Lithography at Bolt Court. Dissatisfied with photo-mechanical process as a means of artistic expression, he resorted to wood engraving, having been encouraged by Lucien Pissarro to experiment with techniques including 'graduated' printing, woodcutting on the side-grain of boxwood, and colour printing. Since late 1899 he had been attending, with Eric Gill among others, Edward Johnston's revolutionary Writing and Illumination class at the Central School, and it was Johnston's principles of calligraphy which inspired him to make wood engravings on the same basis, in terms of the nature of the tools used. As a teacher he was largely responsible for raising the status of wood engraving as an independent graphic medium, but only after some opposition from within the School. From 1905 he was only able to teach woodcutting and wood engraving within book illustration classes, although in 1912 he was allowed to teach lettering and wood engraving in the Day Technical School. Despite being appointed Head of the School of Book Production, he was only finally able to establish a specific woodcutting and wood engraving class in 1920. He retired from the School in 1947. Rooke's campaign to revive the medium on 'autographic' principles provided the impetus to the modern wood engraving movement. He made a lasting impression on his pupils. In particular he played a vital role in encouraging them to break into the world of publishing and in persuading commercial publishers to recognize the value of the medium. As a result of his efforts, his own output was comparatively small, consisting of line drawn, watercolour, and wood-engraved illustration to a few books, and various individual prints and posters, several of which reflect his passion for mountains. He was a founder member of the Society of Wood Engravers in 1920 and in the same year was elected an Associate of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers. He was also Honorary Secretary of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. In 1932 he married one of his pupils, Celia Fiennes.

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William Rothenstein (1872-1945)

William Rothenstein was born into a Jewish family in Bradford, West Yorkshire and studied at the Slade School of Art (his teachers included Alphonse Legros) and in Paris, where he met and was encouraged by James McNeill Whistler and Edgar Degas. He was a friend of caricaturist and parodist Max Beerbohm. Rothenstein became known for his portrait drawings of famous individuals and was an official war artist in both World War I and World War II. He was a member of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers.

Rothenstein maintained a lifelong fascination for Indian sculpture and painting, and in 1910 set out on a seminal tour of the Subcontinent's major artistic and religious sites. This began with a visit to the ancient Buddhist caves of Ajanta, where he observed Lady Christiana Herringham and Nandalal Bose making watercolor copies of the ancient frescoes; and ended with a stay in Calcutta, where he witnessed the attempts of Abanindranath Tagore to revive the techniques and aesthetics of traditional Indian painting.

Rothenstein was Principal of the Royal College of Art from 1920 to 1935, where he encouraged figures including Jacob Epstein, U Ba Nyan, Henry Moore and Paul Nash. He wrote several books, including English Portraits (1898) and the autobiographical volumes, Men and Memories. He was knighted in 1931.

William Rothenstein was the father of art historian Sir John Rothenstein, who was the director of the Tate Gallery from 1938 to 1964, and the highly respected British printmaker Michael Rothenstein, whose divorce from Duffy Ayers caused a major controversy in British society.
Sir William Rothenstein, photo by George Charles Beresford, 1920

Rabindranath Tagore dedicated his Nobel Prize winner poetry collection Gitanjali to William Rothenstein.

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Cliff Rowe (1904-1989)

Artist and illustrator born in Wimbledon, south London. Rowe studied at Wimbledon School of Art, 1918-20 and the Royal College of Art, 1920-22. He was employed in advertising where he met R. O. Dunlop. and briefly became an exhibiting member of the short-lived Emotionist Group. However his strong social concerns led him towards the then burgeoning Communist party so he travelled to Russia and stayed in Moscow for a year and a half. While there he received commissions for book-jacket designs and even designed posters for the Red Army. Rowe returned to England and in 1934 helped establish the Artists' International Association, alongside James Fitton, James Boswell and others. Membership was to eventually reach more than 1000.

From the end of World War II Rowe's work included publicity poster commissions from the Labour government of Clement Attlee as well as trade unions, designs for the 1951 Festival of Britain, commercial mural design, exhibition design and text book illustration.The major part of Rowe's work however consists of large oil paintings, and the Tolpuddle Martyrs and General Strike murals commissioned by the Electrical Trades Union, then led by active members of the Communist Party. 

c. estate of Cliff Rowe

The People's History Museum, Manchester, the National Railway Museum, York, the Science Museum, London, New Walk Museum & Art Gallery, Leicester, Herbert Art Gallery and the Tate Gallery, London all hold examples of Rowe's work.

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Lillian May Bevis Rowles (Exh. 1914-18)

Commercial artist and illustrator, born Newport, Monmouthshire (nee Hall).  Studied at West Bromwich Municipal School of Art.  Married the artist Stanley Charles Rowles. Exhibited Royal Academy and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.  Lived Congleton, Cheshire.

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Kenneth Rowntree (1915-1997)

Painter, illustrator, artist in collage and murals, draughtsman and teacher, born in Scarborough, Yorkshire. He studied at the Ruskin School of Drawing, Oxford, under Albert Rutherston, 1934–35, and at the Slade under Randolph Schwabe. During World War II he participated in the Pilgrim Trust Recording Britain project and was an Official War Artist. He had his first one-man exhibition at Leicester Galleries in 1946; other one-man shows followed at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Zwemmer Gallery, New Art Centre, and the Laing Art Gallery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with a retrospective at Hatton Gallery there in 1980. In 1949 he became a tutor at RCA, a post he held until 1958. In 1959 he became Professor of Fine Arts, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, succeeding Lawrence Gowing; he held the position until 1980. In 1992 a touring retrospective was organinsed, starting in Newtown. Group shows included NEAC, AIA and RSW. He became a member of the Society of Mural Painters in 1943, taught mural painting at the Royal College of Art for 10 years from 1948, and received a Ford Foundation Grant to visit America in 1959. In 1948 he illustrated A Prospect of Wales. Murals completed include those for Barclay School, Stevenage, 1946, RMS Orsova and Iberia, 1954, and the British Pavilion at Brussels International Exhibition in 1958. In 1951 he painted murals for the Lion and Unicorn Pavilion at the Festival of Britain. Tate, Victoria & Albert Museum and WAC are among many public owners of his work. Rowntree’s pictures reflect the genial and witty nature of the artist, usually being landscapes and townscapes in which the elements have a toy-like neatness and familiar notations are employed. In the post-war years he also painted a considerable number of abstract (and semi-abstract) works. His work is sometimes signed with just his initials. He lived at Corbridge, Northumberland.

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Henry George Rushbury (1889-1968)

Henry George Rushbury [commonly known as Henry Rushbury; also known as Sir Henry Rushbury, and as Harry G. Rushbury] was born in Harbourne, near Birmingham, England, on 28 October 1889. 
He studied mural painting and stained glass at Birmingham College (School) of Art (1903-09), following which he worked as an assistant to A.B. Payne. 

Rushbury moved to London in 1912. 
During World War One he served as an official war artist (1918). After the war he studied briefly at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College London, under Henry Tonks and R.M. Catterton-Smith (1919).  

Henry Rushbury subsequently worked as a painter and etcher. He also designed posters for London & North Eastern Railway (LNER), London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) and British Railways (BR), and painted several pictures that were used as carriage prints by LNER in the 1930s and 1940s. In addition he designed at least one poster for Shell-Mex and BP Ltd. in c.1932, and illustrated at least four books - 'Paris' by Sidney Dark (London: MacMillan, 1926), 'Rome of the Renaissance and Today' by Renell Rodd (London: Macmillan & Co., 1932), 'Fenland Rivers: Impressions of the Fen Country' by Iris Wedgewood (London: Rich & Cowan, 1936) and 'The Story of the Horse' by A.J.R. Lamb (London: Alexander Maclehose & Co., 1938). 

From 1920 he travelled extensively and exhibited widely including at the Royal Academy, the New English Art Club, the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours, the Royal Society of Painters-Etchers and Engravers, the Goupil Gallery and the Fine Art Society in London, and Rome. Australia, Canada and New Zealand. 

During World War II Rushbury served again as an official war artist (1939). 
He was made a Royal Academician (RA) in 1936 and knighted for his services to art in 1964. He lived for many years in Lewes, East Sussex. His wife was the painter and embroiderer Florence Lazelle (aka Florence Rushbury, 1896-1981).  
Henry Rushbury lived in London, Sussex and Essex. He died in Lewes, Sussex on 5 July 1968.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Frederick Sandys (1832-1904)

Painter and illustrator born in Norwich as Antonio Frederick Augustus Sands. He received his earliest art instruction from his father himself an artist and in 1846 Frederick Sandys as he was known attended theNorwich School of Design. 
He had begun by drawing for Once a Week, the Cornhill Magazine, Good Words and other periodicals and as no books have been traced that he has illustrated, it is assumed that he only drew in the magazines. 
Early in the 1860’s he began to exhibit the paintings which were to make him famous and for a time he shared a house in Chelsea with his friend Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Sandys painted oils much in the Pre-Raphaelite style, his work being characterised by the superiority of its draughtsmanship and a proclivity for femmes fatales. Sandys's sister Emma Sandys was also an artist of some repute. Never a prolific exhibitor he did however show at the FAS, Walkert Art Gallery, NG, RP,RA and ISSPG.  

Examples of his work are located in the collections of Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Bradford Art Gallery, Norwich Art Gallery, Birmingham Art Gallery andManchester City Art Gallery. He became known as a heavy drinker and gambler and his popularity as an artist was declining whilst his family was steadily increasing and money was tight. What little there was, Sandys often gambled away. Eventually he was declared bankrupt in 1873 to the then huge sum of £4948 which is equivalent to nearly half a million pounds in 2014. This was not to be the only time as notices of his bankruptcy appeared again in 1884 and 1899.

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Maurice de Sausmarez (1915-1969)

Painter, teacher and writer on art education who, after attending Christ's Hospital, studied at the Royal College of Art. Among his teaching positions, he was principal of Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting and Head of the Department of Fine Art at Leeds University. He participated in the Pilgrim Trust Recording Britain project. Among his writings was the book Basic Design, which had a revolutionary effect on art education in many parts of the world. He showed at the RA, LG, NEAC and Leicester Galleries and was elected ARA in 1963. In 1971 Homage to Maurice de Sausmarez at Upper Grosvenor Galleries included work by him and his friends. He was highly influential as a teacher: amongst his better-known students is Bridget Riley. His works are held by the Victoria and Albert Museum and by several northern galleries. He was a Chelsea Arts Club member who lived finally in London.

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Rudolph Sauter (1895–1977)

Painter, printmaker, illustrator and poet. Father was Georg Sauter, an artist from Bavaria. During WW1 Rudolph was interned at Alexandra Palace, (from 1918-19), on account of the fact that his father Georg (who had already been interned in Prison in Wakefield in 1919) was German by birth. His mother was Lilian Galsworthy, daughter of John Galsworthy, the novelist and creator of The Forsyte Saga. Rudolph developed strong literary interests and illustrated John Galsworthy's works. He painted a portrait of Galsworthy in 1927. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours and the Pastel Society. When his work was shown at the Salon in Paris, he was awarded an Honourable Mention. His work was shown widely in the provinces and in America. He had one-man shows in London and New York.

His work is held by the National Portrait Gallery, the RWA and the Ferens Art Gallery in Hull. Much of his work was destroyed by a fire in the 1980s. There is a significant collection in private hands in South Africa. Although mostly a figurative painter, late in life he did a series of pastel abstracts. He celebrated his eightieth birthday with a glider flight. He lived at FORT WILLIAM, Butterow, near Stroud, Gloucestershire.

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Randolph Schwabe (1885-1948)

Influential teacher, draughtsman and printmaker, especially of urban subjects, illustrator and designer. Born in Manchester, Schwabe studied briefly at the Royal College of Art, Slade School of >Fine Art, 1900-5, and at Académie Julian, Paris, 1906. Official War Artist I, making drawings of the Women’s Land Army. Went on to teach at Camberwell and Westminster Schools of Art. Was drawing master at the Royal College of Art, and then succeeded Henry Tonks as Slade Professor and head of the Slade School of Art, 1930, an apt choice, as Schwabe’s exact draughtsmanship was firmly in the Slade tradition. Schwabe was a prolific exhibitor at NEAC and Goupil Gallery, also showing at Carfax Gallery, Fine Art Society, Leicester Galleries and RW. Tate Gallery holds his work. Among the books Schwabe illustrated were Walter de la Mare’s Crossing, 1921, several books by the writer on dance Cyril Beaumont and H E Bates’ The Tinkers of Elstow, 1946. A large retrospective as held at Chris Beetles in 1994. Lived finally at Helensburgh, Dunbartonshire.


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William George Scott (1913-1989)

Painter and printmaker born in Greenock, Scotland but as a child moved to Enniskillen, Northern Ireland in 1924. He attended Belfast College of Art, 1928-31 and at the RA Schools, 1931-35. In 1937 Bill Scott travelled and lived in France where he assisted in the running of an art school in Pont-Aven, Brittany. During World War II he served with the Royal Engineers and held his first solo exhibition at the Leger Galleries in 1942. Scott taught at Bath Academy, Corsham 1946-56 where he met many of the St. Ives artist such as Roger Hilton, Terry Frost, Peter Lanyon, Bryan Winter and Patrick Heron. With most of them he became associated with the Constructionism movement of the 1950's. He went on to teach at the RCA and travelled and taught in America and Canada. His paintings of still lifes in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s led on to an experimentation with pure abstract painting. This was later discarded for an arrangement of simple minimalist shapes on a flat ground which are somewhat reminiscent of pots, pans and other household items.

Scott represented Britain in the Venice Biennale, 1958 and in 1959 he was awarded first prize at the 2nd John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. From 1963-65 he held the position of Ford Foundation artist-in-residence in Berlin, he was appointed CBE in 1966 and in 1977 he was elected an Associate of the RA and a full member in 1984. Museums and collections around the world have examples of his work. These include the Brighton and Hove Museums and Art Galleries, Dublin City Gallery, Fitzwilliam Museum, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Jerwood Foundation, Lancaster University Art Gallery, Leicestershire County Council, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Tate Gallery, Towner Art Gallery, Trinity College, Dublin, Ulster Museum, where he was given a retrospective in 1972 and the Victoria Art Gallery and the Guggenheim Museum, New York.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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John Sergeant (1937 - 2010)

John Sergeant was born in London in 1937. The family moved to Faversham in Kent after being bombed out in the war. He studied at Canterbury College of Art 1954-57. He met John Ward in 1958 and entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1959, winning the Drawing Prize in his final year in 1962. In the same year he married a fellow Royal Academy Schools student, now the painter Carolyn Sergeant, and from this time until 1969 taught at Canterbury College of Art and Dover and Folkestone Schools of Art and also carried out his own commissioned works while occasionally assisting John Ward. In 1981, inspired by the Interiors exhibition at Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox, he concentrated for two years on commissions for interiors including Castle Coole, Stowell Park and Deene Park before deciding on a major change in routine, moving to Wales in 1983. He held one-man exhibitions at the Maas Gallery in 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1992. In November 1994 he exhibited with Jehan Daly and John Ward in Three Contemporary Masters at Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox; further, (solo) exhibitions were held there in November 1996 and November 2000. A one-man show was held at the Fine Art Society, London, in November 2002.

John Sergeant also exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, the Victoria & Albert Museum, the New Grafton Gallery, the Trafford Gallery, the National Museum and Gallery of Wales, Cardiff, and the Royal Library, Windsor. While at Agnews in 1987, his work was included in The Long Perspective - Works for the National Trust.

The National Trust owns a series of his drawings at Erddig, and the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, has a drawing in black conte crayon, Collars, acquired in 1994.

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Carolyn Sergeant (1937-2018)

Carolyn Sergeant studied at Wimbledon School of Art from 1955 to 1959 and at the Royal Academy Schools from 1959 to 1962 where she was a silver medallist and met and later married her fellow student the artist John Sergeant. She has had solo exhibitions in London at the Waterhouse Gallery in 1969 and 1971 and the Waterman Gallery in 1994 before her first exhibition at Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox in May 1997, with further shows at the gallery in May 1999 and May 2001. In 1992 she held a solo exhibition at the Brian Sinfield Gallery in Burford and her pictures have been included in mixed exhibitions at the Leicester Galleries, Roland, Browse & Delbanco, and in numerous galleries in the provinces. In 2003 she had a solo exhibition at the Fine Art Society, London.

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Percy Shakespeare (1906-1943)

Shakespeare trained at Dudley Art School and later studied and then taught at Birmingham School of Art. His carefully organised, flatly painted compositions in oils, in which great attention was paid to the outline silhouette of each individual figure, were exhibited at the RA between 1934 and his death in an air raid. He also exhibited at the Paris Salon and the RBSA. In spite of his early demise his oeuvre has undeniable charm - his essentially suburban, and peculiarly English, compositions are drenched with colour and light and despite sometimes appearing to verge on caricature are usually carried off with great panache. Selected Literature Robin Shaw, Percy Shakespeare: Dudley's Painter of the Thirties, published by Robin Shaw (ISBN 0953912604), 2000.

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Charles Haslewood Shannon (1863-1937)

Painter and lithographer, born near Sleaford, Lincolnshire. Shannon studied at Lincoln School of Art and at Lambeth School of Art, 1882, where he met his lifelong friend Charles Ricketts with whom he ran the Vale Press, 1896-1904 and founded The Dial magazine, which ran from 1889-97. During early 20th century, his work was also featured in The Venture, an obscure short-lived art periodical of the period. He was greatly interested in Venetian art, he tried in his own paintings to revive their techniques by the use of rich, glowing colour. As a result, his classical and figure subjects have the air of Old Masters but not always the confidence. Shannon exhibited at the Baillie Gallery, Carfax Gallery, Cooling Galleries, Fine Art Society, Grosvenor Gallery, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Goupil Gallery, International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Leicester Galleries, Manchester Academy of Fine Arts, New English Art Club, New Gallery, RA, Royal Society of British Artists, Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers, Royal Society of Portrait Painters, Royal Hibernian Academy, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, Royal Institute of Oil Painters and at the Royal Scottish Academy.  

Charles Shannon who held his first solo exhibition at the Leicester Galleries in 1907 was elected an Associate of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers in 1891 and Royal Academy in 1920. Shannon became disabled in 1928 after a fall while hanging a picture, and the resulting neurological damage caused amnesia and ended his career. Examples of his work are in the collections Aberdeen Art Gallery, Ashmolean, Bristol City Art Gallery, British Museum, Cheltenham Art Gallery, Dublin City Gallery, Fitzwilliam Museum, Glasgow Museums, Herbert Art Gallery, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, Leighton House Museum, Manchester City Galleries, National Museums Liverpool, National Portrait Gallery, Northampton Museum and Art Gallery, Nottingham City Museums and Galleries, Paisley Art Institute, Potteries Museum and Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery, Usher Art Gallery, Watts Gallery and the William Morris Museum.

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Edward W Sharland (1884-1967)

Edward W. Sharland was an graphic artist who specialised in etchings. These were exhibited in Liverpool, Bristol and at the Royal West of England Academy and the Royal Academy.   His etchings include scenes of cities in France, Italy, Spain, Belgium and Holland as well as views of London, Liverpool, Manchester and Bristol.

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Raymond Sheppard (1913 - 1958)

Raymond Sheppard; Artist in water-colour, black and white, oil, pastel; Born London 3 March 1913; son of Edward and Annie Sheppard.  

Married Iris Gale on December 3rd 1942; had one daughter Christine born 17 March 1944, and one son Michael born 25th July 1946.  Educated Christ’s College, Finchley, north west London.

Studied art at Bolt Court under S.G. Boxsius.

Exhibited: R.A; R.I; R.S.A;  Work reproduced regularly in publications including Lilliput ; The Studio, Picture Post, John Bull, Everybody’s ; in children’s books, nature books and calendars.

Raymond Sheppard produced many studies of birds and animals from life, mainly at Regents Park Zoo and was made a Fellow of the Zoological Society in 1949. He also painted landscapes, family portraits, in watercolour, oil, and pastels . He was a founder member of the Wapping Arts Group, a group of artists who sketched and painted by and around the river Thames in London, which was formed just before WW2 but did not start in earnest until 1946.

Publications: How to Draw Birds (first published by Studio in 1940), Drawing at the Zoo (1949 Studio), More Birds to Draw (Studio 1956).
Lived in Kenton and then Harrow Weald, Middx.
Clubs: Chelsea Arts, Langham Sketch.

Raymond Sheppard died in London of cancer in 1958 with which he had battled since 1949. He also served in the RAF photographic section during the WW2. Despite long periods of ill health and the interruption of the War years he was, nevertheless, prolific in demonstrating his wide range of artistic ability as a master draughtsman, illustrator, and landscape and wildlife artist..

 Had Raymond Sheppard lived beyond his mid 40s his reputation
as one of the foremost illustrators of his generation might have
been secured – his premature death resulted in his name sinking
into obscurity for half a century.
Only his prolific career as an illustrator (nearly 100 children’s
books in the single decade following the end of WW2) has prevented
his name from disappearing altogether and secured him a
credible place in the standard reference works of the period. What
has never been appreciated before is the remarkable diversity of
Raymond Sheppard’s oeuvre. Aside from his more familiar studies
of wildlife his studio has revealed a series of remarkable portraits,
thrilling boy’s-own period illustrations, plein air seascapes,
landscapes, views of the Thames and surreal compositions, which
at times verge on abstraction. All have in common Sheppard’s
stated aim to express his inner emotion:
“...that peculiar, unexplainable tightening inside that makes you
want to laugh sometimes, sometimes to sing and dance for joy, and
sometimes just a little sad.

To read the full text, download the catalogue here :

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George Henry Sheringham (1884-1937)

Painter and theatrical designer, born in Marylebone, London. He entered the Slade School of Fine Art where he studied between 1899-1901, furthering his studies privately with artist Harry Becker, 1901-04. Sheringham spent time in Paris where he held his first solo exhibition in 1905 before travelling to Algeria, Portugal, Belgium and in Brittany. On his return to Britain he held his first show in London at the Brook Street Art Gallery in 1908 and earned his living designing posters and teaching. In 1910 he staged his first showing of decorative fans and silk panels at the Ryder Gallery to great acclaim by the Studio Magazine and thereafter launched a successful career as a decorative designer, theatrical designer and illustrator. He was a member of the Pastel Society and by 1915 had begun to illustrate books. 
In 1924 he began a long association with theatre impresario Nigel Playfair at London's Lyric Theatre which in turn led to commissions for other theatre venues including the D’Oyly Carte Opera Company. 
His poster designs were commissioned by London Transport and in 1931 he was responsible for the decoration of Claridges Ballroom. After 1932 ill-health led him to concentrate on still-life painting. 

His other exhibiting venues included Chenil Gallery, Fine Art Society, Goupil Gallery, International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Leicester Galleries, Manchester Academy of Fine Arts, Paris Salon, Royal Academy, Redfern Gallery, Ridley Art Club, Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers, Royal Institute of Oil Painters, Royal Scottish Academy and Walker's Gallery. Sheringham was one of the first recipients of the Royal Designers for Industry award in 1937 and examples of his work are held in the collections of Bewdley Museum, British Museum, Fitzwilliam Museum, Gallery Oldham, Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Laing Art Gallery, Nottingham City Museums and Galleries, Southampton Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Museum and abroad. Sheringham married the artist Harriett Sibyl Meugens.

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Walter Richard Sickert (1860-1942)

Painter and etcher who was born in Munich, Germany, the son of a Danish-German artist Oswald Adalbert Sickert (1828-1885) and the elder brother of artist Bernard Sickert. The family moved to England in 1868 and after a brief career as an actor in a repertory company, Sickert studied at the Slade, 1881-82 and afterwards worked as an assistant to Whistler. He also attended Heatherley's School of Fine Art, 1908-12 and again from 1915-18. Sickert went on to become an influential teacher at Westminster School of Art.
Degas was to prove a crucial influence and Sickert became obsessed, less with style than with method and the construction of a picture. His cosmopolitan background and desire to teach made him an influential figure and after periods abroad in Venice and Dieppe, he returned to London and founded the Fitzroy Street Group which in 1911 changed its name to the Camden Town Group. Sickert believed that poetry and beauty could be found in the overlooked and often grimy run-down corners of London, in seedy lodging house interiors and the back streets of Camden. 
He was particularly fond of music halls and the working-class culture they encouraged and some of this phase of his work was reproduced in Colour Magazine. His work was also seen in Coterie magazine and Art & Letters. Sickert was made an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1924 and a full member a decade later. His late work made use of photography for his subject matter and this phase of his work is often derided.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Joseph Simpson (1879-1939)

Painter, illustrator and printmaker who was born and educated in Carlisle and who studied at the Glasgow School of Art, before moving to London in 1905. 
He in initially designed posters and was soon befriended and encouraged by Frank Brangwyn. 
Simpson exhibited at the Baillie Gallery, Brook Street Art Gallery, Fitzwilliam Museum, GI, ISSPG, Walker Art Gallery, Leicester Galleries, London Salon, RBA who elected him a member in 1908, RSA and RSW. 
He was an Official War Artist with the RAF in World War I. 

Works by Simpson are in the collections of the Ashmolean Museum, Hunterian, IWM, Scottish National Portrait Gallery and Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery. 

Bibliography: The Etched Work of Joseph Simpson by H. Granville Fell. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons, London, 1932

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Charles Sims (1873-1928)

Sims painted portraits, landscapes, and decorative paintings. He was one of that group of artists who continued to treat symbolic and romantic themes after the First World War.

He received his art education in London in the South Kensington and Royal Academy Schools, and in Paris in the ateliers of Julian and Baschet. His continental training probably accounts for his fluent handling of paint, and his confident treatment of space and atmosphere. These qualities rapidly gained him critical and academic success. A picture was bought for the Paris gallery of modern art, the Luxemburg, in 1897 and for the public gallery in Sydney, Australia in 1902. He held a highly successful one man show at the Leicester Gallery in 1906, and 'The Fountain' was bought for the Chantrey Bequest in 1908. Academic honours followed. He was elected Associate of the Royal Academy in 1908, Associate of the Royal Watercolour Society in 1911, Member of the Royal Watercolour Society in 1914 and Royal Academician in 1915. He became keeper of the Royal Academy Schools in 1920.

The First World War proved to be a traumatic experience for Sims, from which he never recovered. His eldest son was killed and he was unbalanced by what he witnessed in France where he was sent as a war artist in 1918. His subsequent paintings often show signs of the mental disturbance which led him to resign his post at the Royal Academy Schools in 1926. In 1928, Sims committed suicide. A study of his life by one of his sons appeared in 1934, and a selection of his work appeared in the Last Romantics exhibition (Barbican Art Gallery, London 1989).


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John Skeaping (1901-1980)

John Skeaping was an English sculptor and equine painter. 
Born in South Woodford, Essex, Skeaping studied at Goldsmith's College, London, and later at the Royal Academy. In 1924 he won the British Prix de Rome and its scholarship to the British School at Rome. 

Skeaping was the first husband of the sculptor Barbara Hepworth, with whom he exhibited during the 1920s. He was a member of the London Group, worked in Mexico. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1960. He latterly lived in Devon near the village of Chagford and moved to the Camargue, France in 1959. 
A BBC documentary One Pair of Eyes - John Skeaping (1970) directed by David Cobham was produced for BBC TV during Skeaping's time there. The Tate Gallery owns eight works by Skeaping.

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Edwin Smith (1912-1971)


Photographer, architect, writer, painter, draughtsman and printmaker, born in poor circumstances in London, leaving school aged 12. While at a trade school became interested in architecture and won a scholarship to the Architectural Association. Smith became known, however, mainly as a photographer. His name appeared on about 4 volumes published internationally, and many shows of his prints have been held, for example at the Plymouth Art Centre and Brighton Festival in 1985. Edwin Smith also made two films for Samaritan Films, one on Rembrandt, the other on the Pre-Raphaelites. Smith wrote several books on photography and public collections, including Victoria & Albert Museum, hold his work. During his life only a few friends knew that Smith regarded himself mainly as an artist. Although he produced a huge volume of oils, watercolours, drawings an prints, it was after his death that exhibition bean to give some idea of his achievement. Shows included House Gallery, 1978 and 1980, Church Street Gallery in Saffron Walden, 1985, Clare College in Cambridge, in 1986, and in 1987 Smith’s pictures and photographs were include in a Paradise Lost at Barbican Art Gallery. His wife, the artist and writer Olive Cook, wrote that Smith “captured the joy and immediacy of the fleeting visual experience” in some work, in other “recollected images irradiated by an inner apocalyptic private vision”. Smith settled in Saffron Hunter Fine Art gave Smith a series of posthumous exhibitions.

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Alan Sorrell (1904-1974)

Alan Sorrell (1904-1974) attended the Royal College of Art in the mid-1920s during a period which saw the emergence of talents such as Edward Bawden, Eric Ravilious, John Piper, Henry Moore and Barnett Freedman. Although Sorrell’s work has been less well documented his talent was comparable to that of artists more usually associated with the RCA’s formidable reputation during the interwar years.
What were Sorrell’s achievements and how should he be remembered by posterity? During his life Sorrell produced a vast cycle of murals (nearly 20 over a 30-year period). When exhibited for the first time in a generation at the British Murals show organized by Liss Fine Art at The Fine Art Society (London), William Packer described Sorrell’s recently rediscovered Festival of Britain mural as ‘utterly enchanting’ and ‘quite the star of the entire show’, (The Times 2.3.2013 p 91).
Another aspect of Sorrell’s oeuvre which deserves greater recognition are the paintings he produced during WW2. Like many artists of the period, such as Sir Thomas Monnington, Sorrell’s direct experience as an airman resulted in a new perspective – broad horizons and tilted aerial views which were to become the hallmark of his post-war reconstruction drawings. Never an Official War Artist he was able to choose his subjects with relative freedom which resulted in an engaging record of daily life in wartime Britain.
Sorrell’s work as a pre-war artist is relatively little known. Trained at Southend before starting to work as a commercial artist Sorrell subsequently took up a scholarship at the RCA (1924) – an association later strengthened by his period as a teacher there (1931-48). In between he spent two years at the British School at Rome on a Scholarship.
Almost no work survives from Sorrell’s period as an RCA student other than the preparatory drawings with which he competed for his 1928 Rome Scholarship. The RCA archives for this period are much depleted (probably having been destroyed in the war), as a result of which it is hard to gain a fuller picture of this formative period of his life. An equally small body of work has survived from his two years in Rome though his early self-portrait (November 1928) – a masterly fusion of nagging self-doubt and youthful self confidence – hints at the emerging power of his talent. Sorrell recorded his time at the British School at Rome in an unpublished typescript titled Barbarians in Rome in which he paints a vivid picture of life at the school during the years 1928-30.
Returning from Rome in 1930, Sorrell produced some very fine works: Artist in the Campagna (c. 1931), Appian Way (1932), Rocky Formation at Thingvellir (1934), The Long Journey (1936), A Land Fit for Heros (1936). Sorrell’s vision was born out of the Romantic British tradition exemplified by Blake, Palmer and their 20th-century disciples.
Sorrell is principally remembered today as an illustrator of articles on archaeology for The Illustrated London News and books ranging from Roman Britain to The Holy Bible, (more than 15 books over a period of 40 years, the last Reconstructing the Past appearing posthumously in 1981) and for reconstruction drawings for the Ministry of Works – later English Heritage. Through these projects Sorrell played a unique role at a crucial moment in the development of archaeology as a discipline helping it develop from non-specialist to rigorous professional activity. The pioneering archaeologists he worked with read like a roll call of honour: Cyril and Ailen Fox, Dr Kathleen Kenyon, Professor Brian Emery, Mortimer Wheeler, Leonard Woolley, V. E. Nash-Williams, Ian Richmond, James Mellaart, Shepherd Frere and Philip Rahtz. For this and subsequent generations of archaeologists Sorrell’s work holds a special fascination. Out of context some of these drawings can appear dated, but the majority are infused with the qualities of Sorrell’s most evocative work – composed from a dynamic panoramic viewpoint full of imaginative details. This area of specialization, where Sorrell was successful in avoiding the predictable or formulaic, was not a cul de sac into which he withdrew from the artistic mainstream. Sorrell was acutely aware of contemporary issues and the same rigorous approach also inspired his remarkable series of drawings recording the construction of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station (from October 1957 to 1965). A photograph of Sorrell recording the Nuclear Reactor No 4 makes a poignant pair to the photograph of the same period which shows him sketching at Stonehenge.
Sorrell continued to develop his vision consistently over a highly productive half century. His journey was not always easy. Struggling at times financially he also suffered rejection and disappointment – the War Artists Committee turned down his application to become an Official War Artist; he was dismissed from his teaching post at the RCA by Robin Darwin (1948) and failed in his subsequent application to become head of Winchester Art School. And as late as 1964, when he was put forward for election to the RA by John Ward, his candidature was rejected. He was a man of principle: when serving in the RAF he staged a ‘one man mutiny’, refusing to work on terrain models of cities he considered to be of ‘irreplaceable artistic importance’. He was an active environmentalist campaigning in Essex in the mid-1950s to protect local fields, woodlands and hedgerows from urban development.
Sorrell made numerous journeys to distant lands, painting in Iceland (1934), Greece and Turkey (1954), Egypt and the Sudan (1962) where he travelled with a specially made canvas bag designed to stop his materials melting in the sun. A latter-day Holman Hunt, and with some of Holman Hunt’s heroism (!), he faithfully recorded scenes in situ including a remarkable series of over sixty drawings of the villages around Nubia threatened by the building of the High Dam at Aswan (1962). In other pictures his journeys were imagined, dramatic fantasies of falling towers, or trains rushing over viaducts.
As an epitaph for ‘England’s Early Sculptors’ John Piper used a thirteenth century chronicle by Peter Langtoft: ‘the wander wit of Wiltshire’ went to Rome to study the antiquities, but when the antiquaries learnt that he had never seen Stonehenge they sent him back to find inspiration in his own country. This story has a certain resonance with Sorrell’s own artistic journey and ultimately his success in forging a vision which responded to both legacies.

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Willi Soukop (1907-1995)

Willi Soukop, RA (5 January 1907 - 8 February 1995) was a sculptor, member of the Royal Academy and early teacher of Elisabeth Frink.
Wilhelm Joseph Soukop was the son of a Moravian shoemaker whose horrific experiences in the First World War led to a mental breakdown and his disappearance immediately following the war’s end.
From an early age Soukop had to work in a factory, attending evening classes at the arts and crafts school in Vienna before managing to get into the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna (1928–1934).
In 1934 he met an English woman who invited him to England. He moved to a studio at Dartington Hall, Devon, and, 1935–45, taught part-time at Dartington Art School and at Blundell's School (apart from nine months in 1940 when, because of his Austrian citizenship, he was interned in Canada). Soukop married and moved to London in 1945, teaching at Bromley College of Art (1945-6), Guildford College of Art (1945-7) and Chelsea Art College (1947–72) schools of art.
Soukop was a member of the Faculty of Sculpture at the British School in Rome, 1952–75, and was Master of Sculpture at the Royal Academy schools, 1969-82. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1935 onwards; his Owl, shown in 1963, was bought by the Tate Gallery under the terms of the Chantrey Bequest. His work was included in the 1949 and 1950 open-air sculpture exhibitions at Battersea Park, and he had a solo exhibition at the Yehudi Menuhin School, Cobham, 1979, and a major retrospective at the Belgrave Gallery, 1991.
Soukop was elected to the Royal Society of British Artists in 1950, made a Fellow of the Royal Society of British Sculptors in 1956, Associate of the Royal Academy in 1963 and elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1969.

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John Bulloch Souter (1890-1972)

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker and restorer, born in Aberdeen, Scotland. Trained at Gray's School of Art Aberdeen and the Alan Fraser School of Art, Arbroath. A travelling scholarship allowed to him to work extensively on the continent, where he was especially influenced by Velasquez, Chardin, and Vermeer. During World War I he served as non-combatant in Royal Medical Corps, then married and moved to London. By this time he had established himself as an RA exhibitor, and in the period after the war he made a name as a portrait painter, his subjects including stage personalities such as Ivor Novello, Gladys Cooper and Fay Compton as well as notables in public and academic life. In 1926 Souter's picture The Breakdown caused a stir at RA, depicting a negro jazz musician, a naked white girl dancer and a broken classic statue. Souter consolidated his reputation with exhibits at the Redfern Gallery, Fine Art Society, RSA and elsewhere. In World War II he worked in the Censorship Department, London, as a translator and restored paintings at Windsor Castle. In 1952 he returned to Aberdeen. His work is in public collections in Edinburgh and Manchester.

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Joseph Southall (1861–1944)

Southall was born in Nottingham of Quaker parents, and was taken by his mother to Birmingham when his father died the following year. In i874 he entered the Friends' School. Bootham, where he was taught painting by Edwin Moore (brother of Albert and Henry). Four years later he joined the Birmingham firm of architects, Martin and Chamberlain, but in 1882 he left to concentrate on painting, attending the Birmingham School of Art where he met A J Gaskin, henceforth his closest friend, and other members of the Birmingham Group. About the same time he set­tied at 13 Charlotte Road, Edgbaston, his home for the rest of his life. In 1883 he spent eight weeks in Italy, absorbing the early masters, and on his return he began to experiment with tempera. Meanwhile, through an uncle, he had made the acquaintance of Ruskin, who commissioned him to design a museum for the Guild of St George at Bewdlev (1885); this came to nothing but took him again to Italy. He also received encouragement from W B Richmond and Burne Jones, to whom he paid visits in London (1893-7). In 1895 he began to exhibit at the RA (Car. 72), showing there till 1942, while also support­ing the New Gallery (1897-19o9), the RBSA (Associ­ate 1898. member 1902) and the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society shows (1899-1923). In 1901, together with J D Batten, Walter Crane and others, he helped to found the Society of Painters in Tempera, and he was undoubtedly the single most important exponent of the tempera revival. Though never, like so many members of the Birmingham Group, on the staff of the local Art School, he gave lessons on tempera painting in his Edgbaston studio and lectured on the subject widely. As well as literary figure subjects, he painted genre scenes, portraits and landscapes; his wife Anna Elizabeth, a first cousin whom he married in 19o3, appears in many of his pictures, and often helped to decorate their elaborate gilded frames. Southall was a leading figure among Birmingham Quakers, a Socialist and pacifist; he campaigned vigorously against the conduct of the Great War, during which he painted the fresco of 'Cor­poration Street, Birmingham, in March 1914', on the stair­case of the Birmingham Art Gallery, (completed in 1916). In later life he joined the NEAC and RWS (1925), participated in joint exhibitions with other Birmingham and tempera painters, held a number of one-man shows (notably at the Alpine Club 1922), and, building on the success of an exhibition at the Galeries Georges Petit in Paris in 1910, established a considerable inter­national reputation. He and his wife paid frequent visits to Italy, sometimes with Charles and Margaret Gere; also to France, Southwold and Fowey, where he found many subjects. In 1933 he was appointed Professor of Painting at the RBSA (President 1939), and in 1937 began a fresco in the Council House. It was not, however, completed; that August he under­went a major operation and never fully recovered, dying in 1944. A memorial exhibition was held at Bir­mingham, the RWS and Bournemouth the following year.

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Francis Spear (1902-1979)

Francis Howard Spear was born on 22nd December 1902 in South Norwood, south London.

He attended the LCC School of Arts and Crafts (which became the Central School of Arts and Design), he successfully passed Parts 1 and 2 of the Board of Education's Examination in Industrial Design, specialising in stained glass in 1923.
While studying at the Central School in 1922, he became pupil-assistant to Martin Travers, the leading English pratitioner of stained glass.

Spear won a National Scholarship to the Royal College of Art in 1923, with a chosen specialism stained glass.

Francis Spear is an important, though not now well-know, figure in twentieth century English stained glass. His working career covers 50 years, from 1922 when he began working with Martin Travers, to 1972, when he ceased teaching at Reigate School of Art.

During his career, he designed some notable windows, and a short list would include his earliest window, at Warwick School (1925), St. Olave's in the City (1929), Snaith (1936), Beckenham (1948), Canterbury (1949), Glasgow Cathedral (1951, 1953, 1958), Highbury (1955), Westgate (1960) and Penarth (1962)

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Harold Edward Speed (1872-1957)

Painter, born in London who studied at the National Art Training School (later the RCA) and the RA Schools where he won a travelling scholarship and spent a year in Italy, also visiting Paris and Vienna. His first solo exhibition was held at Leicester Galleries, London in 1907 and he showed extensively at venues that included Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, Baillie Gallery, Chenil Gallery, Fine Art Society, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, London Salon, Manchester Academy of Fine Arts, New English Art Club, New Gallery, Royal Society of Portrait Painters, Royal Academy, Royal Society of British Artists, Royal Cambrian Academy, Royal Hibernian Academy, Ridley Art Club, Royal Institute of Oil Painters and at the Royal Scottish Academy. He was an excellent academic painter and executed murals at the Royal Academy restaurant. Speed taught for many years at Goldsmiths' College and his interest in craft work resulted in his election as a Master at the Art Workers' Guild in 1916.

Examples of his work are in the collections of Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, Derby Museum and Art Gallery, Grundy Art Gallery, Leamington Spa Art Gallery, Manchester City Galleries, Museums Sheffield, National Museums Northern Ireland, National Portrait Gallery, National Trust, Northampton Museum and Art Gallery, Richmond Museum, N. Yorkshire, Southampton Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Museum and Wolverhampton Arts and Heritage.

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Vera Spencer (1926-)

Painter and Designer, born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, who arrived in England aged 10 and studied at Slade School of Fine Art and Central School of Textile Design. She was included in any important mixed shows of abstract work, including one at AIA, 1951; Collages and Objects, at ICA, 1954; and Groupe Espace at Royal Festival Hall, 1955. She was part of Belgrave Gallery's 1992 survey British abstract art of the 50's and 60s. Spencer 's solo shows included Galerie Appollinaire, 1948; Galerie Arnaud, Paris, 1952; Conran Furniture, 1953; and Elisabeth Gallery, Coventry, 1968. Spencer showed three works in Coventry and Warwickshire Society of Artists show at Herbert Art gallery and Museum, Coventry, in 1963

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Stanley Spencer (1891-1959)

Painter of portraits, landscapes and imaginative, visionary, quirky works with a Biblical flavour set in his native Cookham, Berkshire. He studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1908-12, where he was awarded a Scholarship in 1910 and won the Summer Composition Prize two years later. He exhibited at Roger Fry's Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition in 1912. During service in the Army in World War I he was commissioned to paint a picture for the Imperial War Museum. He served as an Official War Artist during World War II, painting ship-building at Port Glasgow, Scotland. After the war Spencer travelled on occasion in Europe, although his work remained largely unaffected by any influence from the continent. He was the brother of the artist Gilbert Spencer and was married first to the painter Hilda Carline, then to the painter Patricia Preece. He decorated the oratory of All Souls, Burghclere, 1926-32, with his memories of the Macedonian campaign. His first one-man show was held at the Goupil Gallery In 1927. He was elected RA in 1950 and knighted in 1959. His work is held in many international collections, including the Tate and the Stanley Spencer Gallery, opened in Cookham three years after he died at Taplow, Buckinghamshire. There have been several retrospective exhibitions: a memorial show was held in Plymouth in 1963, a full retrospective at the Royal Academy in 1980, and a major appraisal at the Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, in America, in 1997-98

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Gilbert Spencer (1892-1979)

Painter, especially of landscapes, draughtsman, teacher and writer, and brother of the painter Stanley Spencer. Born at Cookham, Berkshire. Spencer studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, woodcarving at the Royal College of Art, 1911-12, then with Fred Brown and Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1913-20. Between 1915 and 1919 he served in the army. Spencer had his first one-man show at the Goupil Gallery in 1923; he also exhibited at the RA (he was elected RA in 1960), NEAC, (of which he was a member), Leicester Galleries, RSA, Redfern Gallery and many other venues. Although he produced notable wall paintings for Holywell Manor, Oxford, 1934-6, Spencer made his name as a landscape artist working mainly in the English southern counties. At various times he taught at the Royal College of Art, Glasgow School of Art and Camberwell, serving meanwhile as an Official War Artist, 1940-3. His book Stanley Spencer appeared in 1961 and his autobiography, Memoirs of a Painter, in 1974. A retrospective exhibition was held at Reading in 1964. The Tate and many other public collections hold his work. He sometimes just signed his work GS. He lived in Hampstead and towards the end of his life near Reading, Berkshire.

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Humphrey Spender (1910-2005)

Painter, pencil draughtsman, photographer, designer and teacher, born in London, full name John Humphrey Spender, brother of the poet Stephen Spender. He was a fellow of the Society of Industrial Artists and Designers and an honorary designer, Royal College of Art. Spender attended Gresham's School, Holt, then in 1928 went to Freiburg in Breisgau (Schwarzwald) University, "for language (under cover of history of art)". From 1928-34 Spender gained his diploma at the Architectural Association School of Architecture. His teachers included Howard Robertson. In 1935-41 Spender took a photographic studio, working for Picture Post, Mass Observation and the Daily Mirror as Lensman (in 1987 a book of Lensman photographs was published with Spender's introduction). A retrospective show of his photographs was held at the Yale Center for British Art in America in 1997, catalogued as Humphrey Spender's Humanist Landscape: Photo-Documents 1932-42, by Deborah Frizzell. World War II Army service included photo-interpretation of V1 and V2 rocket sites and D-Day invasion maps. Between 1946-56 did varied freelance work, including textiles, carpets, wallpapers and murals, winning Council of Industrial Design awards four times, between 1956-76 adding teaching at Royal College of Art textile school. As well as numerous mixed shows, Spender had solo painting exhibitions including Redfern and Leicester Galleries, New Art Centre and provincial venues. There were also solo photographic exhibitions, including Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, retrospective, with tour, 1982. The National Portrait Gallery in 2002-3 featured Spender's photographs of writers, artists and performers. Among Spender's widely varied commissions, which included work for Festival of Britain, British Rail and Shell International, was the design of the Maldon Millennium Embroidery, which he finished in 1990. Victoria & Albert Museum, Ministry of Works and many provincial galleries hold pictures by him. Spender hoped that his paintings "might make people see differently". Lived in Laldon, Essex.

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Steven Spurrier (1878 - 1961)

Painter, designer and illustrator, born and died in London. Following his father's profession of silversmith at first, Spurrier studied during the evening at Heatherley's School of Fine Art, then at the Gilbert Garett School. From 1900 he became a full-time illustrator, working for such publications as Black and White, The Graphic, Illustrated London News and Radio Times. During the World War I he worked on camouflage of ships for the Admiralty. Exhibited with the RA from 1913, elected RA 1952. He was a member of the PS, 1922-38, showing almost every year. Also showed at RBA, ROI, RSA, Goupil Gallery and RHA. He wrote Black and White and Illustration in Wash and Line. Work held by Tate Gallery, Victoria & Albert Museum and provincial galleries. John Benison, the designer and artist, was his son. In 1993 a show at Paisnel Gallery highlighted Spurrier's interest in circus and theatrical subjects.

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John Cecil Stephenson (1889-1965)

Painter, born in Bishop Auckland, Co. Durham. He studied at Darlington Technical College, 1906-08, at the Leeds School of Art, 1908-14, the RCA, 1914-18, and Slade, 1918. Between 1915 and 1918 he did war work, making tools. In 1919 he took on Sickert's studio, 6 Mall Studios, Hampstead, where he was later joined by Herbert Read, Barbara Hepworth and Henry Moore. From 1922 until 1955 he was Head of Art Teaching in the Architectural Department, Northern Polytechnic, Holloway Road. In 1932 he began making his first abstract works, exhibiting during the next decade in many abstract and constructive shows in England, France and the USA. In 1934 he exhibited with the 7&5 Society, along with the likes of Ben and Winifred Nicholson, Ivon Hitchens, Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth and John Piper. During World War II he returned partly to figurative work, making paintings of the Blitz. From the 1950s he returned to large abstract paintings, realising many of the abstract compositions he had sketched out on a small scale in the previous decade, when materials had been in short supply. In 1951 he made a l0 ¥ 30 ft. fluorescent paint mural for the Festival of Britain, and began working with ply glass for murals. In 1958 he suffered three strokes, which left him unable to move or talk. Partly for this reason he is today less well-known than many of his contemporaries, but he was one of the key figures in the development of abstract art in Britain. He is represented in the collection of the Tate and internationally.

Selected Literature Cecil Stephenson 1889-1965, Fischer Fine Art, London, 1976.

Simon Guthrie, The Life and Art of John Cecil Stephenson: A Victorian Painter's Journey to Abstract Expressionism, Cartmel Press Associates, 1997.

 When in the fifties, I became engaged to Simon (David)
Guthrie, he took me to meet his mother, Kathleen Guthrie,
and his stepfather, Cecil Stephenson. They lived in a studio;
to me, a novel idea. 6, Mall Studios, in Belsize Park, had been
Cecil’s habitat for some thirty years. The main studio was a
large room with a big north light running from the floor up
into the roof. In one corner were Cecil’s easel and paints;
in another were his machine tools and lathes and in a third
was his piano [figure 1]. The fourth corner contained a sofa
and some bookcases, where Kathleen could sit and read,
or listen to Cecil playing his favourite Brahms or Chopin.
Kathleen was Cecil’s second wife. She was herself a professional
artist; a Sladey-lady and like Cecil, a founder member
of the Hampstead Artists’ Council. There wasn’t room for her
to paint in the studio,
so Cecil had built her a painting shed in
the garden
[figure 2]. The garden also had a small pond with a
large population of newts and some very decorative Koi carp,
and a monorail for Cecil’s hand-built model steam locomotive.
Cecil was a warm-hearted man of many talents, but
modest and self-effacing, and meticulous in all his many
takings. His output of paintings was small, due to the
pressures of earning a living by teaching, and his inability to
refuse requests for his engineering skills, whether it was to
make a new part for a friend’s old Lagonda, dash off a metal
staircase or a new set of wrought-iron gates. Perhaps he was
overshadowed by his brilliant friend and erstwhile neighbour,
Ben Nicholson. Other neighbours included Barbara Hepworth
and John Skeaping, the art critic and writer Sir Herbert Read,
and later, Henry Moore and Bernard Meadows.
When Cecil died, he left quite a body of works which the
family have cherished and enjoyed for the last forty years.
These include most of the pictures in this exhibition. Simon
retired from academic life in 1990 and he devoted himself to
trying to promote his stepfather’s reputation. First he wrote
a biography, based largely on Cecil’s abbreviated but carefully
kept diaries. He then devoted much time and energy to
trying to persuade a gallery to mount a proper retrospective
of Cecil’s work, particularly the early abstracts. Remembering
Cecil’s northern roots, he tried hard to interest various galleries
in the north of England in such an exhibition. Sadly his
ambition was never achieved. So his family were very willing
to co-operate with the suggestion of The Fine Art Society to
mount this show, in the hope that many more people could
derive pleasure and satisfaction from these fine paintings.

Marjorie Guthrie

Download full catalogue here

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William Lennie Stevenson (1911-2004)

William Lennie Stevenson was a painter, printmaker, sculptor and teacher, born in Liverpool. He trained at the Liverpool School of Art, then taught at Liverpool City School of Art and at Architectural Association School of Architecture, London. 

During World War II William Lennie Stevenson served as a squadron leader and pilot in the Royal Air Force. He was featured in Liverpool Artists in the Fields of War, City of Liverpool Art Gallery Bluecoat Chambers, 1946. He painted a ceiling for the Bluecoat Chambers concert hall and made sculpture for St Monica's Church, Bootle. 

Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool has several works by Stevenson, including a menu design for the Sandon Studios Society, and he is in Manchester City Art Gallery's collection.

William Lennie Stevenson died in 2004.

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Michael Stokoe (1933-)

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker and teacher, born and lived in London. He was a student at St Martin's School of Art, 1953-7. He worked for the advertising agency Charles Hobson and Associates, then in the marketing department of Iliffe Press. Was a member of the Printmakers' Council and showed at RA, R01, Young Contemporaries, Arnolfini Gallery in Bristol and in 1967 John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. Solo shows included Bear Lane Gallery in Oxford, Drian Galleries and ZellaGallery,1998. Stokoe taught at Ravensbourne College of Design, 1966-96. Victoria & Albert Museum, public galleries in Hull, Leeds and Liverpool and a large number of educational authorities hold examples. Stokoe's work in several mediums included hard-edge colour-field paint¬ings and prints, Op-Art, wall-based constructions and later more Fauvist-style works. His prints were published by Editions Alecto, Annely Juda and the Collectors' Guild in America.

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William Strang (1859-1921)

b Dumbarton, 13 Feb 1859; d Bournemouth, 12 April 1921. Scottish painter and printmaker. Following a brief apprenticeship with a shipbuilding firm in Clydesdale, he entered the Slade School of Art (1876) where he adhered to the uncompromising realism advocated by his teacher Alphonse Legros. After completing his studies at the Slade (1880), Strang became Legros’s assistant in the printmaking class for a year. For the next 20 years he worked primarily as an etcher. His etchings include landscapes in the tradition of Rembrandt, pastoral themes indebted to Giorgione and macabre genre subjects, marked by a sense of tension and suspended animation. He also etched 150 portraits of leading artistic and literary figures. The commitment to realism and psychological intensity that characterizes the best of Strang’s etched work is also evident in the paintings that dominated the latter half of his career. The influence of the Belgian and French Symbolists’ work and Strang’s growing confidence in the handling of colour combined in his mature style with a linear clarity and schematic colouring that is best seen in such works as Bank Holiday (1912; London, Tate). His oil portraits, for example Vita Sackville-West as Lady In a Red Hat (1918; Glasgow, A.G. & Mus.), are strikingly potent images of their time. An important collection of Strang’s graphic work is in the Art Gallery and Museum in Glasgow. His sons Ian Strang (1886–1952) and David Strang (b 1887) were also printmakers.

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James Stroudley (1906-1985)

Painter, printmaker and teacher, he was born and lived in London. He studied at Clapham School of Art, 1923-27, and at the Royal College of Art, 1927-30. Stroudley was the first Abbey Major Scholar, 1930-3, which afforded him three years' traveling in Italy. Thus his main influences were classic Italian painters, notably Giotto and Piero della Francesca, although from the late 1930s his work was increasingly influenced by Cubism. He became a visiting lecturer at the Royal Academy Schools. He showed at the RA, the RBA, of which he was made a member in 1934, and the RE. Arthur Tooth and Apollinaire Gallery gave him solo exhibitions and public collections in Bradford, Brighton, Coventry and Rochdale hold examples of his work.

His compositions from his Rome period are among the last wholly successful decorative cycles produced by a Rome Scholar prior to World War II. His drawings from the period are technically brilliant and bear comparison with those of Eric Kennington. During the post-war era he moved increasingly towards abstraction.

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Arthur Studd (1863 - 1919)

Painter and collector born at Hallerton Hall, Leicestershire. From a monied background he was, all his life of independent means. Studd (known as “Peter”) read history at King's College, Cambridge, 1884–87 where his peers included Roger Fry. He went on to study art under Legros at the Slade School 1888–89, and at the Académie Julian, Paris, 1889. He visited Le Pouldu in Brittany, 1890, where he befriended Gauguin and De Haan. Although strongly influenced by Gauguin, his style changed after he had worked with Whistler 1892-95. Visited Samoa and Tahiti about 1898. However, he did not become completely acquainted with Whistler until his return to London in 1894, when he became Whistler's neighbour in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. They painted together at Lyme Regis, Dorset and in Dieppe. The subdued tone and limited range of colour of Studd's landscapes were greatly influenced by those of Whistler. Studd, a serious collector of paintings bequeathed three paintings by Whistler to the National Gallery which were ultimately transferred to the Tate Gallery. The National Gallery, London also benefited from his largesse in the acquisition of an important paintings by Pierre-Cécile PUVIS de CHAVANNES including “Death and the Maidens” Studd held a solo exhibition of his work was held at the Alpine Club Gallery,  1911. His work is in the collection of  the collections of the  Hunterian, Glasgow and York City Art Gallery.

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Graham Vivian Sutherland (1903-1980)

Painter, born Streatham, London. Originally intended for a career in engineering, in 1920 he was apprenticed at the Midland Railway Works at Derby. Soon after he ;eft and went on to study at Goldsmiths', 1921-26, where he specialised in etching in a style indebted to Samuel Palmer and in 1925 he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers. The sudden collapse of the print market after the Wall Street Crash in 1929 obliged him to earn money by designing posters, china, glass and fabric and about this time he also took up painting. In 1934 Sutherland made his first visit to Pembrokeshire which he revisited every summer until the outbreak of World War II. There, his earlier interest in Samuel Palmer combined with his sense of 'encompassing disquiet' to produce visionary drawings and paintings that had an important influence on the neo-romantic artists at the 1940's. About this time he entered a Surrealist phase and in 1936 he exhibited in the International Surrealist Exhibition in London.

During the war he worked as an Official War Artist, drawing scenes of devastation, blast furnaces, tin mining and quarrying. After the war he spent part of each year in the South of France which affected his appreciation of colour. In 1952 he was commissioned to design a vast tapestry for the new Coventry Cathedral that had been destroyed in the enemy bombing. He also began to paint portraits these further enhanced his reputation which, in Britain, was at its height in the 1950's. His most famous portraits were Somerset Maugham, 1949 and a few years later his painting of Winston Churchill, 1954. Grossly disliked by the family it was destroyed on the instructions of Clementine Churchill although several studies have survived.

Although honours and awards continued to be bestowed on him, he received more critical acclaim in Italy than in Britain during his last twenty years. Sutherland was the first President at the Blackheath Art Society in 1947. His work is held in collections in major museums around the world. These include Abbot Hall Art Gallery, ACGB, Bolton Art Gallery, Brighton and Hove Museums and Art Galleries, BMAG, Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, BC, Cheltenham Art Gallery, Doncaster Museum Service, Fitzwilliam Museum, Glasgow Museums, GAC, Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Hepworth Wakefield, Herbert Art Gallery, Imperial War Museum, Kirklees Museums and Galleries, Leeds Museums and Galleries, Leicester Arts and Museums Service, Museum of London, NMNI, NPG, NMW, Northampton Museum and Art Gallery, Norwich Castle Museum, Pallant House Gallery, Potteries Museum and Art Gallery, Rugby Museum and Art Gallery, Rye Art Gallery, Southampton Art Gallery, Stirling University Art Collection, Swindon Art Gallery, Tate Gallery, University of Warwick Art Collection and Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester.

Sutherland exhibited in the British Pavilion at the Venice Biennale in 1952 and there were major retrospective exhibitions at the ICA in 1951, the Tate Gallery in 1982, the Musée Picasso, Antibes, France in 1998, and the Dulwich Picture Gallery in 2005. A major exhibition of rarely seen works on paper by Sutherland, was held at MoMa, Oxford in 2011. He was awarded the Order of Merit in 1960.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Mark Lancelot Symons (1886-1935)

Painter who can be described both as a Symbolist with strong religious overtones and a Pre-Raphaelite follower. Born in Hampstead, London he was raised in Sussex in a strictly orthodox Catholic family. His family mixed in artistic circles with Whistler, John Singer Sargent and Hercules Brabazon being friends. Symons studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1905-09 but after his art training he followed his real passion and joined a Carthusian order, painting infrequently. It was not until 1924 that he turned to painting full-time, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1927 and thereafter until his death. He also exhibited at the Goupil Gallery, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, London Salon, New English Art Club, and many fine examples of his paintings can be seen at Bury Art Gallery, Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Newport Museum and Art Gallery, Reading Art Gallery and UCL Art Museum.

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James Tarr (1905 - 1996)

Painter, sculptor, printmaker and teacher, born at Oystermouth, Swansea. He attended Cheltenham School of Art, 1921-4, and Royal College of Art, 1924-8, being a Royal College of Art Scholar, 1928-9. Taught at Colchester School of Art, 1929-31, then after art school appointments in Hull and Derby was principal at Lydney and High Wycombe Schools of Art, finally until retirement at Cardiff, painting, sculpting and making prints until his sight failed. Tarr won first prizes for landscape and portrait at the 1930 Royal National Eisteddfod, adding the first prize for landsape at the 1932 Eisteddfod. Group exhibitions included RA Summer Exhibitions, SEA, SWG, WAC and in London and other provincial galleries. Tarr believed that every child had the potential to be good at something, and his unrealised ambition was to found a student assessment centre.

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Walter Taylor (1860-1943)

Born in Leeds and educated privately owing to ill-health. Trained first as an architect but then went to Paris and took up painting. He studied under Fred Brown then at the Royal College of Art. His first solo exhibition was at the Grafton Gallery 1911, then became a founder member of the Camden Town Group and a key figure of the London Group, serving as its treasurer. Well off, he travelled extensively in Europe and formed an important collection including Matisse, Bonnard, Vuillard, Dufy, Gilman, Matthew Smith, Gertler and his friend Sickert who stayed with him at his house in Bedford Square, Brighton from which they made sorties to Dieppe. Though in 1915 when because of the war, Dieppe was not accessible, Sickert visited him again and executed studies for his Brighton Pierrots, which ultimately achieved the record price of any painting by Sickert. The Leicester Galleries staged a memorial exhibition of Walter Taylor in 1944. His work is held in the Tate collections and at Brighton Museum and Art Gallery.

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William S Taylor (1920 - 2010)

Painter, teacher, writer, exhibition organiser and film-maker, born in Sheffield. He studied at Sheffield College of Art, 1936-39, and at the Royal College of Art, 1939-43. He taught at Sheffield College of Art where in 1963 he established the History of Art Department. He was Dean of the Faculty of Art and Design at Sheffield Polytechnic, 1972-75. He holds a Master of Philosophy degree in art history from Nottingham University. He has organised major shows of Aubrey Beardsley and Edward Burne-Jones at Mappin Art Gallery and made the film Portrait of Beardsley. He has exhibited at the RA, NEAC, at Leicester and Redfern Galleries and in New Zealand and Canada. Taylor's pictures combine figure and landscape with strong Neo-Romantic overtones, and are saturated with lyricism and a sense of longing.  His wife Audrey (Wallis) a talented sculptor and painter who won a scholarship to the RCA 1940-43 was both his model and muse. 

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Herbert Victor Tempest (1913-2003)

Painter and teacher, born in Swaffham, Norfolk. He studied at Woolwich Polytechnic School of Art, 1927-32, with Herbert Buckley, and at the Royal College of Art, 1932-36, under William Rothenstein. He showed at the RA, NEAC, RBA and in Doncaster, Gateshead and Sunderland. Public collections in Leicester and Wolverhampton hold examples. He lived in Plumstead, southeast London, and later in Keston, Kent.

Tempest is typical of a certain kind of British painter: he exhibited year in and year out at the RA and NEAC, thus establishing a solid reputation as a talented landscape artist, and yet today he is little known. He was a competent artist, but also one who was capable of producing exceptional works. His suburban views of back gardens, which are part of a uniquely English vision, are equal to the works of many of his better-known contemporaries.

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Charles James Theriat ((1860-1934))

Charles James Theriat was an American artist who trained and exhibited in Paris before returning to his native country to specialise in decorative Orientalist paintings.  These life drawings date to his training as a artist in Paris.

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Bert Thomas (1883-1966)

Herbert Samuel "Bert" Thomas (1883-1966) was the British artist who created the famous First World War cartoon entitled 'Arf a mo' Kaiser.

Thomas, who was born in Newport, Gwent in 1883, served an apprentice as a commercial metal engraver, specialising in the design of brass door plates.

As a sideline Thomas drew cartoons, many of which were accepted for publication by The Bystander, The Graphic and the prestigious Punch magazine in the pre-war years.

With the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 Thomas enlisted with the Artists' Rifles alongside other notable illustrators including Paul Nash.  It was during this time that Thomas drew his most famous cartoon of a British private lighting his pipe with the caption 'Arf a mo' Kaiser, the purpose of which was to raise funds to supply tobacco and cigarettes to front-line soldiers.

It succeeded admirably, raising almost £250,000.  Such was the cartoon's popularity that it was re-used during the Second World War, re-titled 'Arf a mo' 'itler.

Thomas's published cartoon books include Red and Black: A Book of Drawings (1928), Fun at the Seaside (1944) and A Trip on a Barge (1947).  He also sketched portraits in the 1930s and 1940s, which included Sir Oswald Mosley and Nancy Astor.

He died in 1966.

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David R Thomas (1916-1990)

Topographical artist, born and lived in London, who attended Chelsea School of Art in 1931. Because of the Depression, he became a pavement artist in London and Paris; a waiter in Covent Garden; made a round-the-world trip on a tramp steamer, being shipwrecked off Cape Town, South Africa; and did four similar voyages as a member of a P&O ship's orchestra. After World War II service in the Royal Artillery, he spent four more years at art school. Thomas showed regularly at the RA Summer Exhibition. In 1982, Ben Uri Art Gallery organised Jerusalem - Then and Now, lithographs by David Roberts and paintings made by Thomas during a 1981 visit to Israel sponsored by Edgar Astaire, London stockbroker and art collector. For this, Thomas completed 11 paintings based on locations chosen by Roberts plus nine more views he found exciting. Thomas's other favourite cities included Rome, Venice and Istanbul. He had a retrospective at the Guildhall in 1983 and the City of London owns an 18-foot wide painting by him, his largest work. Canaletto was a strong influence on Thomas and a picture of the eighteenth-century Venetian painter's house in Soho, the area where Thomas lived, was included in The Urban Scene, an exhibition organised by James Huntington-Whiteley at 4 Burlington Street in 1995.

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Alfred Reginald Thomson (1894-1979)

Painter, commercial artist and illustrator born in Bangalore, India, a mute following a fall as a baby. He attended the Royal School for the Deaf and Dumb, Margate. Artistically he studied at the eponymous John Hassell Art School based in Kensington, subsequently working as a commercial artist. He also painted murals for a number of private and public clients including Birmingham Dental Hospital, the Duncannon Arms and the Science Museum. In 1934, a series of six murals he painted for the Limmer & Trinidad Lake Asphalt Company were first exhibited at the Building Exhibition at Olympia, London. During the 1920's and 1930's Thomson designed advertising for Three Nuns tobacco, Horlick's and the London & North Eastern Railway. Among posters designed by Thomson for the LNER were 'Then and Now - Over 100 Bathing Resorts' (c.1931), 'Take Me by the Flying Scotsman' (1932) and 'Travel LNER at a Penny a Mile' (c.1932). In the 1920's he worked for J.Walter Thompson, and in the 1930's he was employed by the Clement Dane Studio. In the early 1940's and 1950's Thomson worked on advertising for Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) and the Bowater Paper Corporation. In 1949, he designed an untitled poster usually known as Street Market for London Transport an example of which is held by London Transport Museum. He also showed at the Chenil Gallery and at the ROI.

A member of both the Chelsea Arts Club and the London Sketch Club, he was also responsible for mural decoration on the SS Queen Mary during the 1930’s and examples of his posters are held by the NRM. He was known amongst his friends as Tommy Thomson and an illustrated article by him appeared in Drawing & Design, November 1920. He showed at the RA from 1920 and was elected an Associate of the RA in 1938 and a full member in 1945. Despite his handicap, he was appointed an Official War Artist with the RAF, 1940-44 and he was awarded a Gold Medal at the 1948 London Olympic Games for his depiction of sporting scenes. Examples of his work are in the collections of the ACGB, Bradford Museums and Galleries, Brighton & Hove Art Gallery, City of London Corporation, Darlington Borough Art Collection, Glasgow Museums, IWM, Kirklees Museums and Galleries, NAM, Nottingham City Museums and Galleries, NPG, RAF Museum, Hendon, Russell-Cotes Art Gallery, Science Museum and the Tate Gallery.

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Joe Tilson (1928)

Mixed media artist who was born in London and who first worked as a cabinet maker and carpenter, 1944-46. Following National Service with the RAF, 1946-49, he entered St. Martin's School of Art, 1949-52 and furthered his studies at the RCA, 1952-55. He was a winner of the Rome Scholarship in 1956 and became associated with the Pop Art movement, chiefly through Young Contemporaries exhibitions. In 1961 he held his first solo exhibition at the new London gallery of Marlborough Fine Art and has since exhibited with them in London, New York and throughout Europe. He also exhibited alongside Elisabeth Frink and Henry Moore at the Marjorie Parr Gallery.

From 1958 to 1963 Tilson taught at St. Martin's School of Art, London and held a similar post at the Slade School, London, and at King's College in the University of Durham, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1962-63 and at Walthamstow School of Art. In 1984 he was awarded a prize in the Bradford International Print Biennale and the Grand Prix at the Zjubljana Biennale in 1985. He was elected RA in 1991 and has work in many public collections, including the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Bolton Art Gallery, Pallant House Gallery, Chichester and Tate Gallery. He divides his time between studios in England and in Cortona, Italy.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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David Tindle (b. 1932)

Painter, notably in egg tempera, printmaker and teacher, born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire. He studied at Coventry School of Art, 1945-46 and later at the Royal College of Art where his teachers included John Minton, Carel Weight and Ruskin Spear. From the early 1950s he was featured in the RA Summer Exhibition shows and had regular solo exhibitions at Piccadilly Gallery. By 1957 he had a retrospective at Coventry's Herbert Art Gallery. Tindle then began to build up an impressive British and continental exhibitions record, including appearances in the John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool, in 1959 and 1961; a retrospective in Northampton's Central Museum and Art Gallery in 1972; and appearances in such shows as British Painting '74 at Hayward Gallery and British Painting 1952-77 at the RA. Two years later he was elected RA. From 1985 Tindle showed with Fischer Fine Art and in 1996 he showed new paintings and prints with the Redfern Gallery. He taught at Hornsey College of Art, 1959-74, and at the Royal College of Art, 1972-83. Tindle was also for a time Ruskin Master of Drawing at Oxford University and held a professorial fellowship at St Edmund's Hall. The Tate Gallery, Manchester City Art Gallery, National Portrait Gallery and many other public collections hold his work.

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Hans Tisdall (1910-1997)

Painter and designer, born Hans John Knox Aufseeser in Munich, Germany. He attended the Academy of Fine Art, Munich, 1928-29. Hans Tisdall (born Hans Aufseeser), was a German-born artist, who worked in the UK as a designer and teacher. He is largely remembered for his bookjacket and textile designs. After training in Munich and Berlin, Hans Aufseeser moved to Paris and then London. He changed his name to Hans Tisdall in around 1940, marrying the journalist and Tamesa Fabrics founder Isabel Tisdall in 1941. Hans Tisdall made his name in the 1930s as a textile designer with Edinburgh Weavers. In the 1960s, he created many designs for Tamesa Fabrics – working alongside designers such as Marianne Straub. Fabrics woven at Warner & Sons were used for a number of prestigious commercial projects. Tisdall was among the designers who contributed to the Festival of Britain in 1951, winning the competition to design the entrance to the funfair at Battersea Park's pleasure gardens. From the 1950s on, Tisdall also became known for creating bookjackets, notably for Jonathan Cape. A typeface based on his brushstroke style, known as Tisdall Script, was created in 2001. Another typeface called Blesk, loosely based on his lettering for books by Ivor Brown, was created in 2015. Tisdall taught at Central School (now University of the Arts) from 1947-1962, initially in the textile department and later in the school of painting. Exhibitions A retrospective of Tisdall's work was held at The Pride Gallery in London in 1988 and at the Galerie Vömel in Düsseldorf shortly before his wife's death in 2007. Literature; Hans Tisdall: A Retrospective, The Pride Gallery, 1988, ISBN 6000012756.

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Jozef Tom (1884-1962)

Josef Tom was a painter and print maker born in Warsaw on 30th Julliet 1884.  He trained with Trojanovski  in Warsaw and Orlik in Berlin.  His paintings consist mostly of landscapes and street scenes.  His prints were often commissions for ex-libris book plates.

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Myles Tonks (1890 - 1960)

Painter and draughtsman who was by profession a surgeon, born at Darley, Warwickshire. Studied at Medway School of Art and with Henry Tonks. Myles was the only relation with whom Henry cared to talk about painting and the former Slade Professor left Myles his art books. Exhibited RA, NEAC, RI, ROI, RHA, PS and elsewhere. Percy V Bradshaw in his book Water-colour: A Truly English Art illustrates Tonks' Col de Lauteret mountainscape in which the artist looked for "translucency, an unworried paper-surface", a good example of his work. Lived at Watchet, Somerset.

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Adolph Treidler (1886–1981)

Adolph Treidler (1886–1981) was an artist known for his illustrations, posters, commercial art, and wartime propaganda posters.

His magazine covers and advertisement work appeared in McClure's, Harper's, the Saturday Evening Post, Collier's, Century, Scribner's, and the Woman's Home Companion. He created ads for the Pierce Arrow automobile and for the French Line. His 1930s advertising work for the Bermuda Board of Trade was instrumental in promoting tourism in Bermuda. He was president of the Artist's Guild from 1936-1937.

His wartime propaganda posters in World War I portrayed women workers in munitions plants for the United War Work Campaign. He made about 20 posters for both World Wars. 

He also created wartime propaganda posters in World War II. He was Chairman of the Pictorial Publicity Committee for the Society of Illustrators,] and " produced at least five posters touting Women Ordnance Workers, otherwise known as WOW’s."

"Treidler was a member of the Art Directors’ Club, The Society of Illustrators, Charter Member of the Artists’ Guild, and life member of the Society of Illustrators. He exhibited at the Whitney Museum in New York in 1923 and The Art Institute of Chicago in 1930."

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Julian Trevelyan (1910-1988)

Julian Otto Trevelyan, born at Leith Hill near Dorking, the only child of a classical scholar and his Dutch wife and grandson of Sir George Trevelyan, Liberal politician and writer. He was educated at Bedales – where his first prints appeared in the school magazine - and at Trinity College, Cambridge where he met Humphrey Jennings who introduced him to French art and Surrealist ideas.
In 1931 he moved to Paris enrolling in Stanley Hayter’s notable engraving school Atelier 17 working alongside with Picasso, Miró and Max Ernst. Returning to London he exhibited at the Bloomsbury Gallery jointly with Robin Darwin and subsequently with potter Ursula Darwin whom he married in 1937. 

In 1935 he purchased Durham Wharf by the Thames at Hammersmith, his home and studio for the rest of his life. He exhibited at the famous International Exhibition of Surrealism at the New Burlington Galleries. During the war he served as a camouflage officer with the Royal Engineers. Travelling widely after 1946 he made his first lithograph Harbour for School Prints but his marriage to Ursula broke down. In
1951 he married the artist Mary Fedden, together they painted murals for the Festival of Britain. A member of the London Group, he taught in the 1950s at the Chelsea School of Art and as Tutor of Engraving at the Royal College of Art, where his students included David Hockney and Kitaj. His autobiography Indigo Days was published in 1957. His work is held at the Tate, Aberdeen City Art Gallery, Brooklyn Museum and MOMA, New York.

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Eric Erskine Campbell Tufnell (1888-1978)

Eric Tufnell was born in Bangalore, India, where his father, Major Robert Hutchison Campbell Tufnell (1852-1908), who fought in the Afghan wars was stationed. The family were sufficiently important to have their history recorded in Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry. His mother, May Anne Luard Tufnell (neé Smith), was born in Madras, the youngest daughter of Judge Alexander Smith. By the time of the 1901 Census the family had returned to England and were living at Lackham House, Spring Grove, in Isleworth, which was built around 1860 by Eric's grandfather, Thomas Robert Tufnell (1822-98), the Chairman of the Royal Mail Line Steam Packet Company. 

Eric's future was settled for him in 1903 when at the age of fifteen he became a cadet at HMS Britannia. 
He "gained 7 1/2 months time on passing out of Britannia" and in September 1904 joined the twin screw battleship, HMS Albion. He was appointed Midshipman.
All midshipman were required to keep a logbook but Tufnell's leather bound Naval Log and Journal covering the years 1904-7 and illustrated with sketches, maps, sectional drawings of ships, photographs and newspaper cuttings is now in the Surrey County Archives. Its arrangement and entries were dictated by what was expected from a young "snotty" at the start of his career but the dull chronicle of routine aboard ship is enlivened by drawings, maps and sketches. 
He had made a good start to his career but seems to have quickly become disillusioned with the profession his parents had chosen for him. When he left Albion in February 1905 his commanding officer reported that he was satisfactory but "lacked interest." 

On the 3 September 1906 he "Joined HMS Ocean at Portland. In January 1908 he was an acting Sub Lieutenant studying Seamanship, Navigation, General Subjects, Gunnery and Torpedo at Portsmouth for nine months before being posted on the 29 September as a Sub Lt Eric C.E. Tufnell RN to the 12,000 ton twin screwed armoured cruiser, HMS Euryalus. Three days after Christmas a terrible earthquake at Messina in the  toe of Italy killed at least 100,000 in the city and the surrounding region of Regio Calabria. HMS Euryalus and seven other warships of the Royal Navy plus merchant ships were among the ships of many nations which assembled to help rescue survivors. Tufnell received one of the commemorative medals awarded by the Italian government but when he left Euryalus in May 1909  the assessment of his CO was damming, "good judgment but takes little interest in his profession.". This must have led to the decision to move him from the big ships of the Royal Navy to service in submarines. 
Submarines were small, cramped and their range was limited and they spent a lot of time between patrols berthed alongside their depot ships. Eric Tufnell was commissioned to paint all four Royal Navy ships named Adamant, possibly by former officers who served on the submarine depot ship or its submarines.

In June 1916 he was appointed CO of D4 which had HMS Vulcan as its depot ship on the Firth of Forth and was part of the 3rd Submarine Flotilla. He also became a father when his daughter Peggy was born. He was described by a senior officer as "having an artistic temperament but does not appear to mind discomfort", a judgment which reveals as much about naval attitudes at the time as it does about Tufnell.
He was accused of being inefficient, relieved of his command and discharged to General Service on 21 June 1917.
It must have looked as if his career was at an end but once again a change of direction offered an opportunity for a fresh start. He was posted to HMS Victory at Portsmouth for "special services in motor launches of hydrophonic flotilla." Instead of commanding a submarine he would in future be working to counter the threat of enemy submarines. There were still some doubt as to his commitment as witnessed by this note on his service record in 1918: "Not yet settled down to any particular form of work. Appears to prefer changing from one thing to another too frequently." 

In December 1918 he was given command of M18, a shore bombardment Monitor with a huge 9.2 inch Gun which served in the Baltic from April to June 1919. Tufnell was "mentioned in Despatches" (MID) for "services to Russia" in the 12 December issue of the London Gazette and a year later, to the embarrassment of the Foreign Office, was awarded the Order of St Stanislaus (2nd Class, with swords) by the defeated White Russian Army (the announcement had to be censored from the London Gazette). His ships were getting smaller but his career seemed to be back on track. 

He left M18 in September 1919 to take command of HMS Tuberose, a Flower Class sloop, but confusingly also the name adopted by the Navy for the requisitioned RMS Mauretania when used as a troop carrier. He was not given another post after leaving Tuberose but after six months "unemployment time" at HMS Victory was put in charge of a draft to Hong Kong. He was on HMS Caradoc at Batum on Black Sea coast of Georgia in 1920 when it was governed by Britain but a telegram from the Commodore Hong Kong on the 10 September 1920 reported "Returning home, 2.9.20 adverse report from CO Caradoc." No reason was given but the following action was noted: "Relieved. 

His career appeared to 'mark time' for the next two years with a six month posting to the depot ship HMS Blenheim at Sheerness (and as acting interpreter in Italian) followed by courses in Signals (HMS Victory) and Gunnery (HMS Excellent) and a posting to the aircraft carrier HMS Argus while training under the RAF at Lee-on-Solent as an Observer where he seemed to have done rather well, "has a sound knowledge of observer subjects." 

In December 1926 he was sent as "acting Observer" to HMS Furious with the Atlantic Fleet and in April 1927 to Farnborough for a course at the RAF School of Photography: "Result of a photographic course at RAF School of Photography. Did not complete course, but did very well." The outcome, a transfer to the RAF: "Exceptional as Observer for photographic duties. Commenced duties with RAF, 1 June 1927." He was promoted to Cdr and retired from the Royal Navy at his own request on the 30 December 1929.

It would appear that the Royal Navy had nothing further to offer him and although his promotion to Commander would give him a higher pension he had a wife and three children to support. His service record ends with a note on the 21 December 1929, "Particulars of service to Colonial Office", but it appears that he did not join the colonial service and returned to Britain with only his small service pension and had to depend on his talent as a marine artist to top up his pension. The Saville Row naval outfitters, Gieves and Hawkes, helped secure naval officers as customers. They commissioned him to paint meticulously accurate water colours of the ships on which they served. He lived near Portsmouth, was active in the local dramatic society - and painted. His charges were modest and his output large.

The Parker Gallery in Albermarle Street, London, handled sales of his paintings, "they weren't very keen on the idea at first, I don't think they thought it was quite the thing, but they were very polite about it". When interviewed by the Sunday Telegraph in the 1970s Mr Newbury of the Parker Gallery said he charged £10 a picture and "we had to use a lot of persuasion before 'Tuffy' would allow us to put it up to £15". They developed an extensive trade in his paintings of clippers and whaling ships in the United States and the Whaling Museum at Cold Spring Harbour. New York, and the American Clipper Museum have many of them in their collections. 

A few months before his death the Pacific island of Samoa issued  a stamp with his painting of a three masted sailing ship, the Splendid. 

Eric Tufnell had been married to his second wife for thirty-three years when he died aged 91 on the 18 July 1979.

We are grateful to Bill Forster from Holywell House Publishing for his help.
To read full biography;

See all works by the artist Eric Erskine Campbell Tufnell >

John Tunnard (1900-1971)

Painter, born at Sandy in Bedfordshire. He studied textile design at RCA, 1919-23 and during the 1920’s he was employed as a designer in the textile industry and also played jazz on a semi professional basis. In 1929 he began to paint and soon came under the painting and came under the influence of the Surrealist Movement. He settled in Cornwall in 1930 where he established a hand blocked silk printing business. His first solo exhibition was held at the Redfern Gallery, London in 1933 and from 1948 until retirement in 1964 he taught design at Penzance School of Art. In March 1939 Peggy Guggenheim gave Tunnard a show at her gallery Guggenheim Jeune in London. During this period he exhibited in group shows at the Zwemmer Gallery and Alex Reid & Lefevre.

The British Council included his work in three exhibitions in Australia and South America between 1940 and 1949, and in 1944 the artist was given a one-person show at the Nierendorf Gallery in New York. His paintings of the late 1940’s and 1950’s, when landscape motifs appear are more easily legible than his pre war work. In the years immediately following World War II his work was reproduced in the Pictures for Schools series.He also showed at the RA and with the LG and represented Britain at the Venice Biennale. He designed a mural for the 1951 Festival of Britain and examples of his work are in the Tate Gallery, the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge and in museums in Adelaide, Auckland and Melbourne. He was elected an Associate of the RA in 1967. A retrospective exhibition in the artist's centenary year was held at Durham University in 2000.

source: www.artbiogs.co.uk

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Charles Frederick Tunnicliffe R.A. (1901-1979)

Charles Frederick Tunnicliffe R.A. (1 December 1901 – 7 February 1979) was an internationally renowned naturalistic painter of British birds and other wildlife. He spent most of his working life on the Isle of Anglesey. Tunnicliffe was born in 1901 in Langley, Macclesfield, England, and spent his early years living on a farm in nearby Sutton, where he saw much wildlife. As a young boy he attended Sutton St. James’ C.E. Primary School and he went on to win a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London. In 1947 he moved from Manchester to a house called "Shorelands" at Malltraeth, on the estuary of the Afon Cefni on Anglesey, where he lived until his death in 1979. Tunnicliffe worked in several media, including watercolor painting, etching and aquatint, wood engraving, woodcut, scraperboard (sometimes called scratchboard), and oil painting. Much of Tunnicliffe's work depicted birds in their natural settings and other naturalistic scenes. He illustrated Henry Williamson's Tarka the Otter. His work was also used to illustrate Brooke Bond tea cards and as a result was seen by millions of young people in the United Kingdom during the 1950s and 1960s. He also illustrated a number of books, including the Ladybird Books. His work was characterised by its precision and accuracy, but also by the way in which he was able to portray birds as they were seen in nature rather than as stiff scientific studies. From March 1953, he painted many of the cover illustrations for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds's (RSPB) magazine Bird Notes, and several for the later Birds magazines. Two of the originals are on long-term loan to the gallery at Oriel Ynys Môn, but in 1995 the RSPB sold 114 at a Sotheby's auction, raising £210,000; the most expensive being a picture of a partridge, which sold for £6,440, At his death, much of his personal collection of work was bequeathed to Anglesey council on the condition that it was housed together and made available for public viewing. This body of work can now be seen at Oriel Ynys Môn (The Anglesey Gallery) near Llangefni. His work is still celebrated with the Charles and Winifred Tunnicliffe Memorial Art Competition, which is held annually at Hollinhey Primary School, Sutton, which itself is built on land which was formally part of the farm he lived on as a boy.

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Roy Turner Durrant (1925-1998)

Durrant was born in Lavenham, Suffolk. and from childhood onwards was fascinated by drawing aeroplanes.  After war service in the Army he attended Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1948-52, being influenced by Keith Vaughan and John Minton. In 1950's developed from figuration to abstraction. He said that any titles on his pictures were "meant to be interpreted as poetry, to engender a state of mind rather than describe exactly what the particular picture is." He was much influenced by European abstractionists and by English poetry, such as that of Gerard Manley Hopkins and Thomas Hardy, also by the work of James Joyce, Samuel Beckett and Dylan Thomas. As well as painting, Durrant was employed in administrative work at Vickers from 1956-63 and was a director of the Heffer Gallery, Cambridge, 1963-76. He showed with Free Painters and Sculptors, of which he was a fellow, and with NEAC, of which he was a member, and quite often with RA from 1950. . Several dozen public collections hold his work, including Imperial War Museum, Bradford City Art Gallery and Balliol College, Oxford. Lived in Cambridge.

A monograph on Durrant, written by Peter Davies,  was due to be published by John Sansom in 2011

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Clarence F. Underwood (1871-1929)

Underwood studied at the Art Students League and the Academy of Julian in Paris with J.P.Laurens, Constant andBouguereau. In 1896. Underwood create images for magazines Saturday Evening Post, Ladies’ World magazine and others, as well as works by many literary works. Underwood was born in Jamestown, NY, during his studies took place in Paris, after which he chose for himself a career illustrator. Underwood was a member of the Society of Illustrators in New York City in 1910 and was on staff of the New York Press..

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Leon Underwood (1890 - 1975)

Sculptor, printmaker, painter, designer, writer and teacher, born in London. Studied from 1907-10 at Regent Street Polytechnic School of Art under Percival Gaskell, then a scolarship took him to Royal College of Art, 1910-13, where he was taught painting partly by Gerald Moira. After World War I service in Royal Engineers Camouflage Section, Underwood completed commissioned pictures for Imperial War Museum. From 1919-20 enrolled for year's refresher course at Slade School of Fine Art, almost exclusively life drawing under Henry Tonks. In 1921 opened Brook Green School, started on two years of constant printmarking and began first major painting, Venus in Kensington Gardens. From 1920 Unerwood had been teaching life drawing at Royal College of Art, but in 1923 he resigned and went to Paris and Iceland on a Rome Prize grant. By then he had had first one-man show at Chenil Galleries, 1922. The 1920s were busy for Underwood: he travelled extensively, notably in Mexico, studying Mayan and Aztec sculpture, and in Spain studying cave paintings; he illustrated a number of books, including his own novel The Cat, with woodcut illustrations; exhibited widely; taught drawing at St Martin's School of Art; and in 1931 founded and published the magazine The island, to wich such artists as Henry Moore and Eileen Agar contributed. The 1930s saw intense sculpture activity, and in 1934 he published Art for Heaven's Sake. In World War II Underwood served in Civil Defence Camouflage, 1939-42. After the war he visited West Africa, wrote several books on its art and did first oil paintings on African themes. From the 1950s Underwood was very busy with sculpture again and advocating his cycle of style theory and his use of optimistic subject matter. There was a first full-scale retrospective at The Minories, Colchester, in 1969; the exhibition Mexico and After took place at National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, in 1979; and the Redfern Gallery organised a show in 2004. Tate Gallery holds his work which has been among the most neglected of twentieth-century British art, especially the sculpture. 

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Yoshijiro Urushibara (1888-1953)

Wood block printmaker born in Shiba, Tokyo, Japan. Two of his three elder brothers Eijiro and Sanjiro were also artists in the same discipline. Following an apprenticeship with a woodblock company in Japan, Urushibara travelled to England in 1910 with other Japanese woodcut artists to demonstrate their skills and techniques in the Anglo-Japanese Exhibition held in London that year. Following this exhibition, he stayed in London and was employed by the British Museum in the production and restoration of prints and the mounting of scrolls. He subsequently worked as a printmaker in England and France, sometimes in collaboration with Frank Brangwyn reproducing many of his designs. His subject matter included scenes of Venice, Menton, and flower prints either as conservative arrangements or against black backgrounds sometimes with butterflies.  

A woodcut by Urushibara after Brangwyn entitled 'The Beguinage, Bruges' is illustrated in the Studio Magazine of January 1920. In England, Urushibara exhibited at the Abbey Gallery, Beaux Arts Gallery, the International Society of Sculptors, Painters & Gravers, RA, Redfern Gallery, RSA, RHA, RGI and at the Walker Art Gallery. After the outbreak of World War II in 1939 it was feared that Japan might join the conflagration and Urushibara was advised to leave Britain. This he did in October 1940 arriving in Japan in January 1941. He was never to return to Europe and died of lung cancer in 1953. Prints by him can be seen in the collections of the Ashmolean, BM, Fitzwilliam Museum, Hunterian, Glasgow, V&A and in many collections around the world.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Harry van der Weyden (1868-1952)

Born in Boston, he won a scholarship to the Slade School in London at age nineteen, and studied at the Académie Julian in Paris in 1890-1891.  Until World War I, he lived near Etaples  at Montreuil-sur-Mer, Pas de Calais.  During the war Van der Weyden worked as a camouflage officer with the British Royal Engineers from 1916 to 1918 when Etaples was a major transit point and storage depot for the British.  He died in London in 1952. Most of Van der Weyden's paintings are in private collections and tonalism, although a small part of his work, showed him at his best.  

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Keith Vaughan (1912-1977)

Painter, draughtsman, and teacher, born at Selsey Bill, Sussex. Although Vaughan did not have formal art training he gained a good grounding in Italian Renaissance Art while at Christ's Hospital. Thereafter, between 1931 and 1939, he worked in the Lintas advertising agency, then owned by Unilever, painting in his spare time. When World War II broke out he was at first a conscientious objector, but he served in the Pioneer Corps from 1941 to 1946, using his fluent German as a prisoner-of-war interpreter in Yorkshire. This was the period when he came into contact with the Neo-Romantic painters, such as Graham Sutherland, Michael Ayrton and John Minton, who markedly affected his work. His first one-man show of drawings was held at Lefevre Gallery in 1942, followed by another of oil paintings in 1946. From then on he established himself as a successful artist in Britain and abroad. He painted the Theseus mural decoration in the Festival of Britain Dome of Discovery in 1951. Vaughan taught at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1946-48; at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1948-57; then at the Slade School of Fine Art from 1954. He traveled extensively. In 1959 he was visiting resident artist at Iowa State University, in America. Vaughan's artistic themes constantly revolved around the male nude and landscapes. In his later work the images can be highly abstracted although the palette remained consistent: dark greens, blues and browns. The Tate Gallery and many other public galleries hold his work. There was a retrospective at Whitechapel Art Gallery with an Arts Council tour in 1962. After his death there was a memorial exhibition at Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. Vaughan's journals, which have been published, give a graphic insight into his often vulnerable, obsessive and sad private life. He lived in London.

A catalogue raisonné of paintings and watercolours is currently being prepared by Tony Hepworth.

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Elisabeth Vellacott (1905-2002)

Artist, born in Grays, Essex. 

Elisabeth Vellacott studied at Willesden School of Art, 1922-5, then Royal College of Art, 1925, where she was influenced by decorative art Victoria & Albert Museum. 

Initially Vellacott was a designer of fabrics, costumes, and theatre sets, concentrating on painting after World War II, during which destruction of her studio cost most of her work prior to 1942. 

She became known for her meticulous landscape studies in pencil as well as for figurative and imaginative scenes, which were stylised in an earl Italian manner. 

Elisabeth Vellacott's first show was shared with Gertrude Hermes at the Minories, Colchester, in1968. A retrospective covering her paintings and drawings, 1942-81, was held at Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, 1981, with a ninetieth birthday show there 1995,  drawing retrospective at Piers Feetham Gallery, 2000, and a memorial at the Redfern Gallery in 2003. Also showed at New Art Centre. Arts Council holds her work, typical of which was The Expulsion (after Masaccio), exhibited at 1993-4 John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, a figure painting, delicately coloured. 

We are grateful to Chris Mees for assistance.

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Paule Vezelay (1892-1984)

Paule Vézelay (née Marjorie Watson-Williams) studied at Bristol

School of Art, London School of Art and Chelsea Polytechnic.

She first exhibited in London in 1921 and joined the LG the

next year. In 1926, she moved to Paris and adopted the name Paule

Vézelay, which – despite the moniker’s distinctly French nature –

she claimed was “for purely aesthetic reasons”.

Closely associated with André Masson (1896–1987) (with

whom she lived for four years), Jean Arp (1886–1966) and Sophie

Taeuber-Arp (1889–1943) during this period, by the early 1930s

Vézelay’s work had become increasingly abstract and she joined

Abstraction-Création in 1934. One of only a few British members,

she was committed to international, non- representational art.

She returned to London at the outbreak of WWII and

experimented with new artistic forms, including reliefs, painting

and textiles, some of which were shown at the Grosvenor Gallery

in 1968. A retrospective exhibition of her work was held at the

Tate Gallery in 1983.

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George Edward Wade (1853-1933)

George Edward Wade was the youngest son among the fourteen children of a Soho rector (later Canon of Bristol). He was educated at Charterhouse and in Switzerland, and destined for the Bar until his health broke down and he was sent to Italy to recover.

Here he took up painting, later turning to sculpture. He began to exhibit his work and soon established himself with a terracotta statuette of a Grenadier Guardsman, a copy of which in bronze was purchased by the Queen. He then took over Boehm's old studio in the mews behind Onslow Square, where Baron Marrochetti had once had his workshop. Wade was there for about thirty years, from 1891 until at least 1920, moving up from studio No. 2 to No.1.

He achieved popular success with his portrait busts. For example, 500 copies of his likeness of the pianist Paderewski went out to America alone. But he also executed some huge monuments: his statues stand in Hong Kong, Bombay, Madras, Montreal and elsewhere.

Wade was rather a traditional sculptor in an age of innovation.
The popularity of Wade's sculpture was probably due not only to the fact that that it was always comprehensible but that it was both ennobling and restrained in equal measure. In portraiture he obtained at the same time a good likeness, much appreciated by the sitters and their families, and, in these works and in his more fanciful subjects, he engendered feelings of respect and admiration. It might be argued by some that his approach was too prosaic, but it would perhaps be more true to say that he cloaked classical ideals in the trappings of his own environment.

The appealing young girl of the Embankment fountain (a replica of one for the Women's World Temperance Association), and the defiant-looking Cameron Highlander atop his war memorial in Inverness, certainly look like individuals rather than types, and are both much admired: they have both been repaired/renovated in recent times. Until recently, Wade's equestrain statue of Earl Haig was a familiar landmark on Castle Hill, Edinburgh, and is also now been restored prior to relocation within the castle grounds

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Edward Alexander Wadsworth (1889-1949)

Painter and wood engraver, born in Cleckheaton, Yorkshire. On leaving school, he studied engraving for one year in Munich, spending his spare time at the Knirr Art School also in Munich. He studied art formerly at Bradford School of Art and the Slade. Wadsworth participated briefly in the Omega Workshops, showed with the Friday Club, the Arts League of Service and about this time exhibited with the short-lived Grafton Group alongside Etchells, and sculptor Gaudier-Brzeska. He then broke away with Wyndham Lewis from establishment art and took part in the Rebel Art Centre. His knowledge of German enabled him to contribute a translation of Kandinsky's 'Uber das Geistige in der Kunst' (Concerning the Spiritual in the Art) for Blast issue No 1 in 1914. Wadsworth whose work was reproduced in Coterie and Art & Letters also signed the Vorticist Manifesto and helped to forge new ground with a non-figurative style.

During World War I he served as an intelligence officer in the Navy and was invalided out in 1917 when he spent a year working on dazzle camouflage for ships in Liverpool and Bristol. During the 1920’s he showed with the short-lived Group X but after he returned to a more straightforward representational style and travelled much abroad. A founder member of Unit One in 1934, he was also impressed at the time with the Abstraction-Création movement in France. In 1943, he was elected an Associate of the RA and in 1952 his work was represented in the British pavilion at the Venice Biennale. A posthumous retrospective exhibition of his work was held in 1951 at the Tate Gallery and a later retrospective was held at the Camden Arts Centre, London in 1990. His work is held in art galleries around the world including ACGB, Brighton Museum & Art Gallery, BM, CAS, Cooper Gallery, Barnsley, IWM, Newport Art Gallery, Swindon Art Gallery, Tate, Towner Art Gallery, V&A and the Whitworth Art Gallery.

With thanks to artbiogs.co.uk

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Ethel Walker (1861-1951)

Painter, especially of portraits of women, seascapes and flowers, in a style influenced by Impressionism. Born in Edinburgh, she attended the Ridley School of Art and Putney School of Art, in the early 1880os. After a private study trip through Spain and france, where she was impressed by the work of Velasquez and Manet, she studied briefly at the Westminster School of Art with Fred Brown, in 1892, to which she returned several times during the period 1912-22. Also studied part-time at evening classes with Walter Sickert and with James Harvard Thomas, the sculptor. Although she had begun exhibiting at RA in 1898 and at NEAC two years later, she did not have her first one-man show until 1927, at the Redfern Gallery. She became Dame Ethel Walker in 1943. Her work is in many public collections, including the Tate Gallery, which holds a wide range of her pictures. Lived in London.

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Geoffrey Watson (1894-1979)

Geoffrey Edward Herman Watson was born in 1894, the third of four sons of Erskine Gerald Watson, a London solicitor. As a young man, Geoffrey was fascinated by aeroplanes. He and his brother Alec were among the 40 passengers (a world record at the time) who were carried in a Handley Page four-engine super giant biplane over London on 15 November 1918. Although only in his twenties, Geoffrey made a name for himself in the later years of the First World War as an aviation illustrator. His work appeared in "The Graphic" and in the "Illustrated London News". He also illustrated a number of aviation books that were published after the War. Geoffrey's painting of an S.E.5a (below) is from the collection of the Royal Aero Club. Geoffrey was a frequent exhibitor of still-life paintings at the Royal Academy during the 1930's and 1940's. During the second world war he worked in camouflage in Leamington Spa and in the early 1950s moved to the south of France where he lived until his death - late 1970s or very early 1980s. with thanks to andrew and Lucinda Hall, the artist's daughter

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Harry Watson (1871–1936)

Painter, born in Scarborough, Yorkshire but lived in Canada, 1881-83. On his return to England he attended  Scarborough School of Art, 1884-88, furthering his studies at the RCA and Lambeth School of Art. While studying at the RCA, he won many medals in gold, silver and bronze, and also a travelling Scholarship to Italy. Watson first exhited at the RA in 1896 and in 1915 Watson was elected to the RWS, in 1928, Royal Western Academy  and in 1932 ROI. He worked chiefly in Wales, Scotland and France, and from 1913 taught at the Regent Street Polytechnic. His work is in the collection of  the collections of Christchurch and Wellington art galleries, New Zealand, Brighton & Hove Museum & Art Gallery and in 1938 a memorial exhibition was held at Leamington Spa Art Gallery.


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Drusilla Mary Way (1908-1997)

Drusilla Mary Way b. 2 Jun 1908 d. June 1997, Hampshire, England. She was born in Simla, India to Ehret Way (1877-1913) Civil Engineer and Clarice Imogene (nee Tippetts). She travelled to England on the P&O S.S. Persia from Bombay via Durban, South Africa, arriving London, June 1913. She was accompanied by her mother and brother Lewis Durand Way. 

She was educated at Grove School, Highgate and entered the Slade School of Fine Art in the 3rd Term of the 1925-26 academic session (May 1926). Her address in that first year is given as 66 Grand Drive, Raynes Park. In that first year she took classes in Drawing and Painting.  Her last year at the Slade was 1928-29, at this point she was living in the address you provide. She took courses in Drawing and Painting in each of the three terms that year.

She married in London, 1932 Lieutenant Derek Gordon Harington Hawes (of the Indian Army)(1907-1986). They sailed, 1st class from London on the P&O. SS Ranpura bound for Tokyo. Probably on honeymoon. Not sure if they stopped off at India.  

Drusilla Way exhibited at the NEAC in 1929, and the  Young Painters Society exhibition at the New Burlington Galleries 1930  where her painting ‘The Tomb’ was complimented for the  the elegant sophistication that we associate with Mary Adshead.

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Clifford Cyril Webb (1895-1972)

Wood engraver, etcher, painter. Born in London, Webb studied at Westminster School of Art. In the 1920s he soon established a reputation as one of Britain's most interesting engravers. He specialized in landscapes and animal subjects, illustrating a number of books, notably for the Golden Cockerel Press, and published many children's books. He exhibited at the RA, NEAC, LG, RE, and SWE and his work Is in the collections of the British Museum and Victoria & Albert Museum. Webb taught drawing at Birmingham School of Art, 1922-6, engraving at St Martin's School of Art and lectured at Westminster School of Art. He lived at Abinger Hammer, Surrey. He was apprenticed to a London firm of lithographers, 1913, while he studied evening classes at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts. He served in the army, 1914-19, and returned to study at Westminster School of Art, 1919-22, under Bernard Meninsky and David Jones. From 1923 to 1926 he was associated with the Artist Craftsmen's Group and the Modern Group. In 1926 he had his first solo exhibition at the Ruskin Galleries, Birmingham, where he was teaching at the local art school. In 1935 he was elected a member of the Society of Wood Engravers, in 1936 of the RBA, and in 1948 of the RE. Between 1937 and 1954 he illustrated books for The Golden Cockerel Press, including H. G. Wells' Country of the Blind and The Amazons in 1948. He taught engraving at St. Martin's School of Art from the end of World War II until his retirement in 1965.

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Audrey Weber (1898-1981)

Painter in oil and graphic designer. She exhibited extensively at the RA, the Society of Women Painters and the NEAC. She worked for Southern Region Railways as a poster designer and illustrator (see S.P.B. Mills, Hills of the South, 1939). In spite of her obvious ability, as yet surprisingly little is known about her.

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Denys Wells (1881-1973)

Born in Bedford, Wells studied at the Slade School of Fine Art under Henry Tonks, Philip Wilson Steer and Walter Westley Russell before going on to continue his studies in Paris. On his return to London he was elected a member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1906, at the very young age of 25. (He became Vice President of the Society in 1955). 

During World War I he joined the Artist’s Rifles as a commissioned officer and served in France for the duration of the war. By World War II he was too old for regular service and instead he served as an air raid warden. In order to record the bombed city he would often make his watercolour drawings of the ruined buildings in the morning following an air raid. In the years following the war his dismay at seeing the London he knew and loved left in ruins and then being altered by post war planners and developers led him on a mission to record the changing streets and buildings before they became lost. In addition to his watercolours of the streets of London he is also known for his oil paintings of interiors, portraits and still life subjects. 

He regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy, New English Art Club, Society of British Artists, Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts and many other galleries in London and the provinces. The Ministry of Works, Sunderland Museum and Art Gallery and the London County Council bought his pictures. One-man shows were held at the Mall Galleries in 1972 and at the Medici Galleries in 1986. He lived in Malden, Surrey.

We are grateful to Sarah Colegrave for assistance.

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Edith Grace Wheatley (1888-1970)

Edith Grace Wheatley (née Wolfe) studied at the Slade School

of Fine Art (1906–08) and the Atelier Colarossi in Paris before

marrying fellow painter John Wheatley (1892–1955) in 1912. She

exhibited widely in her early career, including with the RSMPSG

(1910), and was elected a member of the NEAC in 1921.

Completing several public commissions whilst a lecturer at

the University of Cape Town (1925–37) – such as ceiling and

wall paintings for the entrance to the National Gallery of South

Africa and a sculpture for the New Law Courts in Cape Town –

Wheatley was well established in the worlds of art and education

by the time of her first solo exhibition at the Greatorex Gallery in

1933. On returning to England, she was appointed Director of

Sheffield Art Galleries in 1937 and was elected to the RP in 1955.

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John Wheatley (1892–1955)

Painter, printmaker, draughtsman and teacher. Born in Abcrgavcnny, Mon¬mouth-shire, Wheatley - who was married to the artist Grace Wheatley - studied under Stanhope Forbes, Walter Sickert and at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1912-13. After service in the Artists' Rifles and as an Official War Artist, 1918-20, Wheatlcy taught at the Slade School, ig2o-S. He was Michaelis Professor of Fine Art, University of Cape Town, 1925-37, director of the National Gallery of South Africa and, 1938-47, director of the Sheffield City Art Galleries. During World War ll he was commissioned to paint war portraits. From 1948-50 Wheatley was curator of the National Gallery of British Sports and Pastimes. Wheatley's official career rather overshadowed his abil¬ities as a painter and draughtsman. His first show was with Muirhead Bone at the Grosvenor Galleries, in 1922, and he also exhibited with the RA, NEAC, Leicester Galleries, Cooling Galleries and RHA. His work is held by the Tate Gallery, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, and other galleries in Britain and South Africa. Lived in London.


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Ethelbert White (1891 - 1972)

Landscape painter, poster designer, illustrator and wood engraver. Born 26 February 1891 at Isleworth. Studied at St John's Wood School of Art 1911–12. Exhibited at the London Group from 1916 (member the same year) and also at the N.E.A.C. from 1916 (member 1921). First one-man exhibition at the Paterson and Carfax Gallery 1921. A.R.W.S. 1933, R.W.S. 1939. Worked mainly in England but also in Ireland, the south of France and Spain. Illustrated several books, including C. W. Beaumont's Impressions of the Russian Ballet, IV, VI and VII, 1919, and The Story of My Heart by Richard Jeffries 1923.

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Norman Wilkinson (1878-1971)

Oil and watercolour painter, printmaker and poster designer, born in Cambridge. Although early on he studied figure paintings in Paris, further study with the river and coastal painter Louis Grier in Cornwall reinforced Wilkinson's growing belief that he should concentrate on marine subjects, of which he became a master. Wilkinson's wife Evelyn was also an artist. In 1895 his family moved to Southsea, Hampshire, where he attended the Portsmouth and Southsea School of Art; he later taught there. Arthur Conan Doyle introduced him to Jerome K. Jerome, the author and publisher of Idler and Today. His career as an illustrator began with a first acceptance by the Illustrated London News in 1898, a publication with which he was long associated. He covered the Russo-Japanese War for the periodical, and travelled widely as an illustrator. Other trips took him to Europe, the Mediterranean, and North and South America. He also illustrated several books, including Robert Louis Stevenson's Virginibus Puerisque. In both world wars Wilkinson was important in the development of camouflage techniques: In 1917 he invented dazzle camouflage and in 1939 camouflaged airfields for the RAF. In 1915 he served in the navy and did on-the-spot drawings for his book The Dardenelles. He painted fifty-six pictures of Second World War naval actions, and presented them to the nation; these are now in the National Maritime Museum. He designed innovative posters for the London and North Western Railway, LMS and SR, and organized the Royal Academy series of posters for the LMS in 1924. He showed widely, including the Fine Art Society, RBA, ROI, RI and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. His work is in many public collections in Britain and abroad. His book A Brush with Life was published in 1969.

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Phoebe Peto Willetts-Dickinson (1917-1978)

Phoebe Willetts-Dickinson studied at the Birmingham School

of Art and the Royal Academy Schools between 1934 and 1940.

She served in the land army during WWII and in 1942 married

conscientious objector Alfred Willetts.

She was a lifelong campaigner for peace, social justice and

the ordination of women – issues which influenced many of

her paintings. After taking part in demonstrations to block the

entrance to the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment at

Foulness Island, she spent six months in prison for a nuclear

disarmament protest in April 1960.

In 1966 she was ordained as a Deaconess in the Church of

England, and as part of her campaign for the ordination of women

priests she defied Church authority in 1978 to become the first

female to concelebrate communion in an English parish church.

Although she died just seven weeks later, her writing on

women’s call to priesthood was published as a book, Sharing a

Vision, in 1979.

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Harold Williamson (1898-1972)

Painter, draughtsman, etcher and teacher, born in Manchester. He studied at the Manchester School of Art, 1913-16, returning after World War I and continuing until 1922. He exhibited at RA, NEAC, RWA, Manchester City Art Gallery, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and in America. For a time he was a designer with the fabric and wallpaper firm Arthur Sanderson and Sons (a not uncommon fate for economically hard-pressed artists during the 1920s, including Cundall, Pitchforth and Dunlop). Williamson became painting master at Bournemouth College of Art, 1926-47, then until 1962 was head of the department of fine art at Manchester College of Art and Design. His work was reproduced in The Studio and Sphere and acquired by public collections in Manchester, Southport and Bournemouth. The Belgrave Gallery held a Williamson retrospective in 1979. He lived in Sale, Cheshire.

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Robert Arthur Wilson (1884–1979)

Painter in oil, tempera and watercolour, printmaker and teacher, horn in Monk Wearmouth, County Durharrr. He was apprenticed to a sign-writer until 21, studying part-time at Sunderland School of Art. A Government National Scholarship took him to the Royal College of Art where he won a scholarship. Then studied at Académie Julian, in Paris, and under Percyval Tudor-Hart, a major influence. Married the painter Stella Louise Wilson and was the father of the artist Arthur Wilson, Taught part-time in Surrey and London art schools. Showed RA, Paris Salon and SGA and had a series of solo exhibitions including Sunderland Art Gallery, notably in 1965. Wrote on tempera and the use of colour and in 1972 privately published his Memoirs of an Individualist. British Museum and Victoria & Albert Museum hold his work, which has an honest, art-and-crafts complexion. R A Wilson, as he liked to be known, lived in Bletchingley. Surrey.

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Clare Winsten (1894 - 1989)

Clare Winsten (née Clara Birnberg) emigrated from Romania to

England in 1902, where she trained at The Slade School of Fine

Art (1910–12). Gaining recognition within the circle of Jewish

painters emerging at the time, she was the only female member

of the so-called Whitechapel Boys. As a portraitist, she made

drawings of numerous eminent figures, including George Bernard

Shaw, Benjamin Britten and Mahatma Gandhi. She also illustrated

several books, such as Shaw’s Buoyant Billions: A Comedy of No

Manners in Prose, published in 1949.

Winsten joined the Women’s Freedom League and became

active in women’s suffrage soon after leaving the Slade. A female

artist and pacifist working during a particularly turbulent time

in English history, her work came to reflect the notional gulf

between the forward movement of emerging modernist art and the

traditionalism at the heart of the war effort and society at the time.

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Bernard Blane Withey (1895 -1976)

​Bernard Blaine Withey born 24th October 1895 - died aged 81 in 1976,was a mural painter, portrait artist and genre painter. He was born in Wordsley near Stourbridge the son of a glass-cutter working in the local glass manufacturing industry. Bernard according the 1911 census was employed as a 'Moulder' in the local iron works so, it much have been a little later that he attended Moseley School of Art in Birmingham and from the 1920's he furthered his studies at Birmingham School of Art first as a student and then as a teacher. He lived in Smethwick a suburb of Birmingham and is recorded as having exhibited at the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists between 1932-37. Little else is known of his career despite being a first class artist.  source: www.artbiogs.co.uk​

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Christopher Wood (1901-1930)

Painter, born at Knowsley, near Liverpool.  
Following education at Marlborough College, 1914�15, Malvern College, 1918, and Liverpool School of Architecture, 1919�20, in 1921 he went to Paris and enrolled at the Acad�mie Julian and later attended Acad�mie de la Grande Chaumi�re. In France, he befriended Chilean diplomat Antonio de Gandarillas, (1887-1970) and with him travelled through Europe, and North Africa and Greece. It was Gandarillas who introduced Wood to opium. 
Returning to France Kit Wood enjoyed friendships with Picasso and Jean Cocteau. In 1924, he exhibited at Heals and the following year at the Redfern Gallery, with Paul Nash. By 1926, he had met Ben and Winifred Nicholson and painted with them in St. Ives, Cornwall. In 1928, Wood visited their house in Cumberland before returning to Cornwall, where he met Alfred Wallis whom he befriended. 

He became a member of the 7 & 5 Society and practised the faux-na�f style associated with this exhibiting group. In April 1929, Wood showed thirty-three paintings at Arthur Tooth & Sons, London, his only solo exhibition during his lifetime. He also showed with the 7 & 5 Society both during his lifetime and posthumously. In 1930 while preparing for an exhibition the Wertheim Gallery he arranged to meet his mother to show her his latest paintings. Probably under the influence of opium, Wood committed suicide by throwing himself under a train at Salisbury railway station. His gravestone in All Saints Church, in Broad Chalke, Wiltshire was carved by sculptor Eric Gill. A memorial exhibition was staged in 1938 at the New Burlington Galleries, London.

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Olive Wood (fl. 1914-1933)

Olive Wood (fl. 1914-1933) was a minor miniature painter and illustrator of children's books. She trained at the Clapham and Camberwell Schools of Art and lived and worked in Dulwich Village, London. She exhibited illustrations and pen and ink page designs at the Royal Academy and at the Society of Women Artists. Her early designs incorporate art nouveau motifs. Later, she contributed illustrations to collections of children's stories and poetry, and to popular annuals such as Bo-Peep Annual and Little Folks.

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Victor Wood (1904 - 1977)

Painter in various media, draughtsman and teacher, born in Dublin as Albert Victor Ormsby Wood into a cultivated family. After attending Aravon School, a private school at Bray, in 1920s entered Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin. For several years worked in stained glass studios of Harry Clarke, sometimes modelling for him. Towards end of 1920s moved to London, married, exhibited at RA and RHA and opened his own art school. After volunteering for the British Army he was badly wounded in the London Blitz and was invalided out. In 1949 moved to Ansty, Sussex, where he lived the life of a reclusive artist, in 1960 moving to Hunstanton, Norfolk, where his eyesight continued to deteriorate, so that he used a jeweller's eyeglass to paint. For many years Wood created highly stylised pictures of women and wrote erotic fiction. Examples were shown in the exhibition A Voyeur in Art at Michael Parkin Gallery, 1992.

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James Wood (1889-1975)

Painter, draughtsman, writer and aesthete, born in Southport, Lancashire. From 1908-11 he read history at Cambridge University, then in Paris, after studying etching, pursued painting with Percyval Tudor-Hart before going to Munich. During World War I he was in the army and Royal Flying Corps, later working on battleship camouflage. Among Wood's writings after World War I were The Foundations of Aesthetics, written with C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards. He also wrote on colour harmony, a favourite topic, and in 1926 published New World Vistas, an autobiographical work. From the 1930s Wood became increasingly fascinated by Persian Art; he learn Persian and subsequently became art adviser to the Persian government. His own paintings were influenced by Kandinsky, and he showed at Leicester and Zwemmer Galleries in solo exhibitions. After 1955 he rarely exhibited, but painted several portraits of Cambridge Academics. Throughout the war years Wood lived in a remote cottage above Llantony, Monmouthshire.  After the war he lived mainly in his Hampstead house, where his studio was situated, though spent  some of his  time in his wife’s house in rural Gloucestershire with occasional visits to Llantony.  Wood was married to a painter, Elisabeth Robertson, who had previously been the wife of the artist and writer Humphrey Slater.

In 1980 Blond Fine Art held a retrospective. 

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James Woodford (1893–1976)

Sculptor in range of materials, born in Nottingham, where he studied at the School of Art. After service with 2ith Sherwood Foresters on the continent in World War I, where he was mentioned in dispatches, Woodford attended Royal College of Art. During World War II Woodford was camouflage officer to the Air Ministry. He was elected RA in 2945 and was a fellow of RBS. Woodford was a prolific producer of figurative sculpture. Among his notable works were bronze doors at the RIBA; main doors at Norwich City Hall; stone figures and panels, Huddersfield Library and Art Gallery; statue of Robin Hood in Nottingham; sculpture for Imperial War Graves Commission British cemeteries in Italy; new design of Royal Coat of Arms, 1962; and many coats of arms for government buildings in Britain and abroad. His best known work - The Queen's Beasts - was a set of ten heraldic statues depicting the genealogy of Queen Elizabeth II commissioned for the 1953 Coronation. The originals, which were 6 ft high, cast in plaster, were gifted to the government of Canada, but Portland Stone replicas were commissioned in 1958 and these are permanently on display .outside the Palm House at Kew Gardens. Woodford's output is widely illustrated: in the volume RBS: Modern British Sculpture, published 1939; in Arthur T Broadbent's Sculpture Today in Great Britain 1940-1943, published 1949; and he was included in Sculpture In Britain Between The Wars, Fine Art Society, 1986. Lived in Twickenham, Middlesex.

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Peter Wright (1919–2003)

Sculptor, potter and teacher who constantly explored his medium, from tablewares to abstraction and finally to figuration in a bid to make his material "sacred again". He was born in Hitchin, Hertfordshire, but brought up in Enfield. After Army service in World War II, Wright attended Hornsey College of Art, 1946-50, studying graphics but discovering clay. When he began teaching art at Sutton Coldfield College of Further Education Wright had to take ceramics classes, which called for rapid self-tuition. In 1954 he and his wife Sheila settled at Monkton Combe, near Bath in Somerset, an area which influenced his forms and decoration. The ceramics produced by William Newland, James Tower and Pablo Picasso were then important in Wright's development. He showed at venues such as the British Crafts Centre, Design Centre and, in 1957, the Victoria & Albert Museum and, by the late 195os, was producing his distinctive totemic forms, simply glazed and with incised or applied relief decoration. In 1957 Wright began teaching at Bath Academy of Art, then at the College of Education. The symbolism of the vessel remained a preoccupation until the mid-196os, when his work became more sculptural. Although he had lived in Bath for some years while continuing to keep a studio at Monckton Combe, in 1967 Wright moved solely to the city, where he had a series of successful exhibitions, with others abroad, several museums acquiring examples. By the late 1970s, he was concentrating on the small figurative interlocking sculptures for which he became best known. The Bristol Guild Gallery held a retrospective show in 2003.

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Margaret Wrightson (1877-1976)

Margaret Wrightson studied at the Royal College of Art under

William Blake (1842–1921) and Edouard Lanteri (1848–1917).

From 1906, she exhibited extensively with the RA, the SWA and

the Walker Gallery in Liverpool.

Gaining prominence during the First World War, she

received frequent commissions for statues of remembrance, such

as the figure of St George on the memorial at Cramlington in

Northumberland (1922).

Although perhaps constrained by the demands of the

traditional iconography of her period, Wrightson produced a

number of works created from a distinctly feminist view, such as

Spirit of the Garden (1912) – a female nude with a bronze collar

bearing the words ‘Spirit of the Garden, Peace, Hope, Love,

Courage’ and her striking Mechanic, Women’s Auxiliary Army

Corps, 1917.

She was elected a fellow of the RBS in 1943 and was also a

member of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society.

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Leslie Ernest Wyatt (1903-1961)

Wyatt was born in Portsmouth and worked in his father's radio/gramophone shop. He joined the Royal Engineers at the outbreak of war, was commissioned, and trained in a Beach Clearance Unit. His duties included clearing obstacles, including mines and bombs, putting down wire mesh tracks on the beaches, etc. He was awarded the Military Cross for his gallantry on D-Day. After D-Day his unit became used for forward bridge building. Later Wyatt wrote 'A Short History of the 73rd Field Company, Royal Engineers in the North-West European Campaign'.

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Harold Yates (1916-2001)

Painter, mainly in watercolour, and draughtsman. His father was an amateur artist who worked as a cartoonist for the trade press. Aged 14 Yates attented Portsmouth School of Art for 18 months, where he showed talent for figure work and developed an ambition to be an illustrator. After joining a commercial studio aged 17 he became disillusioned with the disciplines there and painted abstract works in his spare time. Showed with AIA, London Gallery and had a solo show at Foyles Gallery aged 19. While in Army during World War II did documentary work which was bought by War Artists' Advisory Committee, now in Imperial War Museum, at the same time producing pictures with a personal symbolism. After the Army worked as a freelance commercial artist and on the staff of a leading London advertising agency, while continuing to paint part-time. Yates had a solo show at Belgrave Gallery in 1989, a retrospective at Chappel Galleries, Chappel, Essex, in 1992.

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Nora Yoxall (1892-1998)

Nora Yoxall (1892-1998)  was trained in Birmingham and well known as a stained-glass artist in partnership with Elsie Whitford (1897-1992). Nora Yoxall (1892-1998) and Elsie Whitford (1897-1992) met in the 1920s when they were art students in Birmingham, and took up stained-glass almost by chance. They worked together for the rest of their lives, always making their windows as well as designing them. From 1949 they worked from a small studio in Blockley, near Chipping Campden. Their output was not large, and was mostly in the Midlands.

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Archibald Ziegler (1903-1971)

It is perhaps surprising to learn that Archibald Ziegler - an artist little known today - had 14 one man shows during his life time held at prestigious venues which included the Whitechapel Art Gallery (1932), Adam Gallery (1935), Wertheim Gallery (1937), Leger Gallery (1938) and the Ben Uri Gallery (four shows between 1950-59).
Ziegler was born in London in 1903 and studied at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. He subsequently (from 1927 to 1930) studied at the Royal College of Art under William Rothenstein, whom he recalled as ‘a lively and inspiring Principal’.
The late 1920s was a rich period to attend the RCA : the likes of Bawden, Ravilious, Mahoney, Sorrell, Bliss and Freedman had already completed their formative studies and, in what was to prove the golden age of the Royal College of Art, their influence can be seen in Ziegler’s early work. Later on the influence of his fellow Jewish artists - Joseph Herman, Bernard Meninksy, David Bomberg, Mark Gertler, Emmanuel Levy and Fred Ulhman, all of whom he empathised with and wrote about with enthusiasm, came increasingly to the fore (see ‘Archibald Ziegler, Jewish Artists in England’, Studio International, vol 153-154, 1957).

After leaving the RCA Ziegler taught drawing and painting at St. Martin’s School of Art (where he was a visiting instructor for Figure Drawing and Painting) and Art History at Morley College in London and for the Worker’s Educational Association. His work was widely reproduced in publications including Illustrated London News, Country Life, Architectural Review, Mater Builder, Architecture Illustrated, Studio Artist, Courier,6 London Mercury, Leader, Bookman and The Artist.
His Royal Academy exhibits (which between 1931 and 1970 numbered 12) were mostly of his locality: Chelsea in the 1930s, Hendon and Hertfordshire in the 1940s and Hampstead from the 1950s onwards. In the final year of his life, 1971, Ziegler was given an exhibition at Kenwood House, London - the first living artist to be so honoured.
The catalogue opens with the statement that (even during his own life time) “Zielger is an unfashionable artist”. The text continues, “He is also a dedicated one, to whom the latest manifestations of the avant-garde may well be of interest but of little immediate attraction: a traditionalist, who believes, naturally, in experiment, but who has never Hampstead Heath Centenary Exhibition / Archibald Ziegler,’ page 1.)
This statement - which might equally be used to describe many of his contemporaries who have also slipped from view during their own life time by virtue of being reactionary rather than avant garde - also explains precisely why such artists are now slowly re-emerging to re-charm the public eye. In Ziegler’s own words: “Experiment is an important element in art, but it must be based on continuity rather than on a violent break with all that has gone before.” (Archibald Ziegler, quoted by John Jacobson, ‘A Hampstead Heath Centenary Exhibition / Archibald Ziegler,’

To read the full text, download the catalogue here.

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Doris Zinkeisen (1898-1991)

Doris Zinkeisen won a scholarship to the Royal Academy Schools

in 1917, where she quickly earned critical acclaim. Shrugging

off the outcry surrounding the inclusion of women students in

the 1921 RA Summer Exhibition, she embarked on a prestigious

career and received many notable commissions, such as stage

design work for Charles B. Cochran in the 1930s and murals for

the RMS Queen Mary.

She also exhibited in the US, Paris and London, including

at the ROI – to which she was elected in 1928. In 1938, she

published Designing for the Stage.

During WWII, Zinkeisen was employed by the British Red

Cross to record their activities in Europe. Her harrowing painting

Human Laundry, Belsen: April 1945 – a lasting testament to

the horrors of WW2 – stands in stark contract to the vibrant

compositions she produced both before and after the war.

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Anna Zinkeisen (1901-1976)

Anna Zinkeisen studied drawing and anatomy before winning

a scholarship to the Royal Academy Schools in 1916 to study

sculpture – exhibiting at the RA in 1919 and winning the

Landseer Award in 1920 and 1921.

On leaving the RA, she worked with her sister Doris on

murals for the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth liners and

produced notable portraits. She also provided illustrations for

several books, including Sophy Cassmajor by Margery Sharp,

published in 1934.

While volunteering as a nurse at St. Mary’s Hospital during

the Second World War, Zinkeisen made pathological drawings of

war injuries for the Royal College of Surgeons. She was awarded

RDI in 1940. In her self-portrait of 1944 (held in the NPG),

clutching a bundle of paint brushes and wearing the bracelet of

the St John’s Ambulance Brigade, for which she was volunteering,

her gaze leaves the viewer in no doubt as to her professional status.

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